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13io,qraphicat Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ~io~ro~phico~t Memoirs VOLUME 76 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D. C. 1999

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Con- gress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its cor- porate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-06434-1 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-2 6629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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CONTENTS PREFACE SAMUEL KING ALLISON BY ROGER H. HILDEBRAND KENNETH TOMPKINS BAINBRIDGE BY ROBERT V. POUND AND NORMAN F. RAMSEY VALENTINE BARGMANN BY]OHN R. KLAUDER ROBERT W. BRIGGS BY MARIE A. DI BERARDINO THEODORE L. CAIRNS BY BLAINE C. MCKUSICK BRUCE CHALMERS BY DAVID TURNBULL KATHERINE ESAU BY RAY F. EVE RT MAXWELL FINLAND BY FREDERICK C. ROBBINS V . . Vll 3 19 37 51 65 77 91 103

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V1 BENO GUTENBERG BY LEON KNOPOFF MARY R. HAAS BY KENNETH L. PIKE CONTENTS GEORGE HENRY HEFTING BY ELLIS B. COWLING, ARTHUR KELMAN, AND HARRY R. POWERS, JR. EDWIN C. KEMBLE BY ALEXI ASSMUS WILLEM JACOB LUYTEN BY ARTHUR UPGREN ROBERT EUGENE MARSHAK BY ERNEST M. HENLEY AND HARRY LUSTIG JEROME NAMIAS BY]OHN O. ROADS EDWARD PURDY NEY BY ROBERT D. GEHRZ, FRANK B. MCDONALD, AND JOHN E. NAUGLE CHRISTIAN HEINRICH FRIEDRICH PETERS BY WILLIAM SHEEHAN HOWARD ENSIGN SIMMONS, JR. BY]OHN D. ROBERTS AND JOHN W. COLLETTE GEORGE JOSEPH STIGLER BY MILTON FRIEDMAN CLINTON NATHAN WOOLSEY BY RICHARD F. THOMPSON 115 149 161 179 199 219 243 269 289 315 341 361

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PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signet! the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sci- ences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scien- tists, electec! for outstanding contributions to knowlecige, who can be caller! upon to advise the fecleral government. As an institution the Acaclemy's goal is to work towarc! in- creasing scientific knowlecige en c! to further the use of that knowlecige for the general goocI. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories en c! selectee! bibliogra- phies of cleceasec! members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the cliscipline en c! the subject's work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a recorc! of the life en c! work of our most clistinguishec! leaclers in the sci- ences, as witnessed en c! interpreted by their colleagues en c! peers. They form a biographical history of science in America an important part of our nation's contribution to the intellectual heritage of the worIcI. PETER H. RAVEN Home Secretary . . V11

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