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randomized (clinical) trial:
an experiment designed to test the safety and efficacy of a medical technology in which people are randomly allocated to experimental or control groups, and outcomes are compared.
technique in which the radioactive source is placed in close proximity to the malignancy and provides a predictable dose of radiation to a confined area.
removal of the lump and a small amount of surrounding breast tissue.
tumor with highly irregular, spiked appearance—usually associated with invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma.
the determination of the anatomic extent of a cancer.
involuntary discharge of urine due to anatomic displacement which exerts an opening pull on the bladder orifice, as in straining or coughing.
incision into the chest wall.
tumor necrosis factor:
a substance produced by certain white blood cells that kills cancer cells.
standard nomenclature for the staging of tumors according to three basic components: the size of the primary tumor (T), involvement of regional lymph nodes (N), and metastastis (M). Numbers are used to denote size and degree of involvement; for example, 0 indicates undetectable and 1, 2, 3, and 4, a progressive increase in size or involvement.