incentives might be used to reward, and thereby encourage, the use of advanced safety systems and practices. Another enforcement technique would be to create peer pressure for compliance through forums, such as harbor safety committees. If nonpunitive measures do not result in consistent compliance, punitive action should be taken.


NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Minding the Helm: Marine Navigation and Piloting. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

USCG (U.S. Coast Guard). 1997. Differential GPS Mission Needs Analysis: Harbor Entry and Approach. Alexandria, Va.: USCG Navigation Center.

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