. "Appendix A: Recommended Dietary Intakes for Individuals." Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1998.
NOTE: This table presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the Al is the mean intake. The Al for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.
a As cholecalciferol. 1 (μ)g cholecalciferol = 40 IU vitamin D.
b In the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight.
c As niacin equivalents (NE). I mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE).
d As dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = I (μ)g food folate = 0.6 (μ)g of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 (μ)g of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.
e Although AIs have been set for choline, there are too few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.