randomized (clinical) trial:

an experiment designed to test the safety and efficacy of a medical technology in which people are randomly allocated to experimental or control groups, and outcomes are compared.


seed implants:

technique in which the radioactive source is placed in close proximity to the malignancy and provides a predictable dose of radiation to a confined area.

segmental resection:

removal of the lump and a small amount of surrounding breast tissue.

spiculated mass:

tumor with highly irregular, spiked appearance—usually associated with invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma.


the determination of the anatomic extent of a cancer.

stress incontinence:

involuntary discharge of urine due to anatomic displacement which exerts an opening pull on the bladder orifice, as in straining or coughing.



incision into the chest wall.

tumor necrosis factor:

a substance produced by certain white blood cells that kills cancer cells.

tumor-node-metastasis (TNM):

standard nomenclature for the staging of tumors according to three basic components: the size of the primary tumor (T), involvement of regional lymph nodes (N), and metastastis (M). Numbers are used to denote size and degree of involvement; for example, 0 indicates undetectable and 1, 2, 3, and 4, a progressive increase in size or involvement.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement