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--> Bibliography Abramson, H. N., J. Encarnacao, P. P. Reid, and U. Smoock, eds. 1997. Pp. 320-333 in Technology Transfer Systems in the United States and Germany: Lessons and Perspectives. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Ailes, C. P., J. D. Roessner, and I. Feller. 1998. The impact on industry of interaction with Engineering Research Centers: Summary and conclusions. Paper presented at NAE/COSEPUP Joint Workshop on the Role of Human Capital in Capitalizing on Research, Irvine, Calif., January 20. Alic, J. A., L. M. Branscomb, H. Brooks, A. B. Carter, and G. L. Epstein. 1992. Beyond Spinoff: Military and Commercial Technologies in a Changing World. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press. Alwan, A. 1996. Presentation to COSEPUP on speech recognition, Irvine, California, March 21. Balz, D., and C. Deane. 1998. Voters, Washington diverge in priorities; for public, education outranks tobacco. Washington Post. July 14. p. A1. BankBoston Economics Department. 1997. MIT: The Impact of Innovation. Boston: BankBoston. Bell, A. 1997. Presentation materials for the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology/COSEPUP Workshop on Capitalizing on U.S. Research in Catalysis, Irvine, California, February 1. Beyond Discovery: The Path from Research to Human Benefit. 1996a. The Global Positioning System: The role of atomic clocks. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, (www2.nas.edu/bsi/2132.html). Beyond Discovery: The Path from Research to Human Benefit. 1996b. Human gene testing. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, (www2.nas.edu/bsi/2132.html). Biotechnology Industry Organization. 1989. What is Biotechnology? Washington, D.C.: Biotechnology Industry Organization. Branscomb, L. M., and J. H. Keller, eds. 1998. Investing in Innovation. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Bransford, J., A. Brown, and R. Cocking, eds. 1999. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press . Brooks, H. 1986. National science policy and technological innovation. P. 119 in The Positive Sum Strategy, R. Landau and N. Rosenberg, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Brooks, H. 1993. Research universities and the social contract for science. Chapter 7 in Empowering Technology: Implementing a U.S. Policy, L. M. Branscomb, ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Bransford, J., A. Brown, and R. Cocking, eds. 1999. How People Learn: Brain, Mind Experience, and School. Washington DC.: National Academy Press . Brooks, H. 1986. National science policy and technological innovation. P. 119 The Positive Sum Strategy, R. Landau and N. Rosenberg, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Brooks, H.1993. Research universities and the social contract for science. Chapter 7 in Empowering Technology: Implementing a U.S. Policy, L. M. Branscomb, ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

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