cancer that begins in the lymphatic system, such as in the lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus.


magnetic resonance imaging (MRI):

a technique that employs a magnetic field to provide images of the internal structure of the body; computer-generated images from the magnetic frequencies correspond to particular structures in the body.

managed care:

an entity that assumes both the clinical and financial responsibility for the provision of health care for a defined population.


border between a tumor and normal tissue.


excision of all or part of the breast.

medical oncologist:

physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, especially in the use of chemotherapy to treat cancer.


the spread of cancer from its original site to one or more additional body sites.

modified radical mastectomy:

removal of the breast, skin, nipple, areola, and most of the axillary lymph nodes on the same side, leaving the chest muscles intact.


neoadjuvant therapy:

use of anticancer drugs before initial surgery or radiation treatment.


low neturophil (a type of white blood cell) count; this is associated with high risk of infection. nonseminomatous: subtype of testicular cancer.


open colectomy:

removal of part or all of the colon through abdominal surgery.


removal of one or both testes.



the act of relieving or soothing a symptom, such as pain, without actually curing the cause.

palliative care:

treatment of symptoms associated with the effects of cancer and its treatment.


excision of all or part of the pancreas together with the duodenum.


around the time of operation.

peripheral stem cell:

a cell collected from blood that is capable of producing diverse cell types.


surgery to remove part or all of the lung.


inflammation of the mucous membrane of the rectum.

prostate specific antigen:

a protein found in the blood that may be elevated in patients with prostate cancer.


Q-twist (Quality-Adjusted Time Without Symptoms or Toxicity):

a statistical technique that brings quality of life factors into the analysis of treatment regimens.


a partial mastectomy in which the quarter of the breast that contains tumor is removed.


radiation oncologist:

physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, especially in the use of x-rays (radiation) to treat cancer.

radical prostatectomy:

the removal of the prostate and the surrounding tissue as a treatment for prostate cancer.

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