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DOlL CONSERVATION - ASSESSING THE NATIONAL RESOURCES INVENTORY Volume 2 Committee on Conservation Needs and Opportunities Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1986

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National Academy Press . 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW . Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special compe- tences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's pur- poses of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self- governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences. This project was supported under Agreements No. 59-3A75-4-57, Soil Conservation Ser- vice, and No. 59-32U4-4045, Science and Education, between the U.S. Department of Agri- culture and the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 86-60330 ISBN 0-309-03675-5 Coffer Photograph courtesy of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. Printed in the United States of America

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Committee on Conservation Needs and Opportunities M. GORDON WOLMAN (Chairman), The Johns Hopkins University GEORGE W. BAILEY, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, Georgia SANDRA S. BATIK, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University THOMAS E. FENTON, Iowa State University WILBUR W. FRYE, University of Kentucky WILFORD R. GARDNER, University of Arizona GEORGE W. LANGDALE, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Watkinsville, Georgia WILLIAM E. LARSON, University of Minnesota DONALD K. McCOOL, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Washington State University FRANCIS I. PIERCE, Michigan State University PAUL E. ROSENBERRY, Iowa State University LEO M. WALSH, University of Wisconsin Staff CHARLES M. BENBROOK, Project Officer CARLA CARLSON, Editor . . . 111

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Board on Agriculture WILLIAM L. BROWN (Chairman), Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. JOHN A. PING (Vice Chairman), Inter-American Development Bank PERRY L. ADKISSON, Texas A&M University C. EUGENE ALLEN, University of Minnesota LAWRENCE BOGORAD, Harvard University ERIC L. ELLWOOD, North Carolina State University JOSEPH ~ FONTENOT, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University RALPH W. ~ HARDY, BioTechnica International, Inc., and Cornell University ROGER L. MITCHELL, University of Missouri CHARLES C. MUSCOPLAT, Molecular Genetics, Inc. ELDOR A. PAUL, Michigan State University VERNON W. RUTTAN, University of Minnesota JAMES A. TEER, Welder Wildlife Foundation IAN VAN SCHILFGAARDE, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado VIRGINIA WALBOT, Stanford University CHARLES M. BENBROOK, Executive Director 1V

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Authors K. ERIC ANDERSON, U.S. Geological Survey RICHARD W. ARNOLD, Soil Conservation Service, USDA B. I. BARFIELD, University of Kentucky NELSON L. BILLS, Cornell University LEE A. CHRISTENSEN, University of Georgia MARION CLAWSON, Resources for the Future R. H. DOWDY, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, and University of Minnesota BURTON C. ENGLISH, Iowa State University KLAUS W. FLACH, Soil Conservation Service, USDA G. R. FOSTER, Purdue University DALE A. GILLETTE, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RALPH E. HEIMLICH, Economic Research Service, USDA CHRIS I. JOHANNSEN, Purdue University WILLIAM E. LARSON, University of Minnesota J. C. McBURNIE, University of Kentucky ARNOLD R. MILLER, Farm Credit Administration JOHN A. MIRANOWSKI, Economic Research Service, USDA WILLIAM C. MOLDENHAUER, Purdue University CLAYTON W. OGG, Economic Research Service, USDA RONALD B. OUTEN, U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works ~ I. PIERCE, Michigan State University KENNETH G. RENARD, Agricultural Research Service, USDA GLAUCIO ROLOFE University of Minnesota C. FORD RUNGE, University of Minnesota PAUL E. ROSENBERRY, Iowa State University R. NEIL SAMPSON, American Forestry Association MAX SCHNEPt Soil Conservation Society of America WESLEY D. SEITZ, University of Illinois DAVID I. WALKER, University of Idaho DOUGLAS L. YOUNG, Washington State University or

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Preface The papers in this book provide new information on several aspects of soil erosion and applications of the National Resources Inventory (NRI). They were commissioned following a planning workshop in July 1984 and were presented in December 1984 during a national convocation, "Physical Di- mensions of the Erosion Problem." The workshop and convocation were held by the National Research Council's Board on Agriculture in response to a request from the Soil Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture to facilitate the establishment of discussion between the SCS and natural resource experts. The Board on Agriculture was specifically asked to evaluate the potential applications of the 1982 NRI. The data provided by these 11 papers and 12 discussions support and expand on the information and conclusions presented in Soil Conservation: Assessing the National Resources Inventory, Volume 1, the report of the board's Committee on Conservation Needs and Opportunities. The papers address three aspects of the NRI: analytical results and meth- ods, specific applications, and resource policy and decision making. New results and methods are described in papers dealing with an improved soil erosion classification scheme, soil erosion productivity damage, and field estimates of C factors. Other papers discuss specific applications of NRI data to ephemeral gully erosion, wind erosion, erosion on rangeland and forestland, erosion control practices, and offsite erosion damage. Resource policy is discussed as it relates specifically to new cropland conversions, targeting soil conservation programs, and use of the NRI in state and local decision making. The committee is indebted to all who participated in the workshop and convocation, whether as presenters or as additional sources of ideas and information. We particularly appreciate the work of the authors of the tech- nical papers and the discussion papers in writing and revising their man- uscripts. These papers make important contributions to the knowledge needed by investigators, analysts, and policymakers to ensure effective use of the NRI and ultimately for control of the process of soil erosion. M. Gordon Wolman Chairman . . V11

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Contents 1. An Improved Soil Erosion Classification: Update Comparison, and Extension .............. Ralph E. Heimlich and Nelson L. Bills Discussion; Richard Vat Arnold .................. Discussion: K Eric Anderson .......... 2. Assessing Soil Erosion Productivity Damage David f. Walker and Douglas 1~. Young . . . .... 1 ... 17 . 19 Field Estimates of C Factors: How Good Are They and How Do They Affect Calculations of Erosion? ....... F.~. Pierce, W. E. Larson, end R.H. Dowdy Discussion: William C Moldenhauer .......... 4. Understanding Ephemeral Gully Erosion G. R Foster Discussion: B. ]. Barfield and/. C McBurnie S. Wind Erosion DaZeA. Gillette Discussion: Klaus ~ Flach 6. Erosion on Range and Forest Lands: Impacts of Land Use and Management Practices ................ R Neil Sampson Discussion: Kenneth G. Renard 21 63 . . . . ..... 86 ........... 90 .. 125 .... 129 59 1X 194 ... 163

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7. Erosion Control Practices: The impact of Actual Versus MostEffectiveUse 204 Paul E Rosenberry and Burton C English Discussion: Arnold R Miller .. 231 8. Applications of the NRI Data to inventory, Monitor, and Appraise Offsite Erosion Damage Lee A. Christensen Discussion: Ronald B. Outen 9. New Cropland in the 1982 NRI: implications for Resource Policy Clayton W. Ogg ................. 237 251 Discussion: Wesley D. Seitz Discussion: Marion Clawson . 269 ....... 272 253 10. A Midwestern Perspective on Targeting Conservation Programs to Protect Soil Productivity 273 C Ford Runge, William E Larson, and Glaucio Robot Discussion: fohnA. Miranowski .......... 293 I. Potential Uses of the NR! in State and Local Decision Making ..................................... Chris I. fohannsen Discussion: Max Schnepf ..................... x ..... 309 296

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