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--> CAPITALIZING ON INVESTMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994
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--> National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: This volume was produced as part of a project approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. It is a result of work done by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) as augmented, which has authorized its release to the public. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by COSEPUP and the Report Review Committee. The development of this report was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and the National Research Council. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Under the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a working mandate that calls on it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of NAS. The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) was established in 1964, under the charter of NAS, as a parallel organization of distinguished engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of members, sharing with NAS its responsibilities for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of NAE. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) was established in 1970 by NAS to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to NAS in its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of IOM. The Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) is a joint committee of NAS, NAE, and IOM. It includes members of the councils of all three bodies. Limited copies are available from: Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20418. Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press, Box 285, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20055. You may order by phone at 1-800-624-6242 (202-334-3313 in the Washington metropolitan area) or by visiting the National Academy Press web site, www.nap.edu. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 99-61403 International Standard Book Number 0-309-06291-8 Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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--> COSEPUP WORKING GROUP ON CAPITALIZING ON INVESTMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Gerald Dinneen (Chair), Retired Vice President, Science and Technology, Honeywell, Inc. Peter Diamond, Professor of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mildred S. Dresselhaus, Institute Professor of Electrical Engineering and Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology M.R.C. Greenwood, Chancellor, University of California, Santa Cruz Phillip A. Griffiths, Director, Institute for Advanced Study J. Tomas Hexner, President, Hex, Inc. Daniel L. McFadden, Professor of Economics, University of California, Berkeley Paul M. Romer, Professor of Economics, Stanford University Morris Tanenbaum, Retired Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer, AT&T William Julius Wilson, Lewis P. and Linda L. Geyser Professor, Harvard University Principal Project Staff Thomas Arrison, Senior Staff Officer Alan Anderson, Consultant Science Writer Marion Ramsey, Administrative Associate Carrie Langner, Research Assistant (until August 1998)
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--> COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND PUBLIC POLICY Phillip A. Griffiths (Chair), Director, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey Bruce M.Alberts,* President, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. Peter Diamond, Professor of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Gerald Dinneen,* Retired Vice President, Science and Technology, Honeywell, Inc., Edina, Minnesota Mildred S. Dresselhaus, Institute Professor of Electrical Engineering and Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge James J. Duderstadt, President Emeritus and University Professor of Science and Engineering, Millennium Project, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Marye Anne Fox, Chancellor, North Carolina State University, Raleigh Ralph E. Gomory, President, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, New York, New York M.R.C. Greenwood, Chancellor, University of California, Santa Cruz Ruby P. Hearn, Vice President, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, New Jersey Philip W. Majerus, Professor of Medicine, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biophysics and Director, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri Daniel M. McFadden, Professor of Economics, University of California, Berkeley Samuel Preston, Dean and Frederick J. Warren Professor of Demography, The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Kenneth I. Shine,* President, Institute of Medicine, Washington, D.C. Morris Tanenbaum, Retired Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer, AT&T, Short Hills, New Jersey Irving L. Weissman, Karel and Avice Beekhuis Professor of Cancer Biology, Stanford University, School of Medicine, Stanford, California Sheila Widnall, Abby Rockefeller Mauze Professor of Aeronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge William Julius Wilson, Lewis P. and Linda L. Geyser Professor, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts William A. Wulf,* President, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C. * Ex officio member
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--> Staff Richard Bissell, Executive Director Deborah D. Stine, Associate Director and Study Director Anne-Marie Mazza, Senior Program Officer Brett Willette, Research Associate
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--> Preface This report explores how well the United States is capitalizing on its investments in science and engineering research, and how capitalization can be sustained and made more effective in the future. The study was undertaken during a period of intense debate over science and technology policy. The benefits of applying new knowledge are becoming more apparent in the economy and other areas of national life. At the same time, efforts are under way to extend this success to other pressing national needs, such as education. Because science, engineering, and patterns of capitalization are continually changing, improving U.S. ability to capitalize requires continued study, learning, and debate. We hope that this report contributes to the ongoing national discussion. The production of the report was the result of hard work by the committee as a whole, and the extra effort of the working group consisting of Gerald Dinneen, Peter Diamond, Mildred Dresselhaus, M.R.C. Greenwood, J. Tomas Hexner, Daniel McFadden, Paul Romer, Morris Tanenbaum, William Julius Wilson, and me. Special thanks go to Gerald Dinneen, who chaired the working group. This report has benefited from input from various individuals. COSEPUP acknowledges those who made presentations at the various workshops organized during the course of the study: Lawrence Rabiner, AT&T Bell Laboratories; Michael Cohen, Nuance Technologies and SRI International; Abeer Alwan, University of California, Los Angeles; David Mowery, University of California, Berkeley; Ashok Chandra, IBM Almaden Laboratory; Larry Smarr, University of Illinois; Richard Taylor, University of California, Irvine; Michael Cima, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Eric Cross, Pennsylvania State University; Bharat Rawal, AVX Corp.; Steven Freiman, National Institute of Standards and Technology; Michael Butler, Sandia National Laboratory; John Woodward, YSI Inc.; William Spencer, SEMATECH; Adam Jaffe, Brandeis University; Richard Nelson, Columbia University; Edgar Haber, Harvard Medical School; Joshua Lerner, Harvard Business School; Alexis T. Bell, University of California, Berkeley; Mark E. Davis, California Institute of Technology; Brian L. Goodall, BFGoodrich; Barbara Knight Warren, Union Carbide; Dale Drueckhammer, Stanford University; Burton J. McMurtry, Technology Venture Investors; Jeffrey Sohl, University of New Hampshire; James F. Gibbons, Stanford University; Kenneth P. Morse, MIT Entrepreneurship Center; Philip Horsley, Horsley-Bridge Associates; William Melton, CyberCash; J. Leighton Read, Aviron Inc.; Charles Hsu, Walden Group of Venture Capital Funds; Jerome Grossman, HealthQuality Inc.; Catherine Ailes, SRI International; Frank Hughes, Boeing; Paula Stephan, Georgia State University; Bernard O. Palsson, University of California at San Diego; Carlos Zamudio, Axiom Biotechnologies; Stephen Clark, Amgen; Robert Sproull, Sun Microsystems; David
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--> Farber, University of Pennsylvania; Deborah Estrin, University of Southern California; Brian Reid, Digital Equipment; Ralph Cavin, Semiconductor Research Corp.; James Plummer, Stanford University; and Donald Wollesen, Advanced Micro Devices. This report has been reviewed by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purposes of this independent review are to provide candid and critical comments that will assist COSEPUP in making its report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their participation in the review of this report: Erich Bloch, Kent Bowen, Alexander Flax, Robert Lucky, Ruben Mettler, Richard Nelson, Yoshio Nishi, Simon Ostrach, and Roland Schmitt. All those persons have provided many constructive comments and suggestions. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with COSEPUP. PHILLIP A. GRIFFITHS CHAIR COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND PUBLIC POLICY
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--> Contents Executive Summary 1 1. Introduction 8 2. The Capitalizing Process 10 3. Adapting to New Challenges 34 4. Sustaining and Enhancing the Ability to Capitalize: Study Findings 45 5. Recommendations 52 Appendixes A.Examples of Capitalization in Fields of Research and Application 61 B.Committee Member Biographical Sketches 102 Bibliography 109
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