of doing things that create value and advance the ability of the organization to conduct military operations or to make money. Significant experimentation is under way within the DOD today. Nevertheless, it is all too easy to fall back to "business as usual" when faced with budget pressures. Experiments are undeniably expensive, and failure is to be expected from time to time. Well-meaning critics who focus on the cost and possible failure of particular individual experiments may do more damage than good in the long run. Fortunately, such criticism is rare today, but in the face of budget pressures to cut back on experimentation, the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the service Secretaries will have to strongly uphold the value of investing in the future.

Recommendation P-8: DOD should develop and implement a set of management metrics that are coupled to key elements of C4I system effectiveness.

Achieving large-scale cultural change in an organization requires commensurate change in management metrics. Metrics are a major motivator of human behavior and have been demonstrated to be an essential element of making improvements: they are the base for driving continuous progress. Management metrics measure the characteristics or performance of an organization and are used by senior management to assess the effectiveness of the organization and its leadership. To assess and drive the cultural change needed to fully exploit C4I in warfighting, metrics are needed for such key areas as interoperability, security, and overall rate of implementation, as well as such associated elements as training, skill, and resource levels. These metrics should be as quantitative as possible, though in some cases judgment-based ratings will have to be used. The metrics should be applied both to units and to commanders at higher echelons in a manner consistent with their responsibilities.

Conclusion

Advanced C4I systems and technology offer the potential for enabling radically more effective military forces. But if this potential is to be realized, DOD will need to fix existing vulnerabilities in information systems security as well as to address challenges posed by C4I interoperability and to embrace and accommodate an information-age culture. Only through sustained action in these areas will DOD's needs for capable C4I systems be met in the coming decades.



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