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--> F Biographical Sketches Committee on Military Nutrition Research ROBERT O. NESHEIM (Chair, through June 30, 1998) was vice president of research and development and later of science and technology for the Quaker Oats Company; he retired in 1983. Before his retirement in 1992, he was vice president of science and technology and president of the Advanced Health Care Division of Avadyne, Inc. During World War II, he served as captain in the U.S. Army. Dr. Nesheim has served on the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) Food and Nutrition Board (FNB), currently chairing the Committee on Military Nutrition Research and formerly chairing the Committee on Food Consumption Patterns and serving as a member of several other committees. He also was active in the Biosciences Information Service (as board chairman), American Medical Association, American Institute of Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and Food Reviews International editorial board. Dr. Nesheim's academic services included professor
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--> and head of the Department of Animal Science at the University of Illinois, Urbana. He is a fellow of the American Institute of Nutrition and American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of several professional organizations. Dr. Nesheim holds a B.S. in agriculture, an M.S. in animal science, and a Ph.D. in nutrition and animal science from the University of Illinois. JOHN E. VANDERVEEN (Chair) is the retired director of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages in Washington, D.C. His previous position at the FDA was director of the Division of Nutrition, at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. He also served in various capacities at the U.S. Air Force (USAF) School of Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. He has received accolades for service from the FDA and the USAF. Dr. Vanderveen is a member of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Institute of Nutrition, Aerospace Medical Association, American Dairy Science Association, Institute of Food Technologists, and American Chemical Society. In the past, he was the treasurer of the American Society of Clinical Nutrition and a member of the Institute of Food Technology, National Academy of Sciences Advisory Committee. Dr. Vanderveen holds a B. S. in agriculture from Rutgers University, New Jersey, and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of New Hampshire. LAWRENCE E. ARMSTRONG is an associate professor of exercise science at the University of Connecticut. He has joint appointments in the Department of Physiology and Neurobiology and the Department of Nutritional Sciences. Dr. Armstrong received his Ph.D. in human bioenergetics—exercise physiology from Ball State University. His research interests include thermoregulation, fluid electrolyte balance, energy metabolism, exercise physiology, and the human heat illnesses. He previously served as a research physiologist at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and a member of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology and the Aerospace Medical Association. WILLIAM R. BEISEL is adjunct professor in the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. He held several positions at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick, Maryland, including in turn, chief of the Physical Sciences Division, scientific advisor, and deputy for science. He then became special assistant for biotechnology to the Surgeon General. After serving in the U.S. military during the Korean War, Dr. Beisel was the chief of medicine at the U.S. Army Hospital in Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, before becoming the chief of the Department of Metabolism at the Walter Reed Army Hospital. He was awarded a Commendation Ribbon, Bronze Star for the Korean War, Hoff Gold Medal at
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--> the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, B. L. Cohen Award of the American Society for Microbiology, the Robert Herman Award from the American Association for Clinical Nutrition, and Department of Army Decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service. He was named a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine and a fellow of the American College of Physicians. In addition to his many professional memberships, Dr. Beisel is a Clinical Nutrition contributing editor and Journal of Nutritional Immunology associate editor. He received his A.B. from Muhlenberg College in Allentown, Pennsylvania, and M.D. from the Indiana University School of Medicine. GAIL E. BUTTERFIELD is director of nutrition research, Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System in California. Concurrently, she is lecturer in the Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical School; visiting assistant professor in the Program of Human Biology, Stanford University; and director of nutrition in the Program in Sports Medicine, Stanford University Medical School. Her previous academic appointments were at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Butterfield belongs to the American Institute of Nutrition, American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Dietetic Association, and American Physiological Society. As a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, she serves as chair of the Pronouncements Committee and was recently elected vice president; she also was president and executive director of the Southwest Chapter of this organization. She is a member of the Respiratory and Applied Physiology Study Section of the NIH (National Institutes of Health) and is on the editorial boards of the following journals: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Health and Fitness Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, Canadian Journal of Clinical Sports Medicine, and International Journal of Sports Nutrition. Dr. Butterfield earned her A.B. in biological sciences, M.A. in anatomy, and M.S. and Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California, Berkeley, and she is a registered dietitian. Her current research interests include nutrition in exercise, effect of growth factors on protein metabolism in the elderly, and metabolic fuel use in women exposed to high altitude. WANDA L. CHENOWETH (from September 18, 1996) is professor in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Michigan State University. Previously, she held positions as teaching associate at the University of Iowa and University of California, Berkeley. Other work experience includes positions as research dietitian and head clinical dietitian at the University of Iowa Hospitals and research dietitian at Mayo Clinic. She is a member of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, American Dietetic Association, and Institute of Food Technology. She serves as a reviewer for several journals, including the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and Journal of Nutrition, and is a member of the associate editorial board of Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. She has served on a
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--> technical review committee for the Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Program of the National Cancer Institute and as a site evaluator, Commission on Evaluation of Dietetic Education of the American Dietetic Association. Her research interests are in the area of mineral bioavailability and clinical nutrition. Dr. Chenoweth completed a B.S. in dietetics at the University of Iowa, dietetic internship and M.S. in nutrition at the University of Iowa, and Ph.D. in nutrition at the University of California, Berkeley. JOHN D. FERNSTROM is professor of psychiatry, pharmacology, and behavioral neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and director, Basic Neuroendocrinology Program at the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic. He received his S.B. in biology and his Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He was a postdoctoral fellow in neuroendocrinology at the Roche Institute for Molecular Biology in Nutley, New Jersey. Before coming to the University of Pittsburgh, Dr. Fernstrom was an assistant and then associate professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at MIT. He has served on numerous governmental advisory committees. He presently is a member of the National Advisory Council of the Monell Chemical Senses Center, chair of the Neurosciences Section of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences (ASNS), and a member of the ASNS Council. He is a member of numerous professional societies, including the American Institute of Nutrition, American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Physiological Society, American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, American Society for Neurochemistry, Society for Neuroscience, and Endocrine Society. Among other awards, Dr. Fernstrom received the Mead-Johnson Award of the American Institute of Nutrition, a Research Scientist Award from the National Institute of Mental Health, a Wellcome Visiting Professorship in the Basic Medical Sciences, and an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in Neurochemistry. His current major research interest concerns the influence of the diet and drugs on the synthesis of neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. G. RICHARD JANSEN (through August 31, 1997) is professor emeritus in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Colorado State University, where he was head of the department from 1969 to 1990. He was a research fellow at the Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research and senior research biochemist in the Electrochemical Department at E. I. DuPont de Nemours. Prior to his stint in private industry, he served in the U.S. Air Force. Dr. Jansen is a past member of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Human Nutrition Board of Scientific Counselors and the Journal of Nutrition, Nutrition Reports International , and Plant Foods for Human Nutrition editorial boards. His research interests deal with protein-energy relationships during lactation and new foods for developing countries based on low-cost extrusion cooking. He received the Babcock—Hart Award of the Institute of Food
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--> Technologists and a Certificate of Merit from the USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development for his work on low-cost extrusion cooking, and he is a fellow of the IFT. He is a member of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, Institute of Food Technologists, and American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology among others. Dr. Jansen holds a B.A. in chemistry and Ph.D. in biochemistry from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. ROBIN B. KANAREK is professor of psychology and of nutrition at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts, where she also is the chair of psychology. Her prior experience includes Research Fellow, Division of Endocrinology, University of California—Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Medicine and research fellow in Nutrition at Harvard University. In addition to reviewing for several journals, including Science, Brain Research Bulletin, Journal of Nutrition, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and Annals of Internal Medicine, she is an editorial board member of Physiology and Behavior and the Tufts Diet and Nutrition Newsletter and is a past editor-in-chief of Nutrition and Behavior . Dr. Kanarek has served on ad hoc review committees for the National Science Foundation, NIH, and USDA Nutrition Research, as well as the Member Program Committee of the Eastern Psychological Association. She is a fellow of the American College of Nutrition, and her other professional memberships include the American Institute of Nutrition, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, and Society for Neurosciences. Dr. Kanarek received a B.A. in biology from Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, and M.S. and Ph.D. in psychology from Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. ORVILLE A. LEVANDER is research leader for the USDA Nutrient Requirements and Functions Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland. He was research chemist at the USDA's Human Nutrition Research Center, resident fellow in biochemistry at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons, and research associate at Harvard University's School of Public Health. Dr. Levander served on the FNB's Committee on the Recommended Dietary Allowances. He also served on panels of the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee on Animal Nutrition and Committee on the Biological Effects of Environmental Pollutants. He was a member of the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Nutrition Sciences and temporary advisor to the World Health Organization's Environmental Health Criteria Document on Selenium. Dr. Levander was awarded the Osborne and Mendel Award by the American Institute of Nutrition. His society memberships include the American Institute of Nutrition, American Chemical Society, and American Society for Clinical Nutrition. Dr. Levander received his B.A. from Cornell University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin—Madison.
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--> GILBERT A. LEVEILLE (through December 31, 1996) recently retired as vice president for research and technical services at the Nabisco Foods Group in East Hanover, New Jersey. His other industry experience was as the director of nutrition and health science for the General Foods Corporation. He was chair and professor of food science and human nutrition at Michigan State University, professor of nutritional biochemistry at the University of Illinois—Urbana, and a biochemist at the U.S. Army Medical Research and Nutrition Laboratory in Colorado. Dr. Leveille was a member of the Committee on International Nutrition, a joint FNB—Board on International Health project. He won a research award from the Poultry Science Association, the Mead Johnson Research Award from the American Institute of Nutrition, the Distinguished Faculty Award from Michigan State University, and the Carl R. Fellers Award from the Institute of Food Technologists. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Institute of Nutrition (past president), American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Chemical Society, Institute of Food Technologists (past president), and Sigma Xi. Dr. Leveille received his B.V.A. from the University of Massachusetts and M.S. and Ph.D. in nutrition and biochemistry from Rutgers University, New Jersey. ESTHER STERNBERG is chief of the Section on Neuroendocrine Immunology and Behavior, and associate branch chief of the Clinical Neuroendocrinology Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program at NIH. Dr. Sternberg received her M.D. degree and trained in rheumatology at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. She did postdoctoral training at Washington University, Barnes Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, in the Division of Allergy and Immunology. She was subsequently a Howard Hughes Associate and instructor in medicine at Washington University and Barnes Hospital before joining NIH. Dr. Sternberg is internationally recognized for her ground-breaking discoveries in the area of central nervous system—immune system interactions. She has received the Arthritis Foundation William R. Felts Award for Excellence in Rheumatology Research Publications, has been awarded the Public Health Service Superior Service Award, and has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation in recognition of this work. Dr. Sternberg is also internationally recognized as a foremost authority on the l-tryptophan eosinophilia myalgia syndrome (L-TRP-EMS). She was the first to describe this syndrome in relation to a similar drug 1-5-hydroxytryptophan, and published this landmark article in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1980. DOUGLAS W. WILMORE, the Frank Sawyer Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School, is a senior staff scientist and surgeon at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston,Massachusetts. Concurrently, he is also a consultant for the Dana-Farber Cancer Center, Children's Hospital Medical Center, the Beth Israel/Deaconess Hospital, Wrentham State School, and Youville Hospital
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--> and Rehabilitation Center. Dr. Wilmore's main interests are related to metabolic and nutritional means to support critically ill patients and enhance recovery. His basic research has been applied to patients with thermal and accidental injury, with infectious complications, and multiple organ failure. He worked with the team that developed the current method of intravenous nutrition used for patients throughout the world. This technique has been improved in Dr. Wilmore's laboratory; new amino acid solutions have been developed utilizing the amino acid glutamine, and anabolic factors such as growth hormone have been incorporated in to this new feeding program with dramatic therapeutic results. Dr. Wilmore serves on the advisory board of the Tufts Pediatric Trauma Center, international editorial committee of the Chinese Nutritional Sciences Journal of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and editorial boards of Annals of Surgery and Journal of the American College of Surgeons. He is senior editor of Scientific American Surgery , the surgical text published by the American College of Surgeons that serves as the basis for the care of general surgical patients. He also has published more than 300 scientific papers and 4 books. Among his professional memberships, Dr. Wilmore includes the American College of Surgeons, American Surgical Association, American Medical Association, Society of University Surgeons, and American Society for Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition. He holds a B.A. and honorary Ph.D. from Washburn University of Topeka, M.D. from the University of Kansas School of Medicine in Kansas City, and honorary M.S. from Harvard University. JOHANNA T. DWYER (FNB Liaison) is the director of the Frances Stern Nutrition Center at New England Medical Center and professor in the Departments of Medicine and of Community Health at the Tufts Medical School and School of Nutrition Science and Policy in Boston. She is also senior scientist at the Jean Mayer–USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts. Dr. Dwyer is the author or coauthor of more than 120 research articles and 200 review articles published in scientific journals. Her work centers on life-cycle-related concerns such as the prevention of diet-related disease in children and adolescents and the maximization of quality of life and health in the elderly. She also has a long-standing interest in vegetarian and other alternative life-styles. Dr. Dwyer is a past president of the American Institute of Nutrition, past secretary of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, and past president and current fellow of the Society for Nutrition Education. She served on the Program Development Board of the American Public Health Association from 1989 to 1992 and is a member of the FNB, the Technical Advisory Committee of the Nutrition Screening Initiative, and the Board of Directors of the American Institute of Wine and Food. As a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow (1980–1981), she served on the personal staffs of Senators Richard Lugar (R-Indiana) and Barbara Mikulski (D-Maryland).
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--> Dr. Dwyer has received numerous honors and awards for her work in the field of nutrition, including the 1996 W.O. Atwater Award of the USDA and J. Harvey Wiley Award from the Society for Nutrition Education. She gave the Lenna Frances Cooper Lecture at the annual meeting of the American Dietetic Association in 1990. Dr. Dwyer is currently editor of Nutrition Today, on the editorial board of Family Economics and Nutrition Review and the advisory board of Clinics in Applied Nutrition, and is a contributing editor for Nutrition Reviews, as well as a reviewer for the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and American Journal of Public Health. She received her D.Sc. and M.Sc. from the Harvard School of Public Health and an M.S. from the University of Wisconsin, and completed her undergraduate degree with distinction from Cornell University. REBECCA B. COSTELLO (Project Director, through May 1998) was project director for the Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) and Committee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women (BCNH). Prior to joining the FNB staff, she served as research associate and program director for the Risk Factor Reduction Center, a referral center for the detection, modification, and prevention of cardiovascular disease through dietary and/or drug interventions at the Washington Adventist Hospital in Takoma Park, Maryland. She received her B.S. and M.S. in biology from the American University, Washington, D.C., and a Ph.D. in clinical nutrition from the University of Maryland at College Park. She has active membership in the American Institute of Nutrition, American College of Nutrition, American Dietetic Association, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology. Dr. Costello's areas of research interest include mineral nutrition, dietary intake methodology, and chronic disease epidemiology. MARY I. POOS (Project Director) joined the IOM's Food and Nutrition Board in November 1997. She has been a project director for the National Academy of Sciences since 1990. Prior to officially joining the FNB staff, she served as a project director for the NRC's Board on Agriculture for more than seven years, two of which were spent on loan to the FNB. Her work with the FNB includes senior staff officer for the IOM report The Program of Research for Military Nursing, and study director for the reports A Review of the Department of Defense's Program for Breast Cancer Research and Vitamin C Fortification of Food Aid Commodities. Currently, she also serves as study director to the Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and directs the planning activities in Global Food and Nutrition. While working with the Board on Agriculture, Dr. Poos was responsible for the Committee on Animal Nutrition and directed the production of seven reports in the Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals series, including a letter report to the commissioner of the FDA concerning the importance of selenium in animal nutrition. Prior to joining the National Academy of Sciences she was
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--> consultant/owner of Nutrition Consulting Services of Greenfield, Massachusetts; assistant professor in the Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and adjunct assistant professor in the Department of Animal Sciences, University of Vermont. She received her B.S. in biology from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, and a Ph.D. in animal sciences (nutrition/biochemistry) from the University of Kentucky, and completed a postdoctoral fellowship in the Department of Animal Sciences Area of Excellence Program at the University of Nebraska. Dr. Poos's areas of research interest include protein and nitrogen metabolism and nutrition–reproduction interactions. SYDNE J. CARLSON-NEWBERRY (Program Officer) is program officer for the CMNR and BCNH. Prior to joining the FNB staff, she served as project director for the Women's Health Project and adjunct assistant professor in the Department of Family Medicine, Wright State University School of Medicine; as a behavioral health educator for a hospital-based weight management program in Dayton, Ohio; and as a research associate at the Ohio State University Biotechnology Center. She received her B.A. from Brandeis University and her Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry and metabolism from MIT and completed an NIH postdoctoral fellowship in the Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics at Ohio State. Dr. Carlson-Newberry's areas of research interest include eating disorders and diabetes management. Authors MELINDA A. BECK is an assistant professor of pediatrics and a fellow at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She has a Ph.D. in medical microbiology and immunology from Ohio State University, Columbus; an M.S. in biological sciences from California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo; and a B.A. in zoology from the University of California, Berkeley. Her work focuses on the influences of antioxidant nutrients on viral pathogenesis. RANJIT KUMAR CHANDRA is research professor and director of immunology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada. He is also an adjunct professor at John Hopkins University School of Hygiene, New York Medical College, and the University of Napoli. He is the founding editor-in-chief of the monthly peer-reviewed journal Nutrition Research. Dr. Chandra has served on several advisory committees of the World Health Organization, International Union of Nutritional Sciences, Health Canada and the NIH. He was President of the 16th International Congress of Nutrition held in Montreal in 1997. Previously, Dr. Chandra served as visiting professor of nutritional immunology and associate
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--> program director of the Clinical Research Centre, MIT, and lecturer in pediatrics at Harvard Medical School. He was an assistant professor of pediatrics at the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Dr. Chandra is a member of 21 scientific societies and has received six honorary doctoral degrees. Dr. Chandra received an MBBS degree from Punjab University and an M.D. from the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences. Dr. Chandra is an officer of the Order of Canada. SUSANNA CUNNINGHAM-RUNDLES is associate professor of immunology and vice chair for academic affairs in the Department of Pediatrics of Cornell University Medical College in New York City where she directs the Immunology Research Laboratory. She also is director of the Immunology Core Laboratory for the Clinical Research Nutrition Unit, an NIH-funded consortium among Cornell University, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and the Rockefeller University. She is chair of the Immunology Working Group for the Hemophilia Growth and Development Study Group, a national group of investigators studying hemophilia. Dr. Cunningham-Rundles is currently the chair of the Scientific Advisory Panel, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development: Adolescent Medicine HIV/AIDS Research Network, and recently completed a 2-year term as chair of the Microbial Immunology Review Group Study Section, AIDS and Related Diseases, ARR-1. She is a member of the Pediatric Advisory Committee of the Pediatric AIDS Foundation and the Scientific Advisory Committee of the American Foundation for AIDS Research. She is a fellow of the American Institute of Nutrition and American Academy of Microbiology and is currently serving a 2-year term as divisional group representative for the American Society for Microbiology. Dr. Cunningham-Rundles received her Ph.D. in biochemical genetics from New York University and postdoctoral training in immunobiology and immunogenetics at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. KARL E. FRIEDL is deputy director of the Army Operational Medicine Research Program at the U.S. Amy Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC), Fort Detrick, Maryland. Prior to this assignment, he was an Army Research Physiologist in the Occupational Physiology Division at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), where he specialized in the physical and biochemical limits of prolonged, intensive military training. Previously, LTC Friedl worked in the Department of Clinical Investigation at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington, performing studies in endocrine physiology. He received his Ph.D. in physiology in 1984 from the Institute of Environmental Stress at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
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--> ERHARD HAUS is a professor in the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology of the University of Minnesota and chairman of the Department of Pathology of Health Partners and Regions Hospital in St. Paul, Minnesota. Dr. Haus is president of the American Association of Medical Chronobiology and Chronotherapeutics (AAMCC), honorary member of the Romanian Academy of Medical Sciences, member of the Endocrine Society, honorary member of the Romanian Society of Endocrinology, member of American Association for Cancer Research, the American Association of Clinical Pathologists, and several other professional organizations. Dr. Haus is involved in the study of the human time structure and the application of temporal parameters, diagnosis and treatment in human medicine. Dr. Haus has edited two books on medical chronobiology and published extensively on related topics. LEONARD P. KAPCALA graduated from the University of Scranton with a B.S. in biology in 1970 and from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in 1974 with his M.D. Subsequently, he received training in internal medicine at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and clinical and research training in endocrinology at the Tufts New England Medical Center. His first faculty position as assistant professor was at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. He is presently an associate professor of medicine and physiology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. Dr. Kapcala is also a member of the university's Center for Studies in Reproduction and the Graduate School faculty. His neuroendocrinological research focus has been on the regulatory relationships of stress neuropeptides (corticotropin-releasing hormone, β-endorphin, adrenocorticotropin) in brain. More recently, his research has focused on several aspects of immune–neuroendocrine interactions including (1) the protective role of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis against inflammatory stress, (2) immune-cytokine regulation of stress neuropeptides in brain, and (3) immune-cytokine regulation of cytokine gene expression in brain. Dr. Kapcala's basic research has been funded continuously since 1985 by federal grants from the NIH and the Veterans Administration. He is the author of more than 90 peer-reviewed publications, abstracts, and chapters. He is the founding coordinator of the Baltimore–Washington Stress Society and the Maryland Endocrine Society and hold memberships in the Society for Neuroscience and the Endocrine Society. DARSHAN KELLEY is a research chemist at the Western Human Nutrition Research Center (WHNRC), San Francisco, CA. Dr. Kelley previously served as a research leader at the WHNRC, and research assistant professor at the West Virginia University. Dr. Kelley is a member of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the American Institute of Nutrition, the American Diabetic Association, and the International Immunology Group.
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--> Dr. Kelley received a B.Sc. in Agriculture and M.Sc. in Biochemistry from Punjab Agricultural University, and a Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Oklahoma University. GERALD T. KEUSCH is professor of medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine, chief of the Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases at the New England Medical School, and a faculty associate at Harvard Institute for International Development. His research interests include defining the role of nutrition in the host immune response and the interactions of malnutrition and infection, and he is currently chair of the U.S. component of the Nutrition and Metabolism Panel for the U.S.–Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program. Dr. Keusch previously served on the FNB's Committee on International Nutrition Programs, and he is a former member and chair of its Subcommittee on the Interaction of Nutrition and Infection. Dr. Keusch is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, as well as many other professional societies. He obtained his A.B. in art history from Columbia College and an M.D. from Harvard Medical School. TIM R. KRAMER is a research biologist at the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center in Maryland. He received his Ph.D. in medical sciences with emphasis in pathology and immunology in 1973 and M.S. in medical microbiology and immunology in 1970 from the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City. He spent 1973–1976 as a research fellow at the Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, New York City, and 1976–1979 as an assistant professor in pathology at Saint Louis University School of Medicine, during which he spent 2 years at the Anemia and Malnutrition Research Center in Chiang Mai, Thailand. In 1979, he joined the USDA–ARS as a research microbiologist at the Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, North Dakota, followed by transfer to his current position in 1988. He currently serves as the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Nutritional Immunology. SIMIN NIKBIN MEYDANI is professor of nutrition and immunology at Tufts University and chief of the Nutritional Immunology Laboratory at the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, where she directs studies related to the impact of nutritional factors on the immune response of the elderly. Her research interests focus on the effect of nutrients on immune responses of the young and the aged, with emphasis on the role of arachidonic acid metabolites, the molecular mechanisms, and clinical implications of antioxidant and prooxidant nutrient-induced changes in the aging immune response. She is the recipient of several awards, including the 1998 Lederle Award in Nutrition Research, Tufts University Outstanding Faculty Award for 1996, 1994 HERMES Vitamin Research Award, 1993
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--> Nutritional Immunology Group Award, Denham Harman Lecture Award of the American College for the Advancement in Medicine, Alborz Institute Award, and Pahlavi Royal Gold Medal. Dr. Meydani is a member of the American Association of Immunologists, the American Institute of Nutrition, the American College of Nutrition, the American Aging Association, the Gerontological Society of America, the International Nutritional Immunology Group, and numerous other professional scientific societies. She has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Nutritional Immunology, Nutrition Research, and Journal of Nutrition. DAVID C. NIEMAN graduated from Loma Linda University in 1984 with the doctor of public health degree. Prior to this time, he had taught health and physical education for 8 years at the collegiate level. From 1984 to 1990, he was assistant and associate professor in the School of Public Health, Loma Linda University. He presently is professor of health and exercise science at Appalachian State University in North Carolina. His research focus from 1985 to the present, has been on obesity, sports, nutrition, aging, and exercise immunology, with more than 85 peer-reviewed publications in journals and books. He is also the primary author of three textbooks on sports medicine, physical fitness, and nutrition, and a coauthor on two others. Dr. Nieman sits on the editorial boards of the International Journal of Sports Nutrition; Sports Medicine, Training, and Rehabilitation ; and Exercise Immunology Annual. He also serves as president-elect of the International Society of Exercise and Immunology. LAURA C. RALL is currently assistant professor, foods and nutrition, and the American Dietetic Association Didactic Program Director at the University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point. She received a B.A. in sociology/community health, M.S. in nutrition, and Ph.D. in nutritional sciences from Tufts University. She is a member of the American Dietetic Association and American Society for Nutritional Sciences. SEYMOUR REICHLIN is research professor of medicine at the University of Arizona College of Medicine, where he conducts research on neuroendocrine immunomodulation. His previous academic appointment was as professor of medicine, chief of the Endocrine Division, and director of the General Research Center at the Tufts–New England Medical Center. Dr. Reichlin has also been professor and chair of the Department of Medical and Pediatric Specialties, University of Connecticut, and professor of medicine and chief of the Endocrine Division at the University of Rochester School of Medicine. He has served on the Council of the National Institute of Kidney, Diabetes, and Digestive Disease and among other organizational activities is a fellow of the American Association for Advancement of Science and of the American Academy of Arts and Science; he has as president of the Endocrine
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--> Society, the Association of Research in Nervous and Mental Diseases, and the Pituitary Society. He received a B.A. in biology from Antioch College, M.D. from Washington University, and Ph.D. in physiology from the University of London. JEFFREY L. ROSSIO is a senior scientist for SAIC, Inc., at the National Cancer Institute–Frederick Cancer Research & Development Center (NCI-FCRDC) in Frederick, Maryland. He works in the AIDS Vaccine Program, specializing in measurement of human and non–human primate immune responses. From 1984 to 1992, Dr. Rossio was head of Clinical Immunology Services and also directed the Cytokine Testing Laboratories at NCI-FCRDC. He is the incoming chairman (1998) of the Clinical and Diagnostic Immunology Division (Division V) of the American Society of Microbiology. Dr. Rossio is also an associate professor of biology at Hood College in Frederick, Maryland. He is a member of several professional organizations, serves on the editorial board of Clinical and Diagnostic Immunology , and has published many research papers and books. Dr. Rossio received his B.S. from the University of Michigan, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in microbiology and immunology from the Ohio State University. He served a postdoctoral fellowship in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston. RICHARD D. SEMBA is an assistant professor, Department of Ophthalmology, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland. He received his B.S. from Yale University in 1978, M.A. and M.D. from Stanford University in 1983, and M.P.H. form the Johns Hopkins University in 1991. He was a resident in ophthalmology at the Wilmer Institute from 1984 to 1987 and has been a faculty member in the School of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University for 10 years. Dr. Semba serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Nutrition. He has been active in research on vitamin A deficiency for nearly a decade, and his research interests include the role of vitamin A in immunity and response to infection, and the role of nutrition in the pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS. RONALD L. SHIPPEE entered active military service in 1970 and completed the Infantry Officer's Basic Course and the U.S. Army Aviation Rotary Wing Course. LTC Shippee then served a combat tour in Vietnam, assigned to an Air Calvary Troop. Shortly after returning from Vietnam, he left active military duty to complete an M.S. and Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry at the University of Connecticut. After graduate school, he returned to active military service and served as a research biochemist and chief of clinical chemistry at the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, Texas. From April 1992 to August 1996, LTC Shippee was assigned to USARIEM in Natick, Massachusetts. During this period, LTC Shippee served as
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--> the principal investigator on numerous studies designed to determine the interaction of nutritional status and host resistance of soldiers involved in U.S. Army Special Operations Training. He is currently the deputy commander, chief of technical services, U.S. Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing Laboratory, Fort George Meade, Maryland. PÅL WIIK has been a principal scientist at the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment since 1992. He received his M.D. in 1981 and his Ph.D. in 1989 from the University of Oslo. He was awarded a postdoctoral grant from the Norwegian Research Council from 1989 to 1991. At the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Dr. Wiik has especially been working with studies of the effects of military stress on the immune system.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: