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Index A Acid rain, 2, 98 Africa, see West Africa Age factors in forest management programs, 280-284 harvesting and, 36 size as indicator of, 32-33 structure and life expectancy variations, 33-34 Age classes of forests, 282-295, 297-298 of halibut, 141 influence of numbers of, on stability, 33-34 Aggregations influence on harvestability, 32 influence on stability of fish populations, 33 Agricultural techniques to reclaim derelict land in Great Britain, 252-254 Algae, as indicators of eutrophication, 49, 83, 303-304, 306, 308, 310, 312, 315 Analog studies of environmental problems, 75-76 in California red scale control, 180 in caribou protection, 76, 221 in Lake Washington eutrophication control, 76 in land reclamation projects, 264-265 Annual surplus production (ASP), in assessment of fishery stock abundance, 145 375 Anophelesfunestus, 195 Anopheles gambiae s.l., 195, 201, 202 Anopheles gambiae s.s., 202 Anopheles species, 190-204 Anticoagulants, in vampire bat control, 35, 155-158 Aphytis africanus, 177 Aphytis chrysomphali, 170, 186 Aphytis linganensis, 170, 171-172, 175, 179, 180, 181, 186, 187, 188 Aphytis melinus, 170, 171 ~ 172, 174, 177- 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 186, 187, 188 Aphytis species, in California red scale control, 166-167, 170, 171-172, 174-182, 186-188 Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), 149 Atomic Energy Commission, U.S., studies of radiation effects, 79, 112, 331-344 B Banked specimens, for preservation of records, 85-86 Baseline studies, value of, 111, 113 Bats, see Vampire bat control Bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis), 5 Behavior, of individuals, 26-28 Biological introductions, see Introduced species Biological magnification 6 Biological monitoring, 3, 4, 81-87, 113 114. See also Monitoring studies

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376 Birds and biological monitoring, 84-85, 86 87 effects of DDT on, 4, 361-370 effects of spatial isolation on, 32 as invaders, 57 population movements of, 31-32 species diversity among, 51 spotted owl conservation, 227-247 see also specific birds Black spruce (Picea mariana), 284, 289 Blackcod (Anoplopoma fimbria), 146 Blowflies, 5 Blue-green algae, see Cyanobacteria Budworms (Choristoneura fumiferana) DDT in control of, 360, 365 and forest yields, 280, 287, 296 Butterflies, and biological monitoring, 46, 85 C Caddis flies, and DDT, 362 California red scale (Aonidiella aurantii), see California red scale control California red scale control, 13, 14, 165- 189 analog studies in, 180 boundaries established in, 170-171 committee comment on, 186- 189 ecological knowledge and theories in, 178- 183 ecosystem components in, 169 as environmental problem, 167-168 future research plans in, 177-178 introduction of, 166 monitoring in, 170, 176-177 optimal-foraging theory in, 182 predators and parasites in, 166-167, 182-183 problems with pesticides in, 167 project as experiment, 180-181 role of Aphytis species in, 166- 167, 170, 171-172, 174-182, 186-188 sex-allocation theory in, 179 Calluna species, and reclamation of derelict lands in Great Britain, 250, 256, 261, 265, 268 Carbon dioxide, 2, 5 buildup in atmosphere, 98 fixed, 39 INDEX Caribou protection, 11, 12, 13, 14, 106, 114, 205-226 analog studies of, 76, 221 behavior studies in, 213, 217, 218, 219 boundaries established in, 216-217 committee comment on, 225-226 conclusions from studies in, 214-215 cumulative effects in, 219 ecosystem components in, 215-216 and effects of development, 210 environmental problems in, 208-212 expert judgments in, 221-222 hypothesis-testing in, 218-219 migration routes in, 208-210, 211, 214, 219 models used in, 221 monitoring in, 217, 218, 219 pilot studies in, 78, 221 population characteristics in, 212-213, 214 and project as experiment, 221-222 and role of ecological knowledge, 212- 215, 220, 222-224 sensitivity criteria in, 213-214, 215, 218, 219, 221-222 significance of impacts in, 216 study strategy in, 217-218 Case studies, see Ecological case studies Catch per unit of effort (CPUE), as index of fish abundance and biomass, 139- 141, 143, 144, 145, 146 Cattle effect of vampire bats upon, see Vampire bat control iodine-131 concentrations in milk of, 334 milk containing DDT, 369 sex ratios and increased productivity in, 34 Cesium-134, in radiation study, 337 Cesium-137, in reindeer, 334 Chaoborus, in Southern Indian Lake, 329 Chesapeake Bay, degradation of, 97 Chlorophacinone, in vampire bat control, 155, 156-157 Chromosomes, and nuclear radiation, 337, 338 Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), 149 Churchill River, and Southern Indian Lake, 318-321 Citrus crops, and control of California red

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INDEX scale, 165- 189 Civic activities, and eutrophication control, see Lake Washington eutrophication control Clearcut logging, see Forest clearcutting C02, see Carbon dioxide Cohort analysis, in assessment of fishery stock abundance, 144- 145 Communicable Disease Center (CDC), 154 Community ecology, see Ecological communities Community structure, 3, 5-6, 7, 47-60, 68-69, 73, 92, 255-264, 267-268, 272-274 effects of radiation on, 337-338 knowledge of, required to predict fate of DDT, 372 in Lake Washington, 309-310, 312-313 in Southern Indian Lake, 320, 323-324, 328-329 Competitive interactions, 42-45, 52-53 Complex life histories, 25-26, 72 Complex linkages, among species, 4 Construction projects, mitigation effects of, 12, 205-226, 248-274, 317-330 Contaminants, see DDT; Pesticides; Pollutants; Radionuclides; Toxic Substances Control methods, for reducing vampire bat populations, 154-158 Corridors, between habitats, 6, 32, 233 Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, 349 "C-S-R" strategy, in analyzing community composition, 258, 259 Cucurbitaceae, 35, 46 Cumulative effects, 3, 93-103 in caribou protection program, 219-220 of chemicals, 63-64 definition of environmental, 96-97 difficulties in predicting and controlling, 97-98 in forest management program, 285, 299-300 in halibut fishery management, 143 kinds of, 94-96 management of, 97, 100-103 nibbling and, 96-97 nutrient fluxes and, 64-65 predictions of, 100- 101 productivity and, 49 377 recommendations concerning, 102- 103 scales and rates of critical processes in, 98-100 species as indicators of, 49 synergisms in, 96 temporal and spatial factors in, 3, 8-9, 16-17, 68-74, 96, 99, 110 Cyanobacteria, as indicators of eutrophication, 83, 303-304, 308, 310, 312, 315 Cycling index of nutrient fluxes, 66-67 D Daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus), and reclamation of derelict lands in Great Britain, 265 Daphnia species, in Lake Washington, 309, 310, 312 DDT effects, 4, 6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 29, 64, 65, 77, 78, 85, 88, 109, 358-374 in birds, 4, 361-370 boundaries for study of, 365-366 in budworm control, 360, 365 committee comment on, 371-374 complex interactions in, 99-100 delayed mortality in, 363 development of resistance to, 35, 360 ecosystem components in, 363 and eggshell thinning, 363, 364, 366, 369-370 in elm bark beetle control, 361, 364, 365, 369 environmental problems and, 106, 360 363 expert judgment in, 369-370 in fish, 360, 361, 363, 365, 367-368 in food chain, 99-100, 361, 363, 364 365, 368, 369 in forest insect control, 364, 371 key issues in, 363-364 in malaria control, 191, 192, 359 in milk, 369 monitoring of, 114, 366-367 pilot-scale experiments in, 78-79 and recolonization of treated areas, 364 365, 368, 372 and reproductive performance, 64 and role of ecological knowledge, 365 368

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378 susceptibility of species to, 362 toxicity of metabolites, 364, 372, 373 in typhus control, 359 worldwide spread of residue, 361-362, 366 Deer, 33, 36, 334 Deforestation, and extinction of species, 86. See also Forest clearcutting; Spotted owl conservation Delaware River Basin Commission project, 97, 102 Delay-difference population model, in assessment of fishery stock abundance, 144-145 Demographic stochasticity, and extinction of small populations, 69 Density dependence, 5, 28 in forest management program, 280-284 in population regulation, 5, 28-29, 30 Denver Wildlife Research Center (DWRC), 153, 156, 159, 161, 163-164 Department of Agriculture, U.S., 372. See also Forest Service Department of Natural Resources (DNR), New Brunswick, 297 Derelict lands in Great Britain, see Reclamation of derelict lands in Great Britain Desmodus rotundas (vampire bat), 152, 153, 154 Diaemus youngii (vampire bat), 152, 153 Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), 361, 369 Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), 363, 369 Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), see DOT effects Differential harvesting by sex and size, genetic consequences of, 36-37 Diphenadione, in vampire bat control, 155, 157-158, 160 Diphylla ecaudata (vampire bat), 153 Disasters and catastrophes, and extinction of small populations, 70 Disease control, 10, 14, 25, 190-204 Diversification, in revegetation studies, 260-261. See also Sward diversification Diversity indexes, 49-50, 83 Dutch elm disease control program, 364 Dynamics of populations, 24-25, 28-35, Erosion 47-48 INDEX E Ecological case studies, 3-4, 12-15, 135- 374 Ecological communities, 3, 47-61 competition and, 52-53 factors affecting species diversity in, 50- 55 invadability of, 57-58 keystone species, 5-6, 55-56 organization of, 55-56 patches and, 68-74 predation and, 52 preservation of, 11, 205-226, 227-274, 301-316, 345-357 productivity and, 53-54 spatial and temporal considerations in, 54, 68-74 species composition in, 48-50 stability and resilience of, 7, 56-57 substitutability in, 58 succession in, 58-60, 72, 260-261 see also Populations; Species Ecological knowledge applications of, 9- 12, 104- 115 defined, 1 types of, 4-9 uses, 2 Ecological methods, 2 Ecological theory, defined, 1 Ecotoxicology, 2 Effective population size, 37 defined, 234-236 of spotted owls, 230-242, 246 Eggshell thinning from DDT use, 363, 364, 366, 369-370 El Nino, 90 Elm bark beetle, DDT in control of, 361, 364, 365, 369 Endangered Species Act of 1973, 228 Energy flow, 3, 61-67 Environmental experiments, 3, 75-80 Environmental goals, identification of, 105-107 Environmental problem-solving, scientific framework for, 104- 115 Environmental Protection Agency, U.S., 359, 360 Environmental stochasticity, and extinction of small populations, 69-70 in clearcut logging, 348-350

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INDEX in Southern Indian Lake project, 320, 321, 322-323 Errors of estimation, and uncertainty of management projections, 90-91 Equilibrium, in population stability, 29-30 Eutrophication of lakes, 49, 53-54, 64- 66, 83, 98, 301-316. See also Lake Washington eutrophication control Evolution, 56-57 affecting problem-solvers, 9 of diet specialization, 40 of life-history parameters, 24 population size and, 37, 69-70, 230- 231, 246 of resistance, 10, 24, 35, 36, 42, 167, 360-361, 373 in response to management, 25, 36-37, 95, 107, 109 Extinction of species, 69-70, 72, 86, 137- 147, 205-226, 233-237, 365 F Famophos, in vampire bat control, 155 Federal Committee on Pest Control, 367 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of 1947, 371 Festuca species, 254, 255, 256, 258, 262 Fir (Abies balsamea), 286, 287 Fish age classes and, 33-34 aggregations of, and harvesting, 32, 33, 89 effects of DDT on, 360, 361, 363, 365, 367-368 effects of habitat charges upon, 26 effects of population size upon, 29 food supply and, 109 population movements of, 31-32 population stability and, 7. 30 size and sex selectivity in harvesting, 34, 36 types of gear used in catching, 140-141, 144 see also Halibut fishery management; Southern Indian Lake project; and specific kinds offish Fish and Wildlife Service (U.S. Department of the Interior), 152 Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976, 150 Fishing industry, see Halibut fishery 379 management; Southern Indian Lake project Flooding, in Southern Indian Lake, 322- 323 Florida Everglades, effects of overconstruction in, 95 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), U.S., 363, 364, 371-372 Food chains DDT in, 99-100, 361, 363, 364-365, 368, 369 effects of nuclear radiation on, 334, 335-337, 338-339 pollutants in, 63, 64, 94 radionuclides in, 333-334 and Southern Indian Lake project, 320 328-329 toxic substances in, 93-94, 99-100 Foreign Assistance Act, 152 Forest clearcutting, 345-357 biomass removal in, 350-351, 352-353 committee comment on, 356-357 leaching and erosion in, 348-350 models used in, 353, 357 and nutrient budgets of ecosystems, 346-347, 352, 356-357 and nutrients remaining in soil, 351~352 replenishment of nutrients in, 352 sensitivity analysis of, 352-353, 357 Forest management program in New Brunswick, 13, 14, 95, 106, 110, 275-300 baseline data in, 298-299 boundaries established in, 279-280 budworm population affecting, 280, 287, 296 committee comment on, 297-300 cumulative effects of, 285, 299-300 density-dependent and forest age factors in, 280-284 ecosystem components in, 279 environmental problems in, 277-278 hypothesis-testing in, 284-285 models used in, 288-290 nomograms used in, 290-295, 299 performance indicators in, 278-279 role of ecological knowledge in, 286- 288 Forest Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture), 228, 229 Forests, 7, 8, 29 clearcutting effects in, 13, 14, 345-357

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380 conservation of owl populations in, 227- 247 deforestation in tropical areas, 86 effects of budworms on, 280, 287, 296 factors affecting growth rates in, 33 insect pests in, 31 isolated populations in, 32 management program in, 13, 14, 95, 106, 110, 275-300 radiation studies in, 336, 337-338 Fragmentation, of habitats, 6, 95 Freshwater Institute, Winnipeg, 318, 321, 325 G Garki project for malaria control, 79, 112, 190-204 Generic studies of environmental problems, 76-78, 331-357 Genetic change, see Evolution Genetic concerns, 24-25, 35-37 cumulative effects of repeated interventions, 95 differential harvesting by sex and size, 36-37 evolution of resistance to pesticides, 35- 36 in mosquito control, 202, 203-204 in owl populations, 230, 231, 234-237 in small populations, 37, 69, 73, 234, 235-236 Genetic stochasticity, and extinction of small populations, 69 Grasslands seminatural, approaches to recreating, 250, 254-256 urban, succession in, 260-261 see also Reclamation of derelict lands in Great Britain Great Britain, see Reclamation of derelict lands in Great Britain Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), 30, 228 Growth rates, 32-33 H Habitats disturbances in, and biological monitoring, 86-87 INDEX fragmentation of, 6, 95 isolated, 54 management of, 29 migratory patterns and, 31-32 old-growth forests as, 227-247 for owl populations, 26, 229-230, 232, 238-239, 241-242 patches, 54, 68-71, 99 population density and, 29 preservation of, 11, 205-274, 301-316, 345-357 recolonization of, in DDT-treated areas, 364-365, 368, 372 recolonization of, factors affecting, 99 selection of, 26-27 shape and orientation of patches in, 70 sizes of, 32 spatial considerations and, 71-72 species diversity and, 50-51, 54, 68-69 temporal considerations and, 73 Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), 149 Halibut fishery management, 13, 14, 29, 114, 137-147 boundaries in, 142 catchability of fish in, 140-141 committee comment on, 149-150 cumulative effects in, 143 detection of unreported catches in, 146- 147 growth rates in, 142 law of accumulated stock and, 144 life-history characteristics of, 33-34 migration patterns in, 141 monitoring in, 143 natural and fishing mortality estimates in, 141, 144-145, 146 and project as experiment, 145-146 role of ecological knowledge in, 143, 146-147 stock assessment models for, 139-140, 144-145 stock-recruitment relationship in, 140, 145 Heather (Calluna vulgaris), 250 Heliconius butterflies, 46 Herring gull (Laws argentatus), 84-85 Honey bee (Apis mellifera), 45 Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire, clearcut logging in, 78, 347-348, 349-350 Hydroelectric development, and caribou protection, 205-226

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INDEX I Impact assessment, 10- 11, 14 in caribou protection, 205-226 criticisms of, 105 development and use of models in, 108 109 and establishment of study boundaries, 109-110 identification of goals in, 105-107 in New Brunswick forest management, 277-279 scoping of problem in, 107-109 significance of effects in, 112 in Southern Indian Lake project, 318 326 testing of hypotheses in, 110-112 and value of monitoring, 111- 112, 113 114 see also Prediction of effects Inbreeding, effects of, 37, 69, 234, 236 Indexes of ecosystem functioning, 66-67 Indexes of species diversity, 49-50 Indicator species, 3, 49, 81-87 Individuals, 3, 5, 23-37 behavior of, 26-28 habitat selection by, 26-27 population density affecting, 5 uniqueness of, 5 Insecticides, see Pesticides Insects, 51, 58. See also California red scale control; DDT effects; Malaria control; and specific insects Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE), Great Britain, 266 Integrated pest management (IPM), 361 Interactions among populations, see Population interactions International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria, 100 International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC), 114, 137-147 Introduced species, 57-58 difficulty of eradicating, 189 difficulty of predicting effects of, 57- 58, 165, 182, 188 for pest control, 27, 165- 183 Invadability, 57-58 Iodine-131, in milk, 334 Ionizing radiation, 332-333, 337-338, 344. See also Nuclear radiation effects; Radionuclides 381 J June sucker (Chamistes liorus), 34 K Kaolin wastes, revegetation of, 253 Key-factor analysis of life histories, 25-26 Keystone species, 5-6, 55-56 L Labrador Hydro (Hydro), and caribou protection, 205-226 Ladybird beetles, and DDT, 362 Lake Tahoe, changes in zooplankton community, 309, 323 Lake Washington eutrophication control, 13, 14, 106, 110, 111, 114, 301-316, 328 analog studies of, 76 basis of predictions in, 112 and changes in zooplankton community, 309-310, 323 circulation of water in, 72 committee comment on, 312- 315 and cyanobacteria, 83, 303-304, 308, 310, 313, 315 effects of phosphorus in, 65, 308, 314 315 model used in, 306-307, 320 nutrient fluxes in, 64-65, 303-304 political involvement in, 305 predictions for, 306-307 and project as experiment, 312 public involvement in, 102, 305-306, 314 results of effluent diversion in, 307-309 scientific studies of, 303-304 sewage discharge in, 73, 95, 102, 302 303 zooplankton in, 309-310 Lake Zurich, eutrophication of, 303, 315 Lakes eutrophication of, see Eutrophication of lakes phosphorus in, effects of, 65, 66, 308, 314-315 pollutants in, 64-65 turbidity of water in, 65, 96, 320, 328 329 variability in productivity of, 65-66

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382 see also Lake Washington eutrophication control; Southern Indian Lake project Land management, see Reclamation of derelict lands in Great Britain Latin America, vampire bat control in, see Vampire bat control Leaching of nutrients, in clearcut logging, 348-350 Lichens, 83, 334 Life-history patterns, 23-24, 25-26, 33- 34, 83 Life span and ability to survive poor conditions, 34 and apparent stability, 34, 56 pollution and, 83 and resistance to radiation, 339 of vampire bats, 154 Light penetration in water, effects of, 65 Limnocalanus macrurus, in Southern Indian Lake, 323 Livestock industry, effect of vampire bats upon, see Vampire bat control Livestock Insects Investigation Laboratory (U.S. Department of Agriculture), 154 Living organisms, role of, in biological monitoring, 81-86 Lolium species, and reclamation of derelict lands in Great Britain, 254, 255 Long fin smelt (Spirinchus thaleichthys), in Lake Washington, 309 Longstone Edge reclamation project in Great Britain, 248-273 Lotus corniculatus, and reclamation of derelict lands in Great Britain, 268 M Malaria control, 13, 14, 25, 26, 112, 190- 204 antimalarial drugs in, 194-195, 196 boundaries established in, 193-194 committee comment on, 203-204 DDT in, 191, 192, 359 and dynamics of infection, 197-198 environmental problems in, 192-193 and genetic mechanisms in mosquito populations, 202, 203-204 insecticides in, 191, 192, 194, 196, 200-202 INDEX models used in, 191, 197-200 objectives in, 193 role of ecological knowledge in, 195- 196 Management of ecological systems, 3, 88- 103 Manitoba, see Southern Indian Lake project Manitoba Hydro, 319, 322 Maryland Power Plant Siting Program, 76 Materials flow, 3, 61-67 Mating systems, 27, 34-35. See also Genetic considerations Mediterranean fruit flies (Dacus), 27 Mercury in Southern Indian Lake, 65, 223, 329 toxic transformations of, 64 Metapopulations, 230 Migration habitats affecting, 31-32 routes for caribou, 208-210, 211, 214, 219 Milk DDT in, 369 iodine- 131 in, 334 Mining, and derelict lands in Great Britain, 249-250 Models in California red scale control, 179-180 in caribou protection, 220-221 in forest clearcutting, 353, 357 development and use of, 108-109 in forest management program, 288-290 in halibut fishery management, 144-146 in Lake Washington eutrophication control, 306-307, 320 in malaria control, 191, 197-200 in Southern Indian Lake project, 320 Mollusks, and biological monitoring, 83- 84 Monitoring studies, 81-87 advantages of living organisms in, 81- 82 baseline in, 111, 112, 113 in California red scale control, 170, 176- 177 in caribou protection, 217, 218, 219 choice of organisms for, 82-85 for DDT effects, 366-367 for detection of pollutants, 82-86 in halibut fishery management, 143

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INDEX for inventory of biological resources, 86-87 in land reclamation project, 254, 255 and specimen banking, 85-86 in spotted owl conservation, 242 usefulness of, 79, 111-112, 113-114 Moose (Alces aloes), 210 Mosquitoes, see Anopheles species; malaria control Moths, and biological monitoring, 85 Multiple-Use Sustained Yield Act of 1960, 229 Mutualistic interactions, 6, 45-46 Mysis relicta in Lake Washington, 312 in Southern Indian Lake, 323 N National Environmental Policy Act, 106 National Forest Management Act of 1976, 228 Natural variability, and uncertainty of management projections, 89-90 Natural-history information, usefulness of, 16 Nature Conservancy Council (NCC), Great Britain, 266 Neguvon, in vampire bat control, 154 Neomysis mercedis, in Lake Washington, 309 Netherlands, reclamation of derelict lands in, 265, 266 New Brunswick forest management program, see Forest management program in New Brunswick Newfoundland caribou, see Caribou protection Newfoundland Wildlife Division (NWD), and caribou protection, 205-226 Nibbling, cumulative effects of, 96-97 Nitrogen, 63, 64, 351 Nomograms, in forest management program, 290-295, 299 Nonlinear catch-age (catch at age) analysis, in assessment of fishery stock abundance, 145 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 366 North Pacific halibut, see Halibut fishery management 383 Northern pike (Esox lucius), in Southern Indian Lake, 322, 323 Nuclear radiation effects, 13, 14, 79, 331- 344 basis of predictions in, 112 chromosomes and, 337, 338 committee comment on, 343-344 environmental problems in, 333-335 in food chains, 334, 335-337, 338-339 at nuclear test sites, 333 and predictions of radionuclide movements, 335-337 sensitivity of species in, 337-338 specific-activity concept in, 335 systems analysis approach in, 337 see also Ionizing radiation; Radionuclides Nutrients fluxes in, 64-65, 66-67 interactions, 65-66 in lakes, 64-66, 303-304, 320-321 losses due to clearcut logging, 345-357 regeneration of, 66, 96 o Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 337 Old-growth forests, as habitat for owl populations, 227-247 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 366, 367 Oscillatoria rubescens, see Cyanobacteria Owls, see Spotted owls p Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), see Halibut fishery management Pacific Northwest, conservation of owl populations in, see Spotted owl conservation Pacific Northwest, halibut fishery management in, see Halibut fishery management Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax), 149 Passion flower (Passiflora spp.), 46 Patches and community composition, 68-71 distribution of, in space and time, 71-73 effects of shape, 70-71

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384 effects of size, 68-69, 99 Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 363, 368 Peak District National Park, Great Britain, 250 Peak Park Planning Board, 253, 267 Pest control, 10, 14, 165-189. See also Pesticides; and specific pests Pesticides in California red scale control, 167, 169 evolution of resistance to, 10, 35-36, 73, 96 in integrated pest management, 361 in malaria control, 191, 192, 194, 196, 200-202 timing in applications of, 73 in vampire bat control, 154-158 see also DDT; Toxic substances; and specific pesticides pH factors affecting derelict lands in Great Britain, 260, 263 Phosphorus, effects of, in water, 65, 66, 308, 314-315 Pilot-scale studies of environmental problems, 78-79, 111 in caribou protection, 78, 221 of DDT effects, 78-79 in land reclamation projects, 78 in vampire bat control, 159 Plantation management in forest development, see Forest management program in New Brunswick Plantation model, in forest development program, 288, 289-290 Plants, 5 and biological monitoring, 83 competition among, 53-54, 258-259, 263-264 as invaders, 57 mutualistie interactions of, 45-46 natural defenses of, 41-42 and population interactions, 38-39 radiation studies in, 338 role of, in reclamation of derelict lands in Great Britain, 248-273 species diversity, 51 and stability boundaries, 7 Plasmodiumfalciparum, 192, 193, 196, 200, 202 Plasmodium malariae, 192, 196, 202 Plasmodium ovate, 192, 196, 202 INDEX Plasmodium species, 190-204 Plasmodium vivax, 192 Plowshare Program, 334 Pollutants, 11 in atmosphere, 98-99 biological effects of, 11, 63-64 and biological monitoring, 82-85 cumulative addition of, 95, 96, 98, 100, 102 effects on Lake Washington, 302-315 and eutrophication in Lake Washington, 301-315 in food chain, 63, 64, 94 in Lake Erie, 63-64 monitoring for effects of, 81-87, 113 114 monitoring of, 82-86 from nuclear radiation, 331-344 see also DDT; Pesticides; Radionuclides; Toxic substances Polyehlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 63, 114, 367 Polygynous mating systems, 34 Population biology, 23-37. See also Populations Population fragmentation, 6 Population interactions, 38-46 competitive, 42-45 indirect effects of, 46, 47-48, 88 mutualistic, 6, 45-46 patterns of succession, 59 predator-prey, 6, 40-42, 309-310, 324, 329 Populations age structure of, 33-34 aggregations of, 32 behavior of, 26-28 biology of, 23-37 carrying capacity and, 28 control of, 27-28 density-dependent factors in, 5, 28-29, 30 dispersion patterns and migratory behavior in, 31-32 dynamics of, 24-25, 28-35, 47-48 effects of habitat changes upon, 26 in forest development, 280-284 genetic and evolutionary changes in, 24- 25, 35-37 growth rates in, 32-33 harvesting practices affecting, 95

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INDEX isolated, 32 key factors in identifying, 25-26 life-history information and, 23-24, 25- 26 mating systems of, 27 maximal sustainable yield and, 29 predator introduction into, 26-27 regulation of, 28-29 sex ratios and sex biases in, 34-35 single, 23-37 size estimates of, 29, 30 social interactions among, 27-28 stability of, 29-31 see also Ecological communities; Population interactions; Species Power generation and nuclear radiation effects, 331-344 and raising lake level for hydroelectric project, 317-329 Predation, 52 Predator-prey theory, in California red scale control, 182- 183 Predators as control agents, 26-27, 41 dietary practices of, 40-41 in donor-controlled systems, 41 interactions with prey, 6, 40-42, 309- 310, 324, 329 keystone species of, 6, 55-56 natural resistance of plants to, 41-42 in predator-controlled systems, 41 Prediction of effects for caribou herd, 218-219 for clearcut logging, 353 for cumulativeeffects, 10-11, 100-101, 112-114 for DDT effects, 358-374 for forestry development, 288-290 limitations of, 79 for nuclear radiation effects, 331-344 for Southern Indian Lake project, 317- 330 uncertainties in, see Uncertainty see also Impact assessment Preservation of ecological communities and habitats, 11 Probabilistic thinking, 17 Productivity and fluxes in energy and matter, 61-62 as index of perturbation, 63, 66-67 interactions, 65-66 385 of lakes, variability in, 65-66 and species richness, 53-54 Projects as experiments, 15- 16, 75-80, 87, 111 in California red scale control, 180-181 in caribou studies, 221-222 in halibut fishery management, 145-146 in Lake Washington eutrophication control, 312 in Southern Indian Lake project, 318 in vampire bat control, 159 Propoxur, in malaria control, 194, 196 Puget Sound, Washington, toxic wastes in, 94, 302 R Rabies, 152, 158 Radioecology studies, see Nuclear radiation effects Radionuclides in environment, 331, 332, 335-338, 343-344 in food chain, 333-334, 343-344 see also Ionizing radiation; Nuclear radiation effects Random variation, and uncertainty of management projections, 90 Randomness in ecological systems, 90 Reclamation of derelict lands in Great Britain, 13, 14, 99, 248-273 agricultural techniques in, 252, 257, 267 analog studies in, 264-265 basis of predictions in, 112 committee comment on, 271-273 competition among species in, 263-264 as contribution to ecological knowledge, 267-269 environmental problems in, 250-254 and ethics of deliberate introductions, 254, 266 expert judgments in, 265-266 factors affecting growth rates in, 33 in kaolin wastes, 253 and laissez-faire attitudes, 251-252 low-productivity vegetation in, 253, 257 monitoring in, 254, 255 nutrient status affecting, 252, 256, 261, 263, 273 pilot-scale experiments in, 78

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386 role of ecological knowledge in, 256- 261, 267-268 seminatural grasslands in, 254-256 soil seed banks in, 259, 273 sources of ecological information in, 261-266 successions in, 260-261 sward diversification in, 253-259, 261, 263 theoretical concepts in, 264 yield and relative growth rate in, 254, 257 Recolonization, 72, 99, 364-365, 368, 372. See also Reclamation of derelict lands in Great Britain Recommendations, 15- 17 Red mites, nonsusceptibility to DDT, 362 Red scale control, see California red scale control Regulation of populations, 28-29 Reindeer, cesium-137 concentrations in, 334 Relative growth rate (RGR), 254, 257, 258 Renewable-resource management, 9-10, 14, 137-150, 275-300, 345-357 Reproductive potential (r), 28 harvesting species with low r, 30 Reproductive rate change in, as indicator of stress, 83 and colonizing ability, 71 of mosquitoes, 197, 198, 201 of vampire bats, 154, 164 Resilience, of ecological communities, 56- 57 Resistance to pesticides, evolution of, 10, 35-36, 73, 96 Restoration projects, 12, 248-274 Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 33 Root rot, 169 S Saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea), 34 Salmon, 25, 31, 34, 36, 362 San Joaquin Valley, control of California red scale in, 168, 177, 186 Scales, temporal and spatial, 3, 8-9, 16- 17, 68-74, 96, 98-100, 110 Scoping, in environmental problem solving, 107-109 INDEX Sea birds, and biological monitoring, 84- 85 Seasonal changes, and natural variability, 89 Seattle, Washington, see Lake Washington eutrophication control Seed banks, soil, 259, 273 Seedling yellows (Tristeza), 169 Sensitivity analysis of clearcut logging effects, 352-353, 357 and management plans, 92 of nuclear radiation effects, 337-338 Sewage discharge into Lake Washington, 73, 95, 102, 302-303 Sex biases, 34-35 Sex ratios, 34-35, 36, 37 Size as indicator of age, 32-33 of habitats, 32 harvesting and, 36 Social behavior, and extinction of small populations, 70 Social interactions, 27-28, 70 Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), 34 Soil erosion, see Erosion Soil seed banks, 259, 273 Southern Indian Lake project, 13, 14, 106, 111, 114, 317-330 analog studies of, 76 basis of predictions in, 112- 113 changes in zooplankton community, 323-324, 329 committee comment on, 328-329 compared to Siberian reservoirs, 321 effects on whitefish, 26, 318, 320, 322, 329 experimental nature of, 318 flow diversion in, 72 mercury release in, 96, 323, 329 models used in, 320 nutrient fluxes in, 64-65, 320-321 Redevelopment studies in, 319, 321 retrospective analysis of, 76, 321-326 shoreline erosion in, 320, 321, 322-323 temperature changes in, 323, 328 turbidity of water in, 65, 96, 320, 328- 329 Spatial factors, 3, 8-9, 16-17, 54, 68-74, 96, 99, 110

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INDEX Species and aggregate variables, 7-8 and biological magnification, 6 changes after DDT application, 362 complex linkages among, 4-5 complexity and uncertainty in the study of, 8 composition of, 48-50, 53, 55, 56 and density dependence, 5 diversity, 49-56 effects of competition among, 52-53 effects of predation on, 52 effects of productivity on, 53-54 extinction of, 69-70, 72, 86, 233-237. 365 as indicator of pollution, 83 individuals, 3, 5, 23-37 influence of spatial and temporal scales on, 3, 8-9, 16-17, 54, 68-74, 96, 99, 110 keystone, 5-6, 55-56 number in relationship to area, 68-69 population fragmentation among, 6 richness, 49, 53-54 stability boundaries, 7 see also Ecological communities; Population interactions; Populations; and specific species Specimen banking, 85-86 Spotted owl conservation, 13, 14, 110, 227-247 committee comment on, 245-247 demographic factors in, 28, 32, 246 dispersal patterns in, 230, 232-233, 238-239 environmental problems in, 229-232 estimation of population in, 240 genetic factors in, 230, 231, 234-237 habitats in, 26, 229-230, 232, 238-239, 241-242 issues involved in, 231-232 management units in, 231 monitoring in, 242 planning process for, 237-242 and risk of extinction, 233-237, 246 role of ecological knowledge in, 232- 237, 242-243 Spotted owl management area (SOMA), 231, 242 Spruce (Picea species), 284, 287 Spruce budworms, see Budworms 387 Stability of populations, 7, 29-31, 56-57 Stand-level considerations, in forest management, see Forest management program in New Brunswick Starfish (Pilaster), 46 Sterile male flies, used in screwworm control, 27 Striped bass (Roccus saxatilis), 149 Strix occidentalis (spotted owl), see Spotted owl conservation Strontium-90, 336 Study boundaries, establishment of, 109- 110 Subarctic lake, raising the level of, see Southern Indian Lake project Subsoils, nutrient-deficient, in Great Britain, 254-256, 260, 261, 262, 263 Substitutions, in ecological communities, 58 Successions, in ecological communities, 58-60, 72, 260-261 Sulfur, 63, 64 Sustainable Development of Biosphere project, 100 Sward diversification, and reclamation of derelict lands in Great Britain, 253- 259, 262, 263, 267 T Taxonomic collections, lack of, 86 Temporal factors, 3, 8-9, 68-74. 96, 110 Tetrachlorodiphenylethane (TDE), 361 Thresholds in ecological systems, 7 Thrips (Scirothrips citri), 169 Timber yield, 275-306 Toxic substances, 11, 39 biological concentrations of, 63-64 and biological monitoring, 81-82 defensive chemicals as, 41-42 and derelict lands in Great Britain, 249, 250-251 dispersal of, 94 in food chain, 93-94, 99-100 interactions of, 96 in plants, 41-42 in vampire bat control, 154-158 see also DDT; Pesticides; Pollutants; Radionuclides

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388 Tree lupine (Lupinus arborous), 253 Trees, see Forest clearcutting; Forest management program in New Brunswick; Forests Triaenophorus crassus (parasitic cestode), in Lake Washington, 318 Typhus, DOT in control of, 359 U Uncertainty, 3, 88-92 and errors of estimation, 90-91 and lack of knowledge, 91 and natural variability, 89-90 preparation for, 17 and problem-solving, 8 and random variations, 90 sources of, 88-91 and use of monitoring studies, 79 Unit of Comparative Ecology, Sheffield University, Great Britain, 263, 265- 266 United Nations, 366 Upper Salmon Hydroelectric Development, and caribou protection, 205-226 U.S.-Canadian fishery agreements, 138- 139 V Vampire bat control, 13, 14, 27-28, 151- 164 anticoagulants in, 35, 155-158 committee comment on, 163-164 effectiveness of, 160 environmental problems in, 153 as experiment, 159 methods for, 154- 158 pilot studies in, 159 reproduction potential of bats, 28 research studies in, 153- 154 role of ecological knowledge in, 158- 159 systemic treatment of cattle in, 154-155, 157-158 INDEX topical treatment of bats in, 155-157, 158 training for procedures in, 159 vaccines in, 158 Vegetation, restoration of, see Reclamation of derelict lands in Great Britain W Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), in Southern Indian Lake, 322, 323 Wasps, see Aphytis species Wastelands, reclamation of, see Reclamation of derelict lands in Great Britain West Africa, experimental control of malaria in, 190-204 Whales, 28, 32 Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), in Southern Indian Lake, 318, 320, 322 Wilderness Act of 1964, 229 Wolves (Cants lupus), 32, 228 Wood supply, see Forest clearcutting; Forest management program in New Brunswick; Forests Wood Supply and Forest Productivity (WOSFOR) model, in forest management program, 288-289, 290 Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus), 208 World Health Organization, 191, 360 y Yield of halibut, 137-138 maximal, 29, 91, 106, 137-138 of timber, 275-300 z Zooplankton in Lake Washington, 309-310 in Southern Indian Lake, 323-324, 329