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INDEX

A

α1-antitrypsin

definition, 528

See also Acute-phase proteins;

Proteins

Abbott Laboratories. See Ross Products Division, Abbott Laboratories (ROSS)

Acetylcholine (ACH), 72, 461

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV), 37, 39, 398, 449-450, 543-544, 545, 547

exercise effects on, 375

exercise practical recommendations for, 375-376

sports, close-contact, transmission of, findings, 374-375

vitamin A deficiency and, 282, 283, 284

vitamin C and E supplementation effects on, 263, 290, 294-295

wasting syndrome of, exercise effects on, 375

See also AIDS-related complex (ARC);

Diseases and disorders;

Emerging infections;

Infectious diseases and disorders

Acquired immunity. See Antigen-specific immunity

ACTH. See Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)

Activation phase, 517-519, 521

definition, 527

See also Antigen-specific immunity;

Immune response (IR)

Active nonspecific defense mechanisms, 512-513

See also Host defense mechanisms;

Nonspecific immunity

Acute-phase proteins, 43, 515

See also α1-antitrypsin;

C-reactive protein (CRP);

Haptoglobin;

Orosomucoid;

Proteins

Acute-phase reactions, 3, 6, 11, 13-14, 126, 132-133, 133-134, 514-515

See also Immunity;

Nonspecific immunity

Acute-phase response, 13, 133, 361, 391-392

See also Liver



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--> INDEX A α1-antitrypsin definition, 528 See also Acute-phase proteins; Proteins Abbott Laboratories. See Ross Products Division, Abbott Laboratories (ROSS) Acetylcholine (ACH), 72, 461 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV), 37, 39, 398, 449-450, 543-544, 545, 547 exercise effects on, 375 exercise practical recommendations for, 375-376 sports, close-contact, transmission of, findings, 374-375 vitamin A deficiency and, 282, 283, 284 vitamin C and E supplementation effects on, 263, 290, 294-295 wasting syndrome of, exercise effects on, 375 See also AIDS-related complex (ARC); Diseases and disorders; Emerging infections; Infectious diseases and disorders Acquired immunity. See Antigen-specific immunity ACTH. See Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) Activation phase, 517-519, 521 definition, 527 See also Antigen-specific immunity; Immune response (IR) Active nonspecific defense mechanisms, 512-513 See also Host defense mechanisms; Nonspecific immunity Acute-phase proteins, 43, 515 See also α1-antitrypsin; C-reactive protein (CRP); Haptoglobin; Orosomucoid; Proteins Acute-phase reactions, 3, 6, 11, 13-14, 126, 132-133, 133-134, 514-515 See also Immunity; Nonspecific immunity Acute-phase response, 13, 133, 361, 391-392 See also Liver

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--> Adaptive immunity. See Antigen-specific immunity ADH. See Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) Adipogenesis inhibitory factor. See Interleukin-11 (IL-11) Adrenal gland. See Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA); Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system Adrenalectomy (ADX), 424 glucocorticoid treatment in animals after, 418-419 interleukin-1 lethality in animals after, 416-418, 419 See also Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA); Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system; Surgical procedures Adrenocorticosteroid (CS), 411, 415, 416-417, 418, 419, 421, 422 See also Glucocorticoids; Hormones Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), 71, 72, 74, 189-190, 394, 410-411, 412, 414, 415, 452, 454, 463, 470 See also Hormones Adrenoglucocorticoid regulation, 189-190 See also Immune function Adults Vitamin A doses and toxicity, considerations for, 281-282, 284-285 See also Demographics Africa Ebola outbreak, 37, 543 measles unusual manifestations, 547 sub-Saharan, Vitamin A deficiency in, 281, 282 Age and aging, 68 bereavement and elderly subjects, immunological response to, 211 exercise and age-related immunity, studies review, 212, 376-377 immune response and, summary, 290 nutritional supplementation to boost immunity, 214 vitamin C supplementation effects on immune response, clinical trials, 263, 292-293 vitamin E supplementation effects on immune response, clinical trials, 263, 291-292 See also Demographics Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 43-44, 102, 537, 538, 539 See also Department of Health and Human Services Agriculture Department, U.S. See U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) AIDS/HIV. See Acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV) AIDS-related complex (ARC), 375 See also Acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV); Diseases and disorders Air Force. See U.S. Air Force (USAF) Airplanes flight over several time zones, biologic rhythms effects of, 451, 464-465 ALA. See α-linolenic acid (ALA) Alcohol use and abuse immune function role of, 66-67 α-linolenic acid (ALA), 305, 306, 308-309, 310, 311 See also Saturated fatty acids Allergen definition, 527 Allergy, 524 definition, 527 time-dependent changes in, 460-462 See also Anaphylactic reaction; Antigen-specific immunity; Arthus reactions; Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH); Diseases and disorders; Histamine; Hypersensitivity, immediate; Hypersensitivity reactions Allograft. See Surgical procedures

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--> Altitude, high immune function effects of exposure, 80 See also High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE); Stress and stressors American Heart Association, 264 Amino acids (AAs), 14, 42 branch chain amino acid (BCAA), 42, 43 coxsackievirus viral evolution and selenium deficiency, changes in, 349 doses and toxicity of, 110 immune function role of, 49-51, 105, 110 military personnel supplementation, conclusions, 128 military situations, special concerns in, 110 See also Arginine; Glutamine; Nutrients; Proteins Anaphylactic reaction definition, 527 See also Allergy Anaphylatoxin (C3a), 209 definition, 528 See also Complement system Anemia, 10 iron deficiency, supplementation for, impact on infectious disease risk, 264, 328 military personnel deployment and, recommendations, 130 military recruits screening for and iron supplementation, 328-329 military women in basic combat training, iron status of, 62-63 military women recruits, prevalence of, 150 See also Diseases and disorders; Iron, dietary Anergy, 237 See also Immune response (IR) Animals adrenalectomized animals, glucocorticoid treatment of, 418-419 adrenalectomized animals, interleukin-1 lethality to, 416-418 hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, abnormal, conditions lethal to animals, 417 mice as natural hosts of emerging infections, 546, 547-548 monkeys, Ebola-Reston outbreak in, 38, 543 Anthrax, 6 See also Biological warfare Antibiotics resistant organisms, disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545 See also Drugs Antibodies, 233, 337, 538 definition, 528 functions of, 522-523 inflammatory reactions, participation of, 522-523 See also Antigen-specific immunity; Fragment-antibody (Fab); Fc (crystalline fragment); Immunity; Immunoglobulin; Immunoglobulin A (IgA); Immunoglobulin D (IgD); Immunoglobulin E (IgE); Immunoglobulin G (IgG); Immunoglobulin M (IgM); Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH). See Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) Antigen-presenting cells (APCs), 520 Antigens, 209 definition, 528 See also Immune response (IR) Antigen-specific immunity, 238, 512, 520, 522-524 response phases, 517-519, 521 See also Activation phase; Allergy; Antibodies; Antigens; B-cells; Cell-mediated immunity (CMI); Cognitive phase; Discrimination of self from nonself; Diversity; Effector phase; Humoral immunity (HI); Hypersensitivity reactions;

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--> immunity; Memory; Self-limitation; Specificity; T-cells Antioxidants, 4, 14, 117 delayed-type hypersensitivity response to tetanus toxoid using beverage supplement, SFAS study, 178, 179 peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation using supplementation, SFAS study, 178, 179 See also β-carotene; Vitamin C; Vitamin E Apodemis aggrarious, 546 Arachidonic acid (AA), 305, 306, 307-308, 312 See also Saturated fatty acids ARC. See AIDS-related complex (ARC) Arginine, 4, 7-8, 14, 42, 51, 111, 127 doses and toxicity, 111 See also Amino acids (AAs); Nutrients Arginine vasopressin (AVP), 410-411, 412, 413-414, 415 See also Vasopressin (VP) Army, U.S. See U.S. Army Arthus reactions definition, 528 See also Allergy; Hypersensitivity reactions Ascorbic acid. See Vitamin C Asia Southeast, Vitamin A deficiency epidemiology, 281 southern, Vitamin A deficiency epidemiology, 281 Asthma allergic, children with, circadian rhythms in, 462 allergic, time-dependent changes in, 455, 456, 460-462 bronchial, biologic rhythms role in, 449, 461 vitamin C and E supplementation effects on lung function in, studies review, 263, 295-296 See also Diseases and disorders; Respiratory diseases and disorders Athletes and athletics, 68 exercise, practical guidelines for, 377-379 immune response, infection, and exercise relationship, studies of, 365-370 infection, effects on physical performance, studies of, 373-374 marathon runners immune function effects of exertion, study findings, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 371, 372 nutrient supplements and exercise, review of studies, 378-379 sports, close-contact, and transmission of HIV, findings, 374-375 upper respiratory tract infection susceptibility and exercise, studies of, 371-373 ATSDR. See Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Autoimmune disease definition, 528 linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA) management of, clinical trials findings, 310-311 See also Diseases and disorders; Immune function AVP. See Arginine vasopressin (AVP) B Bacillus Calmette-Guirin (BCG) vaccination, 241, 459 See also Vaccines and vaccination Bacteria. See Microbes; Microbial virulence Bangkok, Thailand infectious disease risk in, 545 Basophil, 443 definition, 528 See also White blood cells (WBC) β-carotene, 7, 14, 109, 127, 134 See also Antioxidants B-cell growth factors, 224-225 See also Cytokines; Interleukin-4 (IL-4); Interleukin-6 (IL-6); Interleukin-14 (IL-14)

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--> B-cell growth factor-2. See Interleukin-5 (IL-5) B-cells, 171, 361, 422 biologic rhythms and, 445, 450-451, 464, 466, 467, 470 definition, 528 overview of, 521-522 See also Antigen-specific immunity; B-cell growth factors; Lymphocytes B-cell stimulatory factor-2. See Interleukin-6 (IL-6) BCG. See Bacillus Calmette-Guirin (BCG) vaccination Bereavement elderly persons and, immunologic responses to, 210, 211 See also Emotional stress; Mortality Beverages antioxidant supplementation using, Special Forces Assessment and Selection study, 178, 179 See also Food Bifidobacterium bifidum, 320 Biochemistry, 25 cytokines nature, 222 glutamine, physiologic biochemistry of, 266-268 Biologic rhythms. See Chronobiology; Chronopharmacology; Chronotherapeutics; Circadian rhythms; Circannual rhythms; Circaseptan rhythms Biological warfare military immunization against, 6 military personnel threat from biologic agent, 140 See also Anthrax Biotechnology, 6 military personnel use of products to sustain immune function, risks and benefits, 106 Blood collection of, blood lymphoid cell measurement in whole-blood cultures, experimental methods, 251 cytokines and markers in, development and field testing, future research, 133-134 donors of, blood lymphoid cell measurement in whole-blood cultures, experimental methods, 250 volume of, and lymphocyte proliferation in whole-blood cultures, experimental methods, 251, 253 See also Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs); Phagocytes; Plasma cells; Platelets; Serum; White blood cells (WBC); Whole-blood cultures Blood diseases and disorders. See Anemia, iron deficiency; Blood B-lymphocytes. See B-cells Board on Military Supplies, viii See also National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Body composition. See Body weight (BW); Lean body mass Body fat, 24 Ranger I study, percent change in, 168 Ranger II study, percent change in, 172 Special Forces Assessment and Selection Course study, percent change during, 176 Body mass. See Lean body mass Body temperature immune response factors, 210-211 Body weight (BW), 28, 147 Ranger I and II studies, percent change in, 168 Special Forces Assessment and Selection Course studies, loss during, 175 Bone marrow biologic rhythms and white blood cell numbers/functions, 440, 441, 446, 447, 450, 451 transplants, glutamine supplementation effects on patients, 263, 269-270 See also Blood

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--> Bosnia military personnel psychological stress effects on, 142 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), 39, 545 See also Diseases and disorders; Emerging infections; Infectious diseases and disorders Breast cancer menstrual cycle effects on surgery survival rates, 466 See also Cancer; Diseases and disorders Breastfeeding Vitamin A deficiency risks for lactating women, 263, 280-281, 282 See also Infants; Women BSE. See Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) β-thalassemia, 325-326 See also Diseases and disorders Burma malaria in World War II troops, 23, 140 Burns glutamine supplementation, effects on, 263, 268-269 See also Diseases and disorders; Injuries Business. See Commerce C C3a. See Anaphylatoxin (C3a) Cachexin. See Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) Cairo, Egypt infectious disease risk in, 545 Calciferols. See Vitamin D Calories deficiency reduction effects, Norwegian Ranger Training Course, 188 intake during Ranger I and II training studies, 167 Cancer vitamin C and E supplementation effects on, study findings, 263, 290, 293 See also Breast cancer; Diseases and disorders Carbohydrates, 5, 42 exercise and Gatorade use, findings, 378-379 metabolism of, acute-phase reaction effects on, 361 Cardiomyopathy. See Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM); Keshan disease (KD) Carotenoids, 51-52 See also Nutrients; Vitamins Catabolism, 2, 3, 18, 20, 36, 49, 105, 361, 391 See also Metabolism Catecholamines, 70 Norwegian Ranger Training Course, changes during, 189 See also Hormones; Immune function; Neuropeptide function Cathepsin definition, 528 CD4+ cells, 104, 208, 445, 468 definition, 528 See also Helper cells; T-cells CD8+ cells, 104, 445, 468 definition, 528 See also Suppressor cells; T-cells CDC. See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Cell-mediated immunity (CMI), 3, 4, 108, 111, 113, 233, 291, 292, 337, 339, 516 allograft rejection and biologic rhythms in, 459-460 assessment methodologies, review of, 229-244 assessment methods, advantages/disadvantages of, 47-48 biologic rhythms in, 439, 459-460 B vitamins and, 54-55 definition, 4, 528 field assessment methods, 12-13 nutrients role in, 263 overview of, 517, 518, 519-520

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--> See also Antigen-specific immunity; Humoral immunity (HI); Immune response (IR); Immunity; T-cells Center for Environmental Health Research (CEHR), 143 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 44, 114, 146 Central America Vitamin A deficiency epidemiology, 281 Central nervous system (CNS), 34, 42, 114 endocrine and immune systems and, bidirectional communication among, 409-411 endocrine and immune systems and, effects of cytokines biologic rhythms, 452-453 glutamine physiologic biochemistry and brain, 266 See also Neuroendocrine function Chemotactic agents, 224, 225 See also Cytokines; Interleukin-8 (IL-8); Macrophages Chemotaxis definition, 529 See also Phagocytes Children asthmatic, circadian rhythms in, 462 dengue hemorrhagic fever in, studies review, 546-547 Menkes disease and copper deficiency in, 65, 339 Vitamin A deficiency and, 263, 280-281, 283-284 See also Demographics China field immunology studies data, 146 Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in, 546 malaria in World War II troops, 23, 140 selenium deficiency and Keshan (KD) disease, 65-66, 127, 341, 548 See also Manchuria Chronobiology allergy, cutaneous, time-dependent changes in, 460-462 allograft rejection and, 459-460, 475 asthma, allergic, time-dependent changes in, 460-462 cell-mediated immunity, and, 439, 459-460 cytokines and their inhibitors and, rhythms in, 76-77, 362, 452-454 environmental stimuli response, effects of, 438 exercise, modification of immune system rhythms, 362, 438, 467-468 food uptake, time of, effects on immune system rhythms, 362, 468-469 genetically fixed biologic rhythms, 362, 437, 438, 440, 450 humoral immune response and, 77, 362, 439, 454-456 immune system and, 75-79, 362, 437-476 light-dark changes, effects on, 362, 438, 440, 459, 473 menstrual cycle, changes in immune system-related variables during, 465-466 neuroendocrine-immune system interactions, role of, 438, 440, 462, 470-475 seasonal changes in immune response, 362, 440, 466-467 shift workers, biologic rhythms and, 451, 455, 464-465, 469 sleep rhythms and immunity, 362, 451, 462-465, 474-475 temperature changes and immune response, 362, 440 vaccination, effects on, 362, 456-459 white blood cells number and function, rhythms in, 76, 362, 441-452 See also Chronopharmacology; Chronotherapeutics; Circadian

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--> rhythms; Circannual rhythms; Circaseptan rhythms Chronopharmacology biologic rhythms in immune function, implications for, 78-79, 475-476 See also Chronobiology Chronotherapeutics biologic rhythms in immune function, implications for, 78-79, 462, 475-476 See also Chronobiology Circadian rhythms, 75-79, 439, 441, 442, 443, 444, 453, 454-459, 460-465, 467-469, 470-476 rheumatoid arthritis, urinary neopterin excretion of, and, 447-448 See also Chronobiology; Circaseptan rhythms Circannual rhythms, 75-76, 77, 440-441, 451, 456, 466-467, 476 See also Chronobiology Circaseptan rhythms, 75, 77, 440, 456, 459-460, 476 See also Chronobiology; Circadian rhythms Circumventricular organs (CVOs), 74 Civil War Vitamin A deficiency in Union and Confederate Armies, 282 Civilian research, 14, 23, 27, 134 See also Research CMNR. See Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) CNS. See Central nervous system (CNS) Cobalamine. See Vitamin B12 Cognitive phase, 517-518, 521 definition, 529 See also Antigen-specific immunity; Immune response (IR) Colony stimulating factors definition, 529 See also Cytokines; Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF); Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF); Macrophage/monocyte colony stimulating factor (MCSF) Columbia, Maryland, 308 Combat environmental factors during, immune function effects of, 101 training, physiological and immunological impact of, research objectives, 164 See also Military operations; Military personnel Commerce international, infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545, 546 Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR), vii, 1, 2, 6, 14, 17, 20, 21, 30, 33, 62, 63, 81, 82, 99, 100, 104, 106, 117, 119, 120, 144, 146, 171, 362, 497-498, 499, 502, 503, 504, 506 conclusions, 6-8, 125-129 history of, summary, viii recommendations, 8-13, 129-133 report organization, ix research, future recommendations for, 13-14, 133-134 tasks and procedures review, viii-ix See also Food and Nutrition Board (FNB); Institute of Medicine (IOM); National Academy of Sciences (NAS); Not Eating Enough Complement system, 516-517, 523, 539 definition, 529 vitamin C supplementation effects on marathon runners, study findings, 378 See also Anaphylatoxin (C3a); Immunity; Nonspecific immunity; Proteins; Ultramarathon Concanavalin A (ConA), 464 definition, 529 Conclusions, 6-7, 18 amino acids supplements and immune function, military operations, 128

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--> cytokines (recombinant) use by military, and immune function, 126 energy total intake and immune function, military operations, 126-127 field studies of immune function by military, 126 glutamine and immune function, military operations, 128-129 health (general) status and immune function, military implications, 126 iron excess and deficiency and immune status, military operations, 128 military personnel deployment and nutritional status, 127 nutritional supplements and immune function, military implications, 7-8, 128-129 nutritional supplements, excess use by military, safety problems, 128 nutrition and immune function, military implications, 7, 125-129 pharmacologic agents use by military, and immune function, 126 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplements and immune function, military operations, 128 stressors encountered by military and immune function, 126 vaccination (prophylactic) use by military, and immune function, 126 vitamins A, C, and E supplements and immune function, military operations, 128 Copper doses and toxicity, 113 immune function role of, 3, 4, 7, 38, 41, 42, 64-65, 113, 115, 127, 339-340 military situations, special concerns in, 113 zinc interactions with, 340 See also Minerals; Nutrients Corticosterone (CORT), 414, 415, 418-419, 420, 421 See also Hormones Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 70-71, 72, 74, 75, 392, 394, 395, 396, 410-411, 412-414, 415, 421, 423 See also Hormones Cortisol, 364-365, 456-457, 470 See also Glucocorticoids; Hormones Corynebacterium diphtheriae, 322 Coxsackievirus B (CVB), 341-351 C-reactive protein (CRP), 11-13, 47, 48, 104, 120, 132-133, 391, 537 definition, 529 See also Acute-phase proteins; Proteins CRH. See Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) CRP. See C-reactive protein (CRP) CVB. See Coxsackievirus B (CVB) Cytokines, 3, 4, 6, 8-9, 23, 25, 32, 35, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 74-75, 203, 409-410 action mode of, 222 action principles of, 222-223 biochemistry of, 222 biologic rhythms in cytokines and their inhibitors, 76-77, 362, 438, 452-454, 462, 475 circulating, assays of, overview and methodological issues, 540-542 classification of, 224-226 clinical use of, 227 definition, 221-222, 529 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, sample types and preparation for, 226 experimentation with, 223 field testing of appropriate markers in urine and blood, 13-14, 133-134 hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, counter-regulation of, 362, 416-421 hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune regulation by, 410-416

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--> immune function index, use as, military nutrition research ideas, 119-120 inflammation, systemic, neuroendocrine consequences, 392, 393, 397 measurement of, 39-40, 226 military use of drugs and, 126, 129 nature of, 222 pleiotropic principle of, 222-223 recombinant, military administration of and immune function, conclusions, 126 redundancy of, 223 synergistic principle of, 223 See also B-cell growth factors; Chemotactic agents; Colony stimulating factors; Cytotoxic/cytostatic inducers and effectors; Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) ; Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF); Hematopoietic growth and differentiation factors; Immune function; Inflammatory cytokines; Inhibitory/regulatory factors; Interferon-α (INF-α); Interferon-gamma (INF-γ); Interferons; Interleukin-1 (IL-1); Interleukin-2 (IL-2); Interleukin-3 (IL-3); Interleukin-4 (IL-4); Interleukin-5 (IL-5); Interleukin-6 (IL-6); Interleukin-7 (IL-7); Interleukin-8 (IL-8); Interleukin-9 (IL-9); Interleukin-10 (IL-10); Interleukin-11 (IL-11); Interleukin-12 (IL-12); Interleukin-13 (IL-13); Interleukin-14 (IL-14); Interleukin-15 (IL-15); Interleukins; Lymphokines; Macrophage/monocyte colony stimulating factor (MCSF); Monokines; Nonspecific immunity; Proinflammatory cytokines; Proteins; T-cell growth factors; Tumor necrosis factor (TNF); Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); Tumor necrosis factor-β (TNF-β) Cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor. See Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Cytolytic/cytotoxic reactions, 524 See also Hypersensitivity reactions Cytotoxic/cytostatic inducers and effectors, 224, 225, 522 See also Cytokines; Interleukin-12 (IL-12); Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); Tumor necrosis factor-β (TNF-β) Cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor. See Interleukin-12 (IL-12) Cytotoxic reactions. See Cytolytic/cytotoxic reactions D Death. See Mortality Defense and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, 143 Defense Department. See Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Women's Health Research Program (DWHRP94), 150 Defensins definition, 529 See also Neutrophils; Proteins Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 141, 470, 471 Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), 148, 149, 177, 290, 291, 292, 307, 308, 309-310, 339, 524 antioxidant supplementation, response to tetanus toxoid, Special Forces Assessment and Selection study, 178, 179 cutaneous, use as nutritional status indicator, 209 definition, 529 skin testing, overview, 539 vitamin B and, 55 vitamin E and, 52, 53 See also Allergy; Hypersensitivity reactions Demographics disease, infectious, introduction and dissemination factors, 544-545 See also Adults; Age and aging; Children; Infants; Mortality;

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--> Population density; Population migration; Urban areas; Women De novo studies/samples, 222, 240, 242, 267 Dengue, 38, 546 See also Diseases and disorders; Infectious diseases and disorders Dengue hemorrhagic fever, 38 children with, nutrition role, 38, 546-547 Thailand studies of, 547 See also Diseases and disorders; Emerging infections; Infectious diseases and disorders Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 48, 61, 170, 254, 266, 269, 270, 293, 318, 319, 323, 324, 338-339, 340, 348, 350, 440, 441, 539 Department of Agriculture, U.S. See U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Department of Defense (DoD), viii, 6, 20 Department of Health and Human Services, 43-44, 102 See also Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Desert terrain military training immunological/physiological effects of, 169, 170, 172, 173 See also Environment Determinants. See Epitopes Developing countries Vitamin A deficiency in, 280-281 Dexamethasone, 418-419 DHA. See Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) DHEA. See Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Diarrheal diseases, 23, 39, 140 See also Diseases and disorders; Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases and disorders; Infectious diseases and disorders; Shigella Dietary intervention. See Nutritional intervention Dietary supplements. See Nutrients;Nutritional supplements Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 341 See also Diseases and disorders Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), 242 Diphtheria, 39 glutamine supplementation and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to, SFAS study, 177-178 Soviet Union, former, reemergence of, 545 See also Diseases and disorders; Infectious diseases and disorders Discrimination of self from nonself, 517 definition, 529 See also Antigen-specific immunity; Immune response (IR) Diseases and disorders host defense (long-term) and, military nutrition research ideas, 120 immunology development of new concepts and assessment techniques, 36 Vitamin A deficiency relationship to, 281, 282 See also Acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV); AIDS-related complex (ARC); Allergy; Anemia; Asthma; Autoimmune disease; Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE); Breast cancer; Β-thalassemia; Burns; Cancer; Dengue; Dengue hemorrhagic fever; Diarrheal diseases; Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM); Diphtheria; Ebola; Ebola-Reston; Emerging infections; Eye diseases and disorders; Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases and disorders; Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS); Hemolytic uremic syndrome; High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE); Immunity; Immunodeficiency disorder; Infectious diseases and disorders; Inflammation; Injuries; Keshan dis-

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--> nutritional supplements use, military operations, 10-11, 131-132 physical fitness maintenance by military personnel, 129 prophylatic medications and procedures use by military, 129 psychological stress of military personnel, minimizing methods, 130 research methodology for military, 11-13, 132-133 research protocols careful design, 133 vaccines, oral, for military, research efforts to create and evaluate, 129 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), 27, 52, 107, 108-114, 116, 164 Dietary Reference Intakes, 164 vitamin A recommendations, 281 vitamin C recommendations, 290 vitamin E recommendations, 290 See also Military Recommended Dietary Allowance (MRDA) REM. See Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep Reproductive system. See Menstrual cycle Research Army Special Operations Training physiological and immunological impact, objectives, 163-165 Army Special Operations Training physiological and immunological impact, results, 165-178 civilian research use by military, recommendations, 133, 134 immune function future research recommendations for military, 13-14, 18, 133-134 infection increased susceptibility, mechanisms of, Army-USDA cooperative research data, 146-148 iron status influence on infection risk, future recommendations, 134 military use of civilian research, recommendations, 133, 134 nutrients influence on immune status, future recommendations, 134 nutrition and immune function, military implications, new directions for, 503-506 nutritional intervention effects on immunosuppression, assessment model, 163-178 nutritional supplements, publicized findings of Army research, 150-152 protocols design, recommendations, 13, 133 Ranger training physiological/immunological impact, studies results, 165-174 Special Forces Assessment and Selection physiological/immunological impact, studies results, 174-178 women (physically active) and immune function, future recommendations, 134 See also Civilian research; Field research; Laboratories Respiratory burst definition, 536 See also Diseases and disorders; Oxidative burst Respiratory diseases and disorders infant morbidity from, serum concentration relationship, 213-214 infection incidence, exercise, and immune responses, relationship, 211, 212 See also Asthma; Diseases and disorders; Infectious diseases and disorders; Upper respiratory infections (URI); Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI)

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--> Reston, Virginia Ebola-Reston outbreak in monkeys, 38, 543 Retinol infant respiratory morbidity and serum concentration of, 213-214 See also Nutrients Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 347, 348 Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 396, 454, 456, 472, 475 circadian rhythms in urinary neopterin excretion of patients with, 447-448 See also Diseases and disorders Rhizopus, 327 Ribonucleic acid (RNA), 319, 338-339, 341, 345, 347, 350, 396, 412, 413, 416, 422 "Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance," 117 Ross Products Division, Abbott Laboratories (ROSS), 165, 174 RT-PCR. See Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) Russia infection, emerging, in, 37 S SAA. See Serum amyloid antecedent (SAA) Saccharomyces cervisiae, 320 Safety and regulatory considerations nutrients or dietary supplements use to sustain immune function under field conditions, 107-118 Salmonella, 328 Salmonella typhimurium, 328 Scandinavia infection, emerging, in, 37 Seasons immune response to biologic rhythms, and, 362, 466-467 Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), 36, 206, 215, 455, 370, 521, 522 definition, 532 See also Antibodies; Immunoglobulin; Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Selenium China, endemic juvenile cardiomyopathy (Keshan disease) and deficiency, 65-66, 548 deficiency, role in viral evolution, 547-548 doses and toxicity, 113-114 immune function role of, 3, 4, 7, 38, 42, 65-66, 113-114, 115, 127, 340-351 military situations, special concerns in, 113-114 pathogen virulence, effect on, animal studies review, 264, 338, 341-351 See also Minerals; Nutrients Self-limitation, 517 definition, 536 See also Antigen-specific immunity; Immune response (IR) Serratia marcescens, 322 Serum cytokines, circulating, assays, review of, 540 immune status assessment tests, overview of, 537, 538-539 See also Blood; Opsonins Serum amyloid antecedent (SAA), 391 Serum lipoproteins high-density (HDL), 311 low-density (LDL), 311, 312 serum, and dietary fat, immune response effects of, 311 See also Proteins Serum opsonized zymosan (SOZ), 187-188, 189 Serum thymulin activity nutritional status, use as indicator of, 208, 209 Sex steroids inflammation, systemic, neuroendocrine effects of, 398, 399 See also Hormones; Testosterone

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--> Sexual orientation homosexual/bisexual men (HIV positive), vitamins C and E supplementation effects, 294-295 Sheffield, England vitamin A deprivation experiment during WWII, 282 See also England Shigella, 140, 321 See also Diarrheal diseases; Diseases and disorders Shigella dysenteriae type, 322 Shipping blood, whole, cultures use, holding and shipping effects on lymphocyte proliferation, experiment results, 256-257 Sick euthyroid syndrome, 397-398 See also Diseases and disorders Siderophores definition, 536 See also Proteins Skin diseases and disorders. See Arthus reactions; Urticaria Skin tests, 241, 242, 460-461, 539 See also Multi-test CMI; Purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test Sleep biologic rhythms of, and immunity, 462-465 deprivation, effects on biologic rhythms, 464-465, 474-475 deprivation, effects on response to influenza virus, animal study, 465 deprivation, immune function and, military operations/training, 30, 32, 101, 142 deprivation, immune function effects of, 80 deprivation in military training, biologic rhythms and immune response, 362, 474-475 wakefulness and, patterns in, biologic rhythms in, 451, 464-465 See also Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep; Stress and stressors Smoking. See Tobacco use Social activity biologic rhythms and routine of, 362, 438 Soldier System Command (SSCOM), 22, 165 Soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) release of, in vitro measurement use of whole-blood cultures, experiments methods/results, 258-259 See also Interleukin-2 (IL-2); Soluble receptors Soluble receptors, 392, 411-412, 438, 453, 454, 540-542 See also Proteins; Soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) Somalia U.S. military personnel, infectious disease risk, 545 U.S. military personnel, stress factors for, 100, 142 Somatomedin C growth hormone and, response, 399 South America Vitamin A deficiency epidemiology, 281 South Pacific Vitamin A deficiency epidemiology, 281 Soviet Union former, diphtheria reemergence in, 545 Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS), 21, 22, 23, 24-26, 28, 29, 30, 31-32, 147, 148, 149 body fat (percent) change during, studies, 176 body weight loss during, studies, 175 energy deficit relation to stress indices and T-lymphocyte proliferation, 147 energy expenditure and intake during, studies, 175 nutritional intervention effects on temporary immunosuppression, studies results, 174-178

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-->   peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation during glutamine supplementation study, 177 peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation during, studies, 176 physiological and immunological impact of, studies results, 174-178 Special Forces Assessment Schools, 137 See also Military training; U.S. Army Special Forces Special Operations Training Program. See U.S. Army Special Operations Training Program Specificity, 517 definition, 536 See also Antigen-specific immunity; Immune response (IR) Sports. See Athletes and athletics Staphylococcus aureus, 55, 268 Streptococcal pneumonia, 166 Streptococcus, 177 Streptococcus mutans, 320 Streptomyces cerevisiae, 320 Stress and stressors cytokines potential for assessing effects on immune function, 203 health and, 67-81 hormonal responses to, 69-70 immune function effects of combined stressors, 6, 81 immune function, health status, and, summary, 500-503 immune function sustainment under, military nutrition research areas, 119-121 military high-risk personnel, nutrition education programs for, recommendations, 130-131 military operational settings and immune function, 100-101 military operational stressors, immune suppression and inflammatory responses, 141-144 military operational stressors, models for studying, 144-146 military personnel and immune function, conclusions, 126 military personnel energy deficit relation to stress indices and T-lymphocyte proliferation, 147 See also Altitude, high; Emotional stress; Environmental pollution; Exercise; Humidity; Oxidative stress; Physical activity; Psychological stress; Sleep; Temperature; Tobacco use Substance abuse. See Alcohol use and abuse Suppressor cells definition, 536 See also CD8+ cells; T-cells Surface immunity, 518 definition, 4 See also Immunity Surgical procedures allograft rejection, biologic rhythms in, 459-460 postoperative patients, glutamine supplementation effects on, 263, 269-270 transplants, kidney, biologic rhythms and, 460, 475 See also Adrenalectomy (ADX); Hypophysectomy (HYPOX) Swamp terrain military training immunological/physiological effects of, 170 See also Environment Sympathoadrenal responses hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, protective role in, 423-425 Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) inflammation, systemic, and, 396-397 See also Vasopressin (VP) T T3. See Triiodothyronine (T3) T4. See Thyroxine (T4) T-cell growth factors, 224-225 See also Cytokines; Interleukin-1α (IL-1α); Interleukin-1β (IL-1β); Interleukin-2 (IL-2); Interleukin-4 (IL-4); Interleukin-7 (IL-7); Inter-

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--> leukin-9 (IL-9); Interleukin-15 (IL-15) T-cells, 422, 520-521 biologic rhythms and, 446, 447, 450-451, 453, 454, 456, 459, 466, 467, 468, 470 definition, 536 exercise, chronic, and function of, studies review, 361, 369-370 malnourished v. well-nourished subjects, proportion in, 208 proliferation, 170-171 proliferation and energy deficit, military personnel, 28, 147 See also Antigen-specific immunity; CD4+ cells; CD8+ cells; Cell-mediated immunity (CMI); Effector cells; Helper cells; Lymphocytes; Suppressor cells; T-cell growth factors Technology advances in, infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545 immune function assessment methods, technical issues, 102-103 See also Biotechnology Temperature blood, whole, cultures use, holding/shipping effects on lymphocyte proliferation, 256-257 extremes, military operations exposure to, immune function effects of, 79, 101 immune responses, factors influencing, 210-211 immune responses to, biologic rhythms and, 362, 440 See also Stress and stressors Testosterone, 28, 147 Ranger I serum concentration changes during study, 169 Ranger II serum concentration changes during study, 172 See also Hormones; Sex steroids Tetanus toxoid antioxidant supplementation and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to, SFAS study, 178, 179 glutamine supplementation and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to, SFAS study, 177-178 TGF-β. See Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) Thailand dengue hemorrhagic fever studies, summary, 547 field immunology studies data, 146 women with zinc deficiency, 45 See also Bangkok, Thailand Thermoregulatory mechanisms, 2, 18, 20, 105 Thiamine. See Vitamin B1 Thromboxanes. See Eicosanoids Thymosin definition, 536 See also Hormones Thyroid. See Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system; Sick euthyroid syndrome Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), 71, 397, 469, 470, 474 See also Hormones Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 71, 397, 398, 470, 474 See also Hormones Thyroxine (T4) effects of systemic inflammation, 71 inflammatory disease and, 397, 398 Time zones flight over several time zones, biologic rhythms effects of, 451, 464-465 T-lymphocytes. See T-cells Tobacco use immune function effects of, 81 See also Stress and stressors Tocopherol equivalents (TE), 114 See also Vitamin E

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--> Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), 113, 114, 266-267, 269 See also Nutrition Trace minerals. See Copper; Iron, dietary; Minerals; Selenium; Zinc Training. See Military training; Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS); U.S. Army Basic Combat Training (BCT); U.S. Army Ranger Training Courses; U.S. Army Special Operations Training Program Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), 225, 392 See also Inhibitory/regulatory factors Transplants. See Surgical procedures Transportation. See Airplanes; Shipping Trauma physical, and immune responses, 210-211 thermal, and immune responses, 210-211 See also Diseases and disorders Travel international, infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545, 546 TRH. See Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Triiodothyronine (T3) inflammatory disease and, 397, 398 Ranger I serum concentration changes during study, 169 Ranger II serum concentration changes during study, 173 TSH. See Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), 39, 74, 306-307, 308, 309, 392, 453, 454, 463, 513 definition, 536 hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation by, 410, 411, 415, 417 See also Cytokines; Proinflammatory cytokines Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 392, 394, 397, 398, 410, 411 production of, in vitro measurement use of whole-blood cultures, experiments methods/results, 257-259 See also Cytokines; Cytotoxic/cytostatic inducers and effectors; Inflammatory cytokines Tumor necrosis factor-β (TNF-β), 225 See also Cytokines; Cytotoxic/cytostatic inducers and effectors U Uganda. See Kampala, Uganda United Nations, 545 Korean War, troops in, and Korean hemorrhagic fever, 544 United States Southwest, Four Corners Region, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in, 546 Vitamin A deficiency epidemiology, 281, 282 Unsaturated fatty acids, 305-306 See also Fatty acids Upper respiratory infections (URI), 5, 37, 68 See also Diseases and disorders; Infectious diseases and disorders; Respiratory diseases and disorders; Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) exercise and risk of, J curve review, 371-373 exercise and risk of, public health recommendations, 373 exercise, heavy and moderate, and risk of, review of studies, 361, 371-373 military recruits and athletes risk of, practical guidelines, 377 See also Diseases and disorders; Infectious diseases and disorders; Respiratory diseases and disorders; Urban areas high population density, infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545 See also Demographics

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--> Urine cytokines and markers in, development and field testing, future research, 133-134 Urticaria definitions, 536 See also Diseases and disorders U.S. Air Force (USAF), 152 Academy, 367 U.S. Armed Forces, 175 U.S. Army, ix, 17, 20, 21, 29-33, 82, 99, 130, 137, 141, 497 Army Operational Medicine Program, 3, 22, 24-26, 139, 141 Assistant Surgeon General, viii female recruits, iron deficiency and anemia prevalence in, 150 Human Dimensions Teams (HDT), 142 infection increased susceptibility mechansisms, USDA cooperative research data, 146-148 Natick Research Laboratory, 30 nutrition and immune function, interest in 22-29, 139-152 nutrition and sustainment of immune function in field, answers to questions, 100-121 nutrition supplements research, responsibility to publicize findings, 150-152 U.S. Army Basic Combat Training (BCT), 20, 21, 24-26, 28, 31-32, 62, 116, 148 energy deficit relation to stress indices and T-lymphocyte proliferation, 147 See also Military training; U.S. Army U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command (USAMRMC), viii, 1, 14, 22, 62, 134, 166 Commander, vii See also U.S. Army U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), 23, 140, 499, 502 See also U.S. Army U.S. Army Ranger Training Brigade (RTB), 29, 146, 164, 165, 166, 171, 173, 174 See also U.S. Army; U.S. Army Ranger Training School U.S. Army Ranger Training Courses, 9, 18, 22, 34, 80, 81, 119, 130, 137, 144-145, 146, 163 body fat percent change during studies, 168, 172 body weight percent change during studies, 168 caloric intake during studies, 167 energy balance during studies, 167 energy deficit relation to stress indices and T-lymphocyte proliferation, 147 energy expenditure during studies, 166 infection rates in, 149 Norwegian Ranger training program studies comparison, 34 nutritional intervention effects on temporary immunosuppression, studies results, 165-174 peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation change during studies, 170 physiological and immunological impact of, studies results, 165-174 Ranger I Course (RGR-I), 5-6, 21, 22, 24-26, 27, 28, 29-30, 31-32, 33, 110, 120, 147, 148, 149 Ranger II Course (RGR-II), 5-6, 20, 21, 22-23, 24-26, 27, 28, 30, 31-32, 33, 100, 147, 148, 149 testosterone changes during study, 169, 172 triiodothyronine changes during study, 169, 173

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--> U.S. Army Ranger Training School, 5, 140 See also U.S. Army; U.S. Army Ranger Training Brigade (RTB); U.S. Army Ranger Training Courses U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), vii, viii, ix, 1, 2, 5, 14, 20, 30, 62, 99, 134, 146, 165, 166, 171, 173, 174 See also Military Nutrition and Biochemical Division (MNBD); Military Nutrition Division (MND); U.S. Army U.S. Army Special Forces, 2, 10 immune status, and nutritional impact on, ix, 17, 18, 20, 99, 125, 237 nutrition education programs, recommendations, 130-131 Vietnam War study, 144 See also Military personnel; Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS); U.S. Army U.S. Army Special Operations Training Program, 3, 18, 22, 81, 177 nutritional intervention effects on temporary immunosuppression, assessment model, 163-178 physiological and immunological impact of, research objectives, 164-165 physiological and immunological impact of, research results, 165-178 See also Military training; Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS); U.S. Army; U.S. Army Ranger Training Courses; U.S. Army Special Forces U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 22, 151, 165 Human Studies Review Committee, 250 infection increased susceptibility mechanisms, Army cooperative research data, 146-148 See also Human Nutrition Research Center U.S. Navy, 144 See also Military personnel U.S. Navy Seals, 145 See also Military personnel Utah. See Dugway Proving Ground, Utah V Vaccines and vaccination antigen, novel, antibody response to, assessment methods, 538 biologic rhythms in response to, 362, 454, 456-459 hepatitis B antigen and, biologic rhythms and, 456 infants, biologic rhythms, effects on immunity gained, 457-458 influenza vaccination trials, and biologic rhythms, 457 military personnel intervention to sustain immune function, risks and benefits, 105-106 military use of, 6, 9, 126, 129 Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) vaccine and biologic rhythms, 457 See also Bacillus Calmette-Guirin (BCG) vaccination; Infectious diseases and disorders Vasoactive intestinal peptides (VIP), 34 Norwegian Ranger Training Course, changes during, 188-189 See also Immune function; Neuropeptide function Vasopressin (VP) neuroendocrine effects of systemic inflammation, 70-71, 72, 392, 394, 395, 396, 397 See also Arginine vasopressin (AVP); Hormones; Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH)

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--> Vegetable oils fatty acids and immune function and, 55, 57 Vibrio anguillarum, 322 Vibrio cholerae, 321-322 Vibrios, 320 Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus), 321-322, 327 Vietnam War, 144 Viral evolution immune system role in, 547 infectious disease introduction/dissemination factor, 545 selenium and, animal studies review, 264, 338, 341-351, 547-548 See also Microbes; Microbial virulence Virginia. See Reston, Virginia Virulence. See Microbial virulence Virus. See Microbes; Microbial virulence; Viral evolution Vitamin A, 263 adults, considerations for, 284-285 deficiency, adult, clinical manifestations, 280 deficiency, adult, epidemiology, 280-281 deficiency, adult, review of, 281-282 deficiency in children/infants, 263, 280-281, 283-284 doses and toxicity of, 109-110, 284-285 eye disorders in adults, clinical manifestations of deficiency, 280 immune function role of, 3, 4, 7, 8, 38, 41, 42, 51-52, 105, 107, 109-110, 114, 117, 127, 134, 279-285 immunodeficiency disorder (nutritionally acquired), characterization as, 263, 283-284 infants, deficiency risks for, summary, 263, 280-281 lactating women, deficiency risks for, 263, 280-281, 282 military situations, special concerns in, 109-110 military supplementation, conclusions, 128 pregnancy, deficiency risks for, 263, 280-281, 282 Recommended Dietary Allowance of, 281 women of childbearing age, risks to, 285 See also Nutrients; Vitamins Vitamin B1 doses and toxicity of, 108 immune function role of, 4, 38, 55, 108 military situations, special concerns in, 108 See also Nutrients; Vitamins Vitamin B2 immune function role of, 38 See also Nutrients; Vitamins Vitamin B6, doses and toxicity of, 108 immune function role of, 3, 4, 7, 38, 42, 54-55, 108, 127 military situations, special concerns in, 108 See also Nutrients; Vitamins Vitamin B12 doses and toxicity of, 108 immune function role of, 7, 42, 54-55, 108, 127 military situations, special concerns in, 108 See also Nutrients; Vitamins Vitamin C aging effects of supplementation, clinical trials, 263, 292-293 AIDS/HIV effects of supplementation, animal and human study findings, 263, 290, 294-295 asthma and lung function effects of supplementation, 263, 295-296 cancer effects of supplementation, experimental/epidemiological study findings, 263, 290, 293 doses and toxicity of, 108-109

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--> exercise stress effects of supplementation, study findings, 263, 290, 296-297 immune function role of, 4, 7, 8, 14, 41, 42, 53-54, 105, 108-109, 117, 127, 134, 289-290 marathon runners, supplementation of, study findings, 378 military situations, special concerns in, 108-109 military supplementation, conclusions, 128 Recommended Dietary Allowance of, 290 See also Antioxidants; Nutrients; Vitamins Vitamin D doses and toxicity of, 110 immune function role of, 107, 110, 114 military situations, special concerns in, 110 See also Nutrients; Vitamins Vitamin E aging effects of supplementation, clinical trials, 263, 291-292 AIDS/HIV effects of supplementation, animal and human study findings, 263, 290, 294-295 asthma and lung function effects of supplementation, 263, 295-296 cancer effects of supplementation, experimental/epidemiological study findings, 263, 290, 293 deficiency in, role in viral evolution, 547-548 doses and toxicity of, 110 exercise stress effects of supplementation, study findings, 263, 290, 296-297 fatty acids and, 57 immune function role of, 4, 7, 8, 14, 52-53, 105, 110, 114, 117, 118, 127, 289-290 military situations, special concerns in, 110 military supplementation, 128 Recommended Dietary Allowance of, 290 See also Antioxidants; Nutrients; Tocopherol equivalents (TE); Vitamins Vitamins, 23, 51-55 See also Carotenoids; Folate; Nutrients; Vitamin A; Vitamin B1; Vitamin B2; Vitamin B6; Vitamin B12; Vitamin C; Vitamin D; Vitamin E V. vulnificus. See Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) W Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), 5, 166 Department of Medical Neurosciences, 141 Department of Respiratory Research, 144 Wasting syndrome AIDS-related, exercise effects on, 375 Weather. See Humidity; Temperature White blood cells (WBC), 25, 31, 108, 114, 225 biologic rhythms in number and function of, 76, 362, 441-452, 465 immune function assessment tests using, overview, 538, 540, 541 white cell counts, 11, 13 See also Basophil; Blood; Eosinophil; Monocytes; Neutrophils WHO. See World Health Organization (WHO) Whole-blood cultures cytokine production assays, 43, 45, 257-259 immune function assessment tests using, overview, 538, 539-542 incubation duration of, measurement of lymphocyte proliferation in, methods, 253-254 lymphocyte proliferation in, experiments methods and results, 251-257

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--> lymphoid, blood, cells functional activity in vitro measurement, and field study applications, 233, 249-259 lymphoid, blood, cells functional activity in vitro measurement, methods/results, 250-259 shipping/holding of, effects on lymphocyte proliferation, experiment methods/results, 256-257 soluble interleukin receptors release in, experiments methods/results, 258-259 See also Blood Women asthma effects of vitamin C and E supplementation, study findings, 295 breast cancer surgery survival rates, effects of menstrual cycle on, 466 physical fitness/activity and immune function, civilian research, 14, 134 Vitamin A risks to women, 285 See also Breastfeeding; Demographics; Maternity; Menstrual cycle Women in military, 8, 10 Army recruits, iron deficiency and anemia prevalence in, 150 civilian research on immune function of physically fit/active women, military awareness of, 14, 134 immune function in, research areas, 120-121 iron deficiency implications for, 328 iron status of, 62-63 nutrition education programs, recommendations, 130-131 See also Military personnel; Women Work schedule of, biologic rhythms effects of, 362, 438 shift workers, biologic rhythms and, 451, 455, 464-465, 469 Workshops, vii, viii, ix, 2, 18, 20, 21, 117, 137, 145-146, 362, 497 See also ''Effect of Prolonged Exhaustive Military Activities on Man" World Health Organization (WHO), 36, 107 Expert Consultation, 116 World War II, 23, 140 Medical Research Council, 281 Vitamin A deprivation experiment during, 281-282 WRAIR. See Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) Y Yersinia, 320, 322, 327 Yersinia enterocolitica, 62, 326-327 Yersinia pestis, 321-322 Z Zinc copper interactions with, summary, 340 dose-response curve to assess recommended intake, 209, 210 doses and toxicity of, 112-113 immune function role of, 3, 4, 7, 38, 41, 63-64, 112-113, 115, 127, 337-339 military situations, special concerns in, 112-113 See also Minerals; Nutrients