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--> Appendix C Committee and Staff Biographies Charles C. J. Carpenter, M.D. (Chair), is Professor of Medicine at Brown University and Director of the Brown University International Health Institute. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and has held offices in several national professional organizations. He chairs the National Institutes of Health Office of AIDS Research Advisory Committee and the Data Safety Monitoring Board for Clinical Trials of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), was a member of the IOM panel on Priorities in Vaccine Development, and has served on numerous scientific advisory committees and panels. He is Program Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-supported HERS study on the Natural History of HIV Infection in North American Women, Director of the Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research, and Chair of the U.S. Delegation of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program, and has served as Chair of the American Board of Internal Medicine and as President of the Association of American Physicians. Dr. Carpenter has received several awards for outstanding contributions to medicine. His M.D. is from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Ann M. Arvin, M.D., is Professor of Pediatrics and Microbiology/Immunology at Stanford University School of Medicine. She is a member of the executive committees of the Collaborative Antiviral Study Group of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and of the Varicella-Zoster Virus Research Foundation, and is on numerous editorial and advisory boards; she recently served on the Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Selected recent research publications address the functions of varicella-zoster viral proteins in T cell and
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--> skin tropism, immune recognition of structural/regulatory proteins of varicella-zoster virus, early reconstitution of immunity and decreased severity of herpes zoster in bone marrow transplant recipients given inactivated varicella vaccine, and the persistence of humoral and cellular immunity in children and adults immunized with live attenuated varicella vaccine. Dr. Arvin's M.D. is from the University of Pennsylvania. R. Palmer Beasley, M.D., is Dean of the University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center School of Public Health and Professor of Epidemiology. He is the recipient of the 1985 King Faisal International Prize in Medicine and the 1987 Charles F. Mott General Motors International Prize for Research on Cancer. Among Dr. Beasley's research accomplishments are studies leading to the understanding of the routes, mechanisms, and timing of the transmission of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). He helped develop the World Health Organization policy guidelines on HBV immunization and the global HBV control program, and is currently a WHO consultant on HIV and HBV. Dr. Beasley's M.D. is from Harvard University. Kenneth I. Berns, M.D., Ph.D., is Interim Vice-President for Health Affairs and Dean of the College of Medicine at the University of Florida. He has served as a member of the Composite Committee of the United States Medical Licensing Examination, Chairman of the Association of American Medical Colleges, President of the Association of Medical School Microbiology and Immunology Chairs, President of the American Society for Virology, President of the American Society for Microbiology and Vice-President of the International Union of Microbiological Societies. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Berns' research examines the molecular basis of replication of the human parvovirus, adenoassociated virus, and the ability of an adeno-associated virus to establish latent infections and be reactivated. His work has helped provide the basis for use of this virus as a vector for gene therapy. Dr. Berns' M.D. and his Ph.D. in Biochemistry are from The Johns Hopkins University. Raphael Dolin, M.D., is Dean of the Office for Clinical Programs at Harvard Medical School. He is a past member of the Board of Scientific Counselors of NIAID, the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and the Sub-Specialty Board in Infectious Diseases of the American Board of Internal Medicine. He is past Chair of the Executive Committee of the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group and is currently a member of the NIAID AIDS Research Advisory Committee and the National Institutes of Health AIDS Vaccine Research Committee. His research interests include laboratory and clinical investigation of viral pathogerlesis, antiviral chemotherapy, and viral vaccines. Recent publications address analysis
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--> of intercurrent HIV-1 infections in phase I and II trials of candidate AIDS vaccines, HIV-1 immunity induced by canarypox, and mete-analysis of five randomized controlled trials comparing continuation of zidovudine vs. switching to didanosine in HIV-infected individuals. Dr. Dolin's M.D. is from Harvard Medical School. Myron E. Essex, D.V.M., Ph.D., is Chair of the Harvard AIDS Institute, Professor of Health Sciences, and Chair of the Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases at Harvard School of Public Health. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine, and has received numerous awards. He is President of the International Association for Research on Leukemia and Related Diseases, Vice President for Scientific Affairs of the International Retrovirology Association, and member of several scientific advisory boards. Recent publications from his laboratory present evidence that HIV-2 can provide partial protection against subsequent infections of HIV-1 and evidence that African subtypes of HIV-1 have evolved for more efficient heterosexual transmission. Dr. Essex's Ph.D. in Microbiology is from the University of California at Davis. Diane E. Griffin, M.D., Ph.D., is Professor and Chair of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health. She is editor of the Journal of Virology, has served on numerous editorial and advisory boards, and is recipient of the Javits Neuroscience Investigator Award. She has participated as a member of the Council of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Society for Virology, and the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, and as Chair of the Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Advisory Committee, NIAID. Recent research includes work on measles virus virulence and immune suppression, cytokines in the brain during viral infection, the effect of amino acid changes on alphavirus neurovirulence, and the promotion of functional recovery of alphavirus-infected neurons through preimmunization with nonstructural proteins. Dr. Griffin's M.D. and her Ph.D. in Immunology are from Stanford University. Ashley T. Haase, M.D., is Professor and Head of the Department of Microbiology at the University of Minnesota Medical School. He has been Chairman of the U.S.-Japan AIDS Panel, the AIDS Research Advisory Committee of NIAID, and the Etiology and Pathogenesis Review Panel of the Advisory Panel to the Office of AIDS Research at the National Institutes of Health. He was a Javits MERIT Neuroscience Investigator Awardee (1988–1995) and a NIAID MERIT awardee (1989–1999). Recent publications have addressed genetic evaluation of suspected transient HIV-1 infection of infants, integration of visna virus DNA as a step for productive infection, kinetics of response in lymphoid tissues to antiretroviral therapy of HIV-1 infection, quan-
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--> titativeimage analysis of HIV-1 infection, and RNA splice site utilization by simian immunodeficiency viruses derived from Sooty mangabey monkeys. Dr.Haase's M.D. is from the Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Martin S. Hirsch, M.D., is Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Professor of Immunology and Infectious Diseases at Harvard School of Public Health, and Director of AIDS Clinical Research at Massachusetts General Hospital. He is a member of the Governing Council of the International AIDS Society and has served on numerous editorial and advisory boards. His research interests include the pathogenesis and therapy of human infections with HIV and herpes group viruses. Dr. Hirsch pioneered the use of combination therapy strategies for HIV infection in vitro and in vivo. He is also studying interactions between HIV and CMV, both in vitro and in vivo, and has demonstrated bidirectional potentiation by these viruses. Recent publications address strategies for effective combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection in the laboratory and the clinic. Dr. Hirsch's M.D. is from The Johns Hopkins University Medical School. Elliott D. Kieff, M.D., Ph.D., is Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics and Medicine, Chair of the Virology Program, and Co-Director of Channing Laboratory at Harvard University, and Director of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and has received many awards, including the outstanding investigator award of the National Cancer Institute. He has served on numerous editorial boards and advisory panels. Recent publications address the molecular pathogenesis of virus-induced malignancies in HIV infection/AIDS, modulation of apoptosis by herpesviruses, and the genetic analysis of Epstein-Barr virus in human lymphocytes. Dr. Kieff's M.D. is from The Johns Hopkins University, and his Ph.D. in Microbiology is from the University of Chicago. Peter S. Kim, Ph.D., is Professor of Biology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Member of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, and Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology, and a member of the AIDS Vaccine Research Committee of the National Institutes of Health. He has served on numerous editorial and advisory boards and is the recipient of several awards for his scientific work, including the Ho-Am Prize in Basic Science, the DuPont Merck Young Investigator Award of the Protein Society, the Eli Lilly Award in Biological Chemistry of the American Chemical Society, and the National Academy of Sciences Award in Molecular Biology. Selected recent research addresses HIV entry and its
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--> inhibition, X-ray crystal structures of the gp41 cores from the HIV and SIV envelope glycoproteins, and the spring-loaded conformational change for influenza hemagglutinin. Dr. Kim's Ph.D. in Biochemistry is from Stanford University. Bernard Lo, M.D., is Professor of Medicine and Director of the Program in Medical Ethics at the University of California, San Francisco. He directs the national coordinating office for the Initiative To Strengthen the Patient-Provider Relationship in a Changing Health Care Environment, which is funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. He also chairs the End of Life Committee convened by the American College of Physicians, which will develop recommendations for clinical care near the end of life. Dr. Lo is a member of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission and of the Data Safety Monitoring Board for the AIDS Clinical Trials Group at NIAID. His research interests include decisions about life-sustaining interventions, decision making for incompetent patients, physician-assisted suicide, ethical issues regarding HIV infection, and the doctor-patient relationship in managed care. Dr. Lo's M.D. is from Stanford University. D.Grand McFadden, Ph.D., is Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Western Ontario and Director of Viral Immunology and Pathogenesis Laboratories at the Robarts Research Institute. He has chaired several panels and site reviews for the National Cancer Institute of Canada and is a member of the Poxvirus Subcommittee of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses. Recent publications address viruses and oxidative stress; inhibitory specificity of the anti-inflammatory myxoma virus serpin, Serp-1; rabbit, hare, squirrel, and swine poxviruses; and viruses and the immune system, Lessons from HIV. He is cofounder of VIRON Therapeutics, a member of the scientific advisory board of VIRON, and a consultant, to Gene Chem Management. Dr. McFadden's Ph.D. in Biochemistry is from McGill University. Bernard Moss, M.D., Ph.D., is Chief of the Laboratory of Viral Diseases at NIAID and is a member of the poxvirus subgroup of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses, the National Institutes of Health AIDS Vaccine Selection Committee, and the editorial boards of several scientific journals. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and of the American Academy of Microbiology, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a past President of the American Society for Virology. Dr. Moss has received numerous awards, including the Dickson Prize for Medical Research and the Taylor International Prize in Medicine. His research focuses on the biology of poxviruses, including virus-host interactions, development of vaccinia virus into an expression vector with application to
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--> immune responses to virus infections, live recombinant vaccines, and gene therapy. Dr. Moss's M.D. is from New York University, and his Ph.D. in Biochemistry is from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Richard W. Moyer, Ph.D., is Professor and Chair, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida. He serves as Chair of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses on Poxviruses, as a reviewer for the Department of Defense Poxvirus Branch (AIBS), and as a consultant for the St. Louis University Academic Review Program. He is the recipient of many professional awards and serves on several editorial boards and review panels. Dr. Moyer's research interests include the identification and characterization of genes that contribute to viral (poxvirus) pathogenesis and disease. Recent publications address comparisons among members of the poxvirus T1/35kDa family, nonpermissive infection of insect cells by vaccinia, cytotoxic T lymphocyte assisted suicide, the control of apoptosis by poxviruses, and transient and nonlethal expression of genes invertebrate cells by recombinant entomopoxviruses. Dr. Moyer's Ph.D. in Chemistry is from UCLA. Hidde L. Ploegh, Ph.D., is Professor of Immunopathology at Harvard Medical School and Professor of Oncobiochemistry at the Free University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He is director of the graduate program in Immunology at Harvard Medical School and is a correspondent of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences. He has researched a number of issues of relevance to immunology, in particular MHC-restricted antigen presentation, an area that comprises the interface of immunology and cell biology. Recent publications address stealth strategies used by viruses to escape the host immune system, and more specifically the degradation of Class I MHC molecules catalyzed by human cytomegalovirus gene products. Dr. Ploegh's Ph.D. is from Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, the Netherlands. Jack A. Schmidt, M.D., is Senior Director of Immunology and Rheumatology at Merck Research Laboratories. He is Vice-President of the Board of Directors for the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, a member of the Minority Affairs Committee of the American Association of Immunologists, and a fellow of the Association for Women in Science. Recent research publications address the structure and function of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE), the expression and affinity purification of human inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), and active-site structure analysis of iNOS with substituted imidazoles. His current research interests include the role of integrins in leukocyte activation and the development of new fluorescencebased technologies with which to measure the subcellular distribution of proteins. Dr. Schmidt's M.D. is from the University of Pennsylvania.
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--> Richard J. Whitley, M.D., is Vice-Chairman, Department of Pediatrics and Microbiology, and Associate Director for Clinical Studies, Center for AIDS Research, at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He is past President and current board member of the International Society for Antiviral Research and member of the Council of the International Society for Infectious Diseases. He has edited or co-edited several books, including Clinical Virology, Antiviral Agents and Viral Diseases of Man, and Infections of the Central Nervous System and has authored or co-authored numerous papers. Recent research addresses issues involving herpes simplex virus, together with application of genetically engineered herpes simplex to treatment of experimental brain tumors; mechanisms, clinical significance, and future implications of viral resistance; and ganciclovir treatment of symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Dr. Whitley's M.D. is from The George Washington University School of Medicine. Flossie Wong-Staal, Ph.D., is Florence Riford Professor of AIDS Research, Departments of Medicine and Biology, University of California at San Diego, and Director, Center for AIDS Research/AIDS Research Institute. She is an honorary member of the American Society of Clinical Investigation and a charter member of the American Society for Virology. She has served on numerous editorial boards and advisory panels. Dr. Wong-Staal's research interests are in the molecular biology of human pathogenic viruses, cancer, and AIDS; mechanisms of gene regulation; novel approaches to gene therapy; and molecular vaccines. Recent publications have addressed advances in gene therapy for HIV and other viral infections, use of ribozyrnes to inhibit gene expression, and development of HIV vectors for anti-HIV gene therapy. Dr. Wong-Staal's Ph.D. in Molecular Biology is from the University of California at Los Angeles. Staff Judith R. Bale, Ph.D., is Director of the Board on Global Health at the Institute of Medicine, which publishes studies that address a range of global issues in biomedical science and science policy. She served for many years with the National Research Council, where she developed and directed international collaborative research projects on specific topics in health and agriculture. She has edited several collections of papers resulting from these programs. She has also directed studies on technology transfer; technological challenges for megacities; population growth and land use change in India, China, and the United States; and international nutrition. Her laboratory research was at the National Institutes of Health and involved enzyme kinetics, structure, and mechanisms. Dr. Bale's Ph.D. in Biochemistry is from the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
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--> Rob Coppock, Ph.D., is an independent policy consultant and a research associate with the Institute for European, Russian and Eurasian Studies at The George Washington University. He served for many years on the staff of the National Research Council, directed a multiyear international research program on global sustainability, and was Deputy Director of the German-American Academic Council. His current research focuses on global sustainability and climate change. Recent publications address implementation of the Kyoto protocol, comparison of German and American climate change policy, and the use of scenarios in examining regional sustainability. Dr. Coppock's Ph.D. in Economics is from the University of Wuppertal, Germany.
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