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would just comment on a couple of variables that may be contributing to that confusing picture, and that is that some cytokine systems may be differentially upregulated, playing a role that you do not know, and also adrenalectomized animals would have very high ACTH levels. ACTH is an immune modulator independent of glucocorticoids. β-endorphin would be high, and that is also an immune modulator. So you have several little variables that you do not know about, and those could then be partially responsible for some of the confusion of the results you are seeing with the adrenalectomy.

BRUCE BISTRIAN: There is a wide range of physiological function between what our daily lives are and what extreme stresses are. Are we really looking at normal variabilities? Unless there is some serious consequence, unless there is some serious [change in] infection rate, or some serious change in the quality of life, or unless there is some serious problem with this, is there any problem? Are we just investigating what is a normal variant when you put a human organism to another range?

PÅL WIIK: It is certain that what we are observing is a physiological response to exercise with no sleep and almost no food for 7 days. And we really have no problem during this period of time. However, if you are trying to make them go through this for a long period of time, you would have problems with immunity and consequently infections are demonstrated for the U.S. Ranger studies.



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