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Nevertheless, Sonnenberg and coworkers include assays of IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and β, and IFN-γ in PBMC supernatants of shuttle astronauts (G. Sonnenfeld, University of Kentucky, Louisville, personal communication, 1997). The influence of exercise on IL-1 and IL-2 and on IL-2 receptors has been reviewed by Shephard and coworkers (1995).
Natural Killer Cell Activity
Natural killer cytolytic activity is assessed by measuring the in vivo release of radiolabeled chromium from target cells, usually a human myeloid tumor cell line.
Bloom, B.R., R.L. Modlin, and P. Salgame. 1992. Stigma variations: observations on suppressor T cells and leprosy. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 10:453-88.
Luster, M.I., C. Portier, D.G. Pait, G.J. Rosenthal, D.R. Germolec, E. Corsini, B.L. Blaylock, P. Pollock, Y. Kouchi, and W. Craig. 1993. Risk assessment in immunotoxicology. II. Relationships between immune and host resistance tests. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 21(1):71-82.
Luster, M.I., C. Portier, D.G. Pait, K.L. White Jr., C. Gennings, A.E. Munson, G.J. Rosenthal. 1992. Risk assessment in immunotoxicology. I. Sensitivity and predictability of immune tests. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 18(2):200-210.
Moldawer, L.L. 1997. The validity of blood and urinary cytokine measurements for detecting the presence of inflammation. Pp. 417-430 in Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability, S.J. Carlson-Newberry and R.B. Costello, eds. Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Nerad, J.L., J.K. Griffiths, J.W. Van der Meer, S. Endres, D.D. Poutsiaka, G.T. Keusch, M. Bennish, M.A. Salam, C.A. Dinarello, and J.G. Cannon. 1992. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-1 receptor antagonist, and TNF alpha production in whole blood. J. Leukoc. Biol. 52(6):687-692.
Shephard, R.J., S. Rhind, and P.N. Shek. 1994a. Exercise and the immune system. Natural killer cells, interleukins and related responses. Sports Med. 18(5):340-69.
Shephard, R.J., and P.N. Shek. 1995. Exercise, aging and immune function. Int. J. Sports Med. 16(1):1-6.
Straight, J.M., H.M. Kipen, R.F. Vogt, and R.W. Amler. 1994. Immune Function Test Batteries for Use in Environmental Health Studies. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Publication Number: PB94-204328.
Virella, G., C. Enockson, and M. La Via. 1997. New approaches to the study of abnormal immune function. Pp. 431-450 in Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability, S.J. Carlson-Newberry and R.B. Costello, eds. Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.