E

echography:

the location, measurement, or delineation of deep structures by measuring the reflection or transmission of high frequency or ultrasonic waves.

endarterectomy:

excision of diseased tissues surrounding the lumen of an artery.

endoscopy:

a procedure in which the doctor looks inside the body through a lighted tube called an endoscope.

etiology:

the science and study of the causes of disease and their mode of operation.

exenteration:

removal of internal organs and tissues, usually radical removal of the contents of a body cavity, such as all the pelvic organs.

extracapsular extension:

invasion of a tumor beyond the capsule surrounding its organ of origin, for example if prostate cancer invades beyond the capsule surrounding the prostate or tumor near a joint extends beyond the joint capsule.

F

febrile neutropenia:

fever associated with a low neutrophil count.

G

germ cell:

reproductive cells produced by the ovaries (eggs) or the testis (sperm).

Gleason score:

grade of tumor of the prostate; based on glandular differentiation.

H

hematopoietic stem cells:

cells in the bone marrow from which all cells in the circulating blood are derived.

hospice:

a discrete site of care in the form of an inpatient hospital or nursing home unit or a freestanding facility; an organization or program that provides, arranges, and advises on a wide range of medical and supportive services for dying patients and their families and friends; an approach to care for dying patients based on clinical, social, and metaphysical or spiritual principles.

K

kappa coefficient:

used to measure the strength of agreement between two data gatherers for interval, ordinal, or nominal-level variables.

Karnofsky performance status:

a scale of objective criteria for the quality of life, which is used for patients with incapacitating diseases; the scale was developed for patients with cancer and of use in AIDS.

L

laparascopic colectomy:

excision of part or all of the colon using a laparoscope passed through the abdominal wall.

lesion:

abnormal area, may be benign or malignant.

leukemia:

any cancer of the blood-forming tissues characterized by production of leukocytes: white blood cells.

lobular carcinoma in situ:

a very early type of breast cancer that develops within the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast and does not penetrate through the wall of the lobules.

local recurrence:

recurrence of a tumor at its original location.

lumpectomy:

complete surgical removal of a cancerous breast lump with little adjacent breast tissue.

luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH):

a hormone released from the hypothalamus that triggers the secretion of luteinizing hormone from the anterior pituitary.

lymphadenectomy:

excision of the lymph nodes.



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