the location, measurement, or delineation of deep structures by measuring the reflection or transmission of high frequency or ultrasonic waves.


excision of diseased tissues surrounding the lumen of an artery.


a procedure in which the doctor looks inside the body through a lighted tube called an endoscope.


the science and study of the causes of disease and their mode of operation.


removal of internal organs and tissues, usually radical removal of the contents of a body cavity, such as all the pelvic organs.

extracapsular extension:

invasion of a tumor beyond the capsule surrounding its organ of origin, for example if prostate cancer invades beyond the capsule surrounding the prostate or tumor near a joint extends beyond the joint capsule.


febrile neutropenia:

fever associated with a low neutrophil count.


germ cell:

reproductive cells produced by the ovaries (eggs) or the testis (sperm).

Gleason score:

grade of tumor of the prostate; based on glandular differentiation.


hematopoietic stem cells:

cells in the bone marrow from which all cells in the circulating blood are derived.


a discrete site of care in the form of an inpatient hospital or nursing home unit or a freestanding facility; an organization or program that provides, arranges, and advises on a wide range of medical and supportive services for dying patients and their families and friends; an approach to care for dying patients based on clinical, social, and metaphysical or spiritual principles.


kappa coefficient:

used to measure the strength of agreement between two data gatherers for interval, ordinal, or nominal-level variables.

Karnofsky performance status:

a scale of objective criteria for the quality of life, which is used for patients with incapacitating diseases; the scale was developed for patients with cancer and of use in AIDS.


laparascopic colectomy:

excision of part or all of the colon using a laparoscope passed through the abdominal wall.


abnormal area, may be benign or malignant.


any cancer of the blood-forming tissues characterized by production of leukocytes: white blood cells.

lobular carcinoma in situ:

a very early type of breast cancer that develops within the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast and does not penetrate through the wall of the lobules.

local recurrence:

recurrence of a tumor at its original location.


complete surgical removal of a cancerous breast lump with little adjacent breast tissue.

luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH):

a hormone released from the hypothalamus that triggers the secretion of luteinizing hormone from the anterior pituitary.


excision of the lymph nodes.

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