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APPE=I X RE:S13LTS FOR PERIOD SUBGROUPS The models descr ibed in the final results were reesti- mated for subgroups of the entire sample selected for the analysis. Because intervals farther away frown the survey date are less and less representative, the period was restricted to the more and more recent past: intervals begun since 1960, since 1965, and s ince 1970 . All equations were reestimated for these per lads . IDGISTIC ~G~SION MODEM FOR TO P=PE=I~ TO B REASTFEED AND FOR 'ah I: PROPENS It ~ USE CONTRACEPTION: ESTIMATES BY PERIOD Tables Al and A2 give the r esults for the propensity to breastfeed and the propensity to contracept, respectively, with models estimated for birth intervals from progres- sively restricted calendar periods. These results should be compared to Table ~ in the main text. Information on breastfeeding and contraception is rests toted to the las t closed and the open birth intervals. These intervals are spread aver the per iod from 1960 to 1976 . Since it is likely that breastfeeding was declining and contraception increasing in both countries cover this period, there is some concern that results using all intervals may not be representative. Indeed, the next-to~last row of Table Al shows that, as the per iod of analysis is restr icted to the progressively more recent past, a larger fraction of women are breastfeeding in neither the last closed nor the open interval in both Colombia and Costa Rica, but the changes are relatively small. The results for contraception are much less clear . This is in part du e to the fact that only information from the last closed and open birth interval is used. Contraception is 73

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74 TABLE A. 1 Logistic Regression for Probability of Breastfeeding by Period COLo~ns" COSTA RI" since since since since since since 1960 1965 1910 1960 1965 1970 cons tent 3.667* ( .2457) 3.826* ( .2672) 3.845* ( .3053) 1.680* (.1313) 1.560* (.1392) 1.769* (.1913) work ~ ince - .0280 - .0964 - .3809 .4022 .6753 .18S9 marriages (.3116) (.3378) (.3802) (.2684) (.2848) (.3720) work away - .0174 - .3059 .1066 - .4039 - .3984 .0642 fro. hooea (.3530) (.3762) (.4529) (.3009) (.32S7) (.4464) woman's -.0409 -.0324 -.0377 .0169 .0188 .0391 ed uc at ion ( .0499) ( .0522) ( .0627) ( .0288) ( .0308) ( .0429) husband ' s - .0707 -.0979* - .1166* -.0424 -.0334 -.1153* education (.0413) '(.0431) (.0527) (.0248) (.0268) (.0369) urban - .6302* - .7153* - .8630* - .0765 - .1750 - .1746 residence. (.2772) (.2949) (.3329) (.1713) (.1845) (.2614) Model x2 27.17 36.27 32.87 8.42 7.55 16.72 df 5 5 5 5 5 5 pred ic t ive .683 .683 .671 .337 .315 .303 accuracy Z not 6.0 6.2 6.7 17.4 18.5 19.8 breast feeding 1538 1334 877 1319 1099 565 Notes: a Indicator variable: lies. Standard errors are in parentheses. * indicates statistical significance at the .05 level. concentrated in the open interval, and the use of contraception markedly lengthens these intervals. Thu. the longer intervals that started in the earlier period tend to be associated with contraceptive use S conversely, short intervals will have begun more recently and will not be associated with contraceptive use. Therefore, there is no clear trend in the propensity to use contraception in the intervals examined. In spite of the alight decline in breastfeeding and the absence of trends in contraception, the coefficient estimates in Tables Al and A2 show remarkably little change as the period of analysis is restricted. In the case of breastfeeding, two changes are apparent, and these apply only to the most restricted case (since 1970): in Colombia, the coefficient on urban residence becomes significant; in both Colombia and Costa Rica, the coefficient on husband's education becomes significant.

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75 TABLE A. 2 Logistic Regression for Probability of Using Contraception by Per iod COLOMBIA COSTS RICA ince ~ ince ~ ince s ince ~ ince ~ ince 1960 196S 1970 1960 1965 1970 constant -.9791* - .8794* -.9237* .8288* .8832* .8340* (.1097) (.11SS) (.1348) (.1311) (.1460) (.2018) work since .1372 .0409 .0589 .0556 .0235 -.1062 marriages (.1632) (.1722) (.2014) (.2234) (.2366) (.3208) work may - .2555 - .22S3 - .1585 .0534 .5566 .6924 fro. hooca (.2067) (.2219) (.2698) (.2741) (.3213) (.4652) woman ' ~ .2195* .2037* .1505* .0885* .0813* .0885* education (.0329) (.0348) (.0411) (.0324) (.0362) (.0503) husband ' s .1223* .1142* .1228* .0182 .0131 - .0040 education (.0295) ( .0312) ( .0371) ( .0283) ( .0312) ( .0440) urban .8114* .8583* .7507* .5700* .4931* .8402* residence (.1262) (.1329) (.1576) (.184S) (.2101) (.3260) Model x2 299.67 236.19 120.05 49.45 43.81 30.72 df 5 5 5 5 5 5 prep ic t ive .180 .165 .103 .341 .352 .339 accuracy Z not 38.4 38.8 46.0 18.3 17.8 18.9 cant racept ing N 1538 1334 877 1319 1099 S65 Notes: a Indicator variable: 1-yes. Standard errors are in parentheses. * Indicates statistical significance at the .05 level. Thus in the more recent period, there are larger social and economic differentials in breastfeeding behavior than are indicated by the full sample results. In the case of contraception, the coefficient on women's education drops from being statistically significant at the .05 level to being of borderline significance, but the change in the size of the standard error in small and may be attributable to the reduced sample size. HAZARD MODELS FOR TERMIANTION OF BREAST ring AND CONTRACEPTIVE DISCONTINUATION: ESTIMATION BY PERIOD Tables As through As gave the estimated coefficients for the hazard models for duration of breastfeeding and duration of contraceptive use . These results should b e compared to the final column in Tables 5 and 6 in the main text. Again, the results are remarkably robust to the elimination of intervals from the increasingly distant

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76 T^BLE ^.3 Coefficient Estisates for ~er.1nation of Breastfeed1ng by Peridd: Co10.b1e . si"~e 1960 "iec. 1963 siace 1970 _ , co. f f . "ac flog cee f f . "ot i lo' cse f f . "ut i los "ork s ince - . O5S .9423 -,0595 . S23 .0519 1.053 _rr i~ge ~ ( .0652) ( .0714) ( .0951) "o^ _, - .0030 .9970 .0159 1.016 -.1571 .8566 fros _" (.0792) (.0885) (.1266) "o.~n ' s .0679. 1.070 .0603. 1.062 .0490* 1.050 educetion (.0116) (.0127) (.0164) husb.~d ' s .0132 1.013 .0184 1.019 .0462* 1.067 educst iou ( .0099) ( .0108) ( .0144) urben res idence. .2572* 1.293 .2926* 1.360 .3099* 1.36] (.0527) (.0560) (.0727) psric, - .0265* .9738 -.0293. .9711 -.0~8@* ,9524 ( .0084) ( .0090) ( .0127) chi ld surviv"1 - .4407* .6436 - .4577* .6327 - .4457* .6404 pest #ge cwo. (.0946) (.1061) (.1314) Period 1 (0-2 "onths) const~nt -2,278* .1025 -2.234* .1071 -2.267* .1036 (.1207) - (.1317) (.1670) Period 2 (3-5 "ouths) constenc -2.194* .1114 -2.187. .1122 -2.214* .1092 (.1223) (.1349) (.1708) Period 3 (6-11 "ouths) constent -I .993* .1363 -1.981* .1379 -2.001* .1352 ( 1198) ( .1308) ( .1653) Period 4 (12-17 "ouths) coost~at -2.053. .12a. -2.025* .1320 -1.890. .1511 (.1332) (.1458) ( .1831) Period ~ (18-23 "ouths) coust"nt -1.831* .1603 -1.830. .1604 -1.643. .1934 ( .1449) ( .1595) ( .2036) Period 6 (24. "ouths) coos t "~t -2 ~ ~ 13* .0810 -2. ~ 14* .0809 - 1.967* .1398 (.1853) (.2036) (.3162) logl ikel ihood -6225. -5259. -3DOO. N 2154 1854 1145 -~es: ~ Indicstor verisble: l.~es. Stenderd errors "re ia perencheses. * indic.:es @~"cisciC"1 significance "t the .05 level.

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77 TABLE ^.4 Coefficient Estimates for Termination of Breastfeeding by Period: Costa Rica since 1960 sine. 1965 since 1970 chaff. antilog coeff. "~:il~g coeff. antilog work since -.0630 .9389 -.0328 .9677 -.0217 ,9785 ""rri.~. (.0769) (.0841) (.1279) work _~, .0833 1,087 .0846 1.088 .1540 1.166 frog bores (.0916) (.1033) (.1625) go _n's .0395* 1.040 .0360* 1.037 .0222 1.023 education (.1019) (.0112) (.0176) husbend'e .0125 1.013 .0160 1.016 .0273 1.028 education (.0093) (.0103) (.0160) urban .1390* 1.149 .1091 1.115 .0546 1.056 residence" (.0583) (.0657) (.1081) parity -.0286* .9718 -.0275* ,9729 -.0580* .9437 (.0091) (.0100) (.0150) child survival -.5683* .5665 -.5468* .5788 -.7595* .4679 past age two. (.1328) (.1455) (.2201) Period 1 (0-2 sontb@) constant -1.636* .1947 -1.632* .1955 -1.263* .2828 (.1528) (.1682) (.2514) Period 2 (3-5 months) - conetant -1.764* .1713 -1.813* .1632 -1.394* .2482 (,1580) (.1747) (.2615) Period 3 (6-11 months) constant -1.528* .2169 -1.566* .2089 -1.206* .2994 (.1555) (.1708) (.2579) Period ~ (I ~17 ~oaths) constant -1.672* .1878 -1.727* .1778 -1.076* .3410 (.1717) (.1889) (.2769) Period 5 (18-23 months) constant -1.686* .1853 -1,679* .1866 -1.028* .3579 (.1944) (.2117) (.3210) Period 6 (24+ mouths) constant -2.024* .1322 -2.080* .1250 -1.361* .2564 (.2342) (.2712) (.5724) log likelihood -5116. -4082. -1871. N 1777 1434 697 Notes: ~ Indicator for variable: layer. Standard errors are in parentheses. * indicates statistical significance at the .05 level.

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78 past: although the shape of the hazard is necessarily modified as the longer intervals are eliminated, the signs, magnitude, and statistical significance of the coefficients remain remarkably stable. Tables AS and Ad give the results for duration of breastfeeding. Among those variables which are statistically significant for the full sample, only urban residence parses into insig- nificance, and that only in Costa Rica in the most recent period. Tables AS and As give the results for duration of contraceptive use. In Colombia, the coefficient on urban residence is not significant in the most recent period, whereas it is significant when the full sample is analyzed. In Costa Rica, it is no longer significant once the longest intervals (those which began before 1960) have been eliminated. The coefficients on the variable indicating desire for additional children, which are allowed to vary with subperiod of the interval of use, become somewhat unstable as the period is restricted. The coefficients on the variable indicating that the method used is coitu--dependent increase in absolute value as the period is restricted, partly because the longer intervals in the earlier periods may be the result of long and effective use of these methods, as already noted in the main text. HAZARD MODELS FOR LIVE-BIR~ MENTIONS: EST BY PERIOD Tables A7 and As give the estimated coeff icients for the model of conception rates. These results should be compared to the f inal column in Tables 9 and 10 in the main text. As with the results already discussed in this appendix, there are few notable changes as the sample is progressively restricted. The shape of the hazard necessarily changes as longer intervals are eliminated; however, the signs, magnitude, and statistical signifi- cance of the coefficients generally remain stable. In Colombia, urban residence is no longer significant when the longest intervals are removed and only those begun since 1960 are examined; in Costa Rica, this is the case when those begun before 1965 are eliminated. Th is suggests that the longest intervals from the earlies t per iod are associated with births to urban women . The impact of use of contraception diminishes as the per iod i s restr icted; however, as noted earlier, this may be an artifact of longer intervals from earlier per iods being

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79 the result of efficient use. This is more marked for coitus-dependent than for coitu~independent methods. Similarly, and probably for the same reasons, the impac t o f breastfeeding diminishes as intervals are rests toted to the more recent past. In contrast, the coefficients on the time~varying aspect of con tr aception inch ease as the period of analysis is restricted, perhaps because of respondents' better recall of the more recent past. The coefficients indicating child survival show no consistent pattern of change in either country, despite considerable mor tality decline over the per iod .

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so TABLE A.5 Coefficient Estimates for Contraceptive Discontinuation by Period: Colombia since 1960 since 1965 since 1970 coeff, antilog coeff. antilog coeff. antilog work since .0120 1.012 .0205 1.021 -.0669 .9353 ."rriege. (.1165) (.1268) (.1668) work away -.0266 .9737 .0294 1.030 .2224 1.249 free beet (.1382) (.1516) (.2040) wos~n's -.0364 .9643 -.0241 .9762 .0348 1.035 education (.0218) (.0230) (.0284) husband's -.0014 .9986 -.0080 .9920 -.0356 .9650 education (.0173) (.0186) (.0250) urban -.2384* .7879 -.2567* .7736 -.1779 .8370 residence (.1033) (.1070) (.1325) parity -.1055* .8998 -.1147* .8917 -.0920* .9121 (.0200) (.0209) (.0286) bresstfeeding. -.1840 .8320 -.2306 .7941 .0144 1.015 (.1472) (.1569) (.1965) child survival -.0010 .9990 -.0066 .9935 -.3750 .6873 past age twit (.1774) (.1893) (.2491) Period 1 (0-2 moachs) - constaut -3.363* .0346 -3.142* .0432 -3.252* .0387 (.3422) (.3567) (.4815) desire additional -.0599 .9419 -.1922 .8251 -.1593 .8527 children. (.2850) (.2985) (.3594) coitus-dependent .6331* 1.883 .5791* 1.784 .6605 1.936 contraception. (.2697) (.2744) (.3491) Period 2 (3-5 months) constant -3.130* .0437 -2.952* .0523 -2.744* .0643 (.3308) (.3483) (.4521) desire additional .2701 1.310 .1858 1.204 .1412 1.152 children. (.2679) (.2789) (.]263) coitus-dependent .2377 1.268 .2173 1.243 .0023 1.002 contraception. (.2588) (.2680) (.3200)

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81 TABLE A.S (continued) since 1960 since 1965 since 1970 coeff. "tilog coef f . satilog coeff. antilog . Period 3 (6-11 aonthe) conatant tesire edtitione1 ch i ldren. -3.430* ( .3118) .0324 .3564 1.428 ( .2146) -3.320* .0361 ( .332S ) .3498 1.419 ( .2228) -3.048* .047S ( .4391) 0347 ( .2813) 1.03S coitua~depeadent .5010* 1.6SO .5561* 1.744 .3763 1.457 contraception. (.2107) (.2193) (.2717) Period 4 (12-17 aonthe) constant -3.840* .0215 -3.648* .0260 -3.143* .0431 ( .3498) ( .3680) ( .468S) desire additions] .2148 1.240 .1175 1.125 -.3177 .7278 children. ( .2689) ( .2804) ( .3233) coitus-depcodent .9053* 2.4?3 .9490* 2. S83 1.004* 2.730 contraception (.2700) (.2783) (.3173) Period S (18-23 oontbe) constant -3.863* .0210 -3.781* .0228 -3.524* .0295 (.3643) (.3949) (.S331) des ire add it ions1 chi ldren. co i tus-depcatent contreceptiona Periot 6 (24+ aontbe) cone t ant des irc adtit tonal children. coitus-depcodent contracept ion~ .582S 1.790 ( .3194) .1910 1.210 ( .3170) -3.774* .0230 ( .2796) .6464* 1.909 ( .1371) .3513* 1.421 ( .1306) .5247 1.690 ( .3514) .2069 1.230 (.3501) -3.490* ( .2976) .S167* 1.676 ( . lS21) .3410* 1.406 (.1443) .3666 1.443 ( .4416) .3044 1.356 ( .4384) -2.626* ( .4146) .0148 1.015 ( .2242) .431S 1. S39 ( .2194) l og 1 ike 1 ihood - 2865. -24S 6. - 1298. N 1151 1006 571 Notce: ~ Indicator ~rcriable: l~es. Standerd errore are in perentbeses * inticates statistica1 significance at the .OS le~rel.

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82 TABLE A. 6 Coefficient Estimates for Contraceptive Discontinuation by Period: Costa Rica since 1960 since 1965 since 1970 coeff. antilog coeff. antilog coeff. antilog Boric ~ ince .0437 1.045 .09S5 1.100 .2058 1.228 marriage a (.1519) (.1647) (.2315) work away .0947 1.099 .0862 1.090 .0393 1.040 from hooea ( .1655) (.1809) (.2582) woolen 's - .0394* .9614 -.0444* .9655 -.0747* .9280 education (.0159) (.0173) (.0242) husband ' ~ .0136 1.014 .0043 1.004 .0346 1.035 educat ion ( .0136) ( .0144) ( .0200) urban -.1100 .8958 .0403 1.041 . 0978 1 . 103 residences ( .0968) ( .1043) ( . 1492) parity -.1374* .8716 -.1259* .8817 -.1316* .8767 ( .0221 ) ( .0227) (.0324) bresstfeedinga .1735 1.189 .0813 1.085 .0641 1.066 (.1126) (.1183) (.1546) child survival -. 1937 .8239 -.0828 .9205 -. 9334* . 3932 past age twos ( . 2203) ( . 2299) ( . 2931 ) Period 1 (0-2 months) constant -3.921* .0198 -3.928* .0197 -2.965* .0516 ( .3920) ( .4015) ( .5077) desire additional -.0575 .9441 -.0440 .9570 .1515 1.164 childrena (.26B8) (.2817) (.3312) co i t uo-dependent .9584* 2.607 .9867* 2.682 1.093* 2.984 c ant rac e pt ions ( .3092) ( .3146) ( .3692) Period 2 (3-5 months) - c one t ant -3.918* .0199 -3.866* .0209 -2.586* .0753 ( .3819) ( .3985) ( .4812) desire additional .3693 1.447 .1807 1.198 .0772 1.080 ch i ldrena ( .2730) ( .2899) ( .3266) co i t us-dependent .7666* 2.153 .8206* 2.272 .9023* 2.465 concreceptiona (.2914) (.3056) (.3140) .

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83 TABLE a. 6 (continued) BiDCe 1960 since 196S since 1970 coeff . anc flog coef f . "t flog coef f . ant flog Period 3 (6-11 ~onthe) constent -3.861* .0210 -3.899* .0203 -2.827* .0592 (.~83) (.3503) (.4S48) tesire adtitione1 .0922 1.097 .1114 1.118 -.1202 .8867 chi Idrena ( . 2298 ) ( . 2399 ) ( . 3074 ) coitus-dependent .5213* 1.684 .6369* 1.891 .9004* 2.461 cont recept ion. ( . 2378 ) ( . 2456 ) ( . 3145 ) Periot 4 ( 12-17 oc'~tbe) conetant ~4. 263* .0141 ~4. 278* .0139 -2. 747* .0641 ( . 3t66 ) ( . 3923 ) ( .4750 ) des ire addit ione1 . 43tO 1 . 548 .4017 1 . 494 - . 109S . 8963 children. (.27b~g) (.2946) (.1591) c o i t us-de pendent . 5689* 1 . 766 . 637 5* 1 . 892 . 6814 1 . 97 7 contreception~ ( . 2798) ( . 2944) ( . 3574) Period 5 ( 18-23 ~onthe conatent -4 . 216* .0148 ~4 . 181* . 01S3 -2 . 877* . 0563 (.3764) (.3854) (.5128) desire addit ione1 .3652 1 .441 . 3431 1 .409 - .0965 . 9080 chiltren ( . 2479) ( . 2548) ( .3471 ) coitus-dependent 1 . 042* 2 .835 1 . 206* 3.340 1 . 456* 4. 290 contraception ( . 2761) ( . 2789) ( . 3753) Period 6 (24+ ~onthe) constent ~4 . 636* .0097 ~ . 582* .0102 -2. S73* .0763 (.2869) (.3010) (.41'9) desire additional 1.009. 2.744 .9991* 2.716 .5420* 1.719 children (.1337) (.1528) (.2498) coitus-tependent . 7505* 2. 118 . 8154* 2. 260 . 8104* 2.249 contraception. ( .1331 ) ( . 1473) ( . 2282) 1Og lil~elihood -2970. -2474. -1198. N 1225 1035 536 Notce: ~ Indicator veriable: l~es. Stenderd errore are in perentbeses. * inticates statistice1 significance at tbe .05 le~rel.

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84 TAB~ A.7 Cc~efficient Esti~tes on the Fertility ~uation by Period: colo~bia since 1960 ince 196S since 1970 coeff. ~tilo~ coeff. antilo~ coeff. u~tilog s work since -.0237 . 9766 -.0426 .9582 -.0633 .9381 aerriese. ( .0721 ) (.0773) ( .0949) wo~c ~' - .0420 .9589 -.0346 . 9660 . 08S8 1 .090 f r~ ba~e. ( . 0884 ) ( . 096S ) ( .1243 ) ,0~ ~ ~ . 002S 1 . 002 - . 0002 . 9998 . 0010 1 . 001 educetion (.0138) (.0144) (.0179) husbend 's -. OOS7 .9943 -. 0138 .9863 -. OOSI . 9949 educatioo (.0120) (.0125) (.0163) urb~ -. 093S .9107 -.0970 .9076 . 0776 . 92S3 res idence' ( . OS98 ) ( .0627 ) ( . 076S ) co itus-independect -1 . 201* . 3008 -1 . OS4. . 348S - . 8760. .4164 coetraception~ (.134S) (.1368) (.1698) coitus-depeadent - . S986* . S497 ~ . 4388* . 6448 - . 3078 . 73S 1 contraceptios. ( .1295) (.1334) ( .1671 ) per i ty - . 1 24S* . 8829 - . 1274* . 8804 - . 0866* . 9171 (.0099) (.0104) (.0132) Period 1 (0-2 aonthe) cone tent -1 . 8S8* . ~ 559 -1 . 687* . 1851 -1 . 903* . 149 1 (.3018) . (.3260) (.3824) breastfeedingb -.9460* .3883 -1.094* .3350 -.9414* .3901 ( . 3233) ( .3317) ( . 3977) contreceptionC .1407 1.151 -.0804 .9227 -.4389 .6448 ( . 3609) ( . 3786) ( .49SO) ch i ld survi~ralb -1 . 201* .3009 -1 . 114* .3283 -1 . 190* . 3042 (.3639) (.3887) (.4631) Per iod 2 ( 3-S ~oothe ) conatent -2 . 204* . 1106 -2 . 259* . 1045 -2. 247* . lOS7 ( . 2899 ) ( . 3466 ) ( . 39S9) breas t feed i~b _ .1370 .8 7 20 - .1638 .8489 - .40 7 7 . 66S2 ( . 2194) ( . 22S2) ( . 2S77) cootreceptionC .1273 1.136 -.0679 .9344 -.1771 .8377 (.2427) (.2S10) (.3061) ch i ld cus~r ivelb - . 705 7* .4938 -.4699 . 62S 1 -.4972 . 6082 ( . 3276) ( . 3773) ( .4311 )

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85 T^BLE ^.7 (continuea) @i"~e 1960 "iac" 1965 since 1970 coef f . ~nt i log coe f f . ~nt i log coe f f . ~"t flog Period 3 (6-11 souths) constant -2.243* .1062 -2.143* .1174 -2.524* .0801 (.2149) (.2403) (.3217) brees t feed ingb _, 2935. .7457 - .4103* .6635 - .5242* .5920 ( .1253) ( .1322) ( .1588) contracept10nC -.0665 .9356 -.2765 .7584 -.~491 .6382 ( .1811) ( .1894) ( .2362) chi ld survivalb - .2627 .7690 - .1755 .8390 .1491 1.161 ( .2178) ( .2407) ( .3193) Period 4 (12-27 sonths) Period ~ (18-23 monthe ) -2.467 .B049 -2.134 .1184 -2.015 .1334 ( .2315) ( .2351) ( .2543) -.0172 ,9829 -.0530 .9484 -.1280 .8799 ( .1259) ( .1316) (.1547) - .1048 .9005 - .2726 .7614 - .2781 .7573 ( .1825) ( .1879) ( .2268) -.0246 .9757 -.1832 .8326 -.3295 .7193 ( .2318) ( .2327) ( .2486) constant -2.469* .0847 -2.081* .1248 -2.229* .1076 ( .2769) ( .2897) ( .3685) breastfeedingb -.0291 .9713 -.0102 .9899 -.0118 .9882 ( .1651) ( .1742) ( .2036) contreception~ -.8796* .4150 -1.096* .3341 -.9894* .3718 ( .2255) ( .2364) ( .2854) child survivelb .1183 1.126 -.9066 .9080 -.0250 .9753 ( .2795) ( .2920) ( .3723) Period 6 (24+ -~nthe) conetant -3.451* .0317 -2.981* .0507 -2.328* .0975 (.1729) (.2036) (.2715) brese t feed iogb _,1949 .8229 -2.162 .8055 - .0941 .9102 (.1358) ( .1489) (.1874) coutreceptionC -.0212 .9790 - .3014 .7398 -,1881 .8285 ( .1494) ( .1551) ( .1985) ch i ld survivalb .2639 1.302 .2642 1.302 - .0307 .9698 (,1646) ( .1906) (.2623) log likelihood -7502. -6319. -3805. N 2780 2407 1534 ~ Indicstor variable : l-~es. b Tise-varying indicator verieble : 1~, in period p ~nd .11 previous periods, p-1 6. c Ti~-~;ying indicetor verieble: l~yes in period p, p~l,. . . ,6, St"nderd errors "re in perentbeses. * iodicates statistic"] siguificence "t the .05 level.

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86 TABLE A.8 Coefficient Estimates on the Fertility Equation by Period: Costa Rica since 1960 since 196S since 1970 coeff. antilog coeff. antilog coeff. antilog work since .0327 1.033 .0878 1.092 -.0254 .9749 marriages (.0880) (.0948) (.1360) work ~~y -.0843 .9191 .0351 1.036 .3290 1.390 fro. hones (.1024) (.1136) (.1727) wo~n's .0019 1.002 -.0186 .9815 -.0349 .9657 education (.0115) (.0124)) (.0179) husband's -.0154 .9847 -.0113 .9888 -.0004 .9996 education (.0100) (.0108) (.0160) urban -.1332* .8753 -.OS83* .9434 -.0349* .9657 residences (.0662) (.0722) (.1060) coitus-independent -1.434* .2383 -1.391* .2489 -1.345* . .2604 contraceptiona (.1318) (.1388) (.1853) coitus-dependent -.7364* .4788 -.5702* .S654 -.4081* .6649 contraceptiona (.1226) (.1312) (.1736) parity -.1081* .8975 -.1131* .8930 -.1106* .8953 (.0105) (.0110) (.0157) Period 1 (0-2 montl`~) _ constant -2.597* .0745 -2.710* .0666 -2.973* .0511 (.5091) (.5866) (1.013) b _ * 4 -1 001* .3676 -I 179* .3077 breastfeeting 9430 .389 (.i411) (.3112) contraceptionC - 5209 .5940 - 5917 .S534 - 6029 .5472 ( 3389) ( 3433) ( 4157) child survivelb .1164 1.123 .3683 1.445 .8381 2.312 (.5246) (.6010) (1.022) Period 2 (3-5 months) constant -2.077* .1252 -2.208* .1099 -1.723* .1786 (.3280) (.3897) (.4661) bresetfeedingb ( 1882) - 6381* .5283 - 6984* .4974 contraceptionC -.2912 .7474 -.4738 .6226 -.5087 .6013 (.2430) (.2550) (.3020) child survivelb -.2909 .7476 -.0092 .9909 -.1906 .8265 (.3414) (.4020) (.4809)

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87 T^BLE A.8 (continued) siuce 1960 "1~e 1965 since 1970 . c~f f . ~t flog c~f f . ~: flog co. f f . ~t flog Period 3 (6-11 "ouths) const~nt -2.301* .1002 -2.143* .1173 -1.923* .1462 ( .2718) ( .2930) ( .3979) breastfeedingb ~ lt ,8106 Z fill) ' ~ ~ coutreceptionC -.2970 .7430 -.5073* .6021 -.6274* .5340 ( .1B41) ( .1957) ( .2491) child survivelb -.1935 .8240 -.1589 .8531 .0001 1.000 ( .2729) ( .2927) ( .3992) Period ~ (12-27 mouths) conetant -2.258* .1045 -2.140* .1177 -2.007* .1343 (.2803) (.3041) (.4637) b ress t f eed lngb .1820 1.200 .2337 1.263 - .1213 .8858 ( .1467) ( .1554) ( .2124) contraceptionC -.4958* .6091 -.7185* .4875 -.8608* .4228 ( .1882) ( .2009) ( .2510) child eurvivelb -.1561 .8555 -.0957 .9087 .3096 1.363 ( .2796) ( .3013) ( .4614) Period 5 (18-23 sonths ) cou. tent -2.560. .0773 -2.394* .0913 -1.745* .1747 (.3442) (.3672) (,4689) breastfeedingb ~ 1.205 ( l) ( ~ l) contreceptiooC -.1723 .8418 -2.~55 .7823 -.4817 .6177 (.2001) (.2144) (.2770) child survivelb -.0671 .9351 -.1215 .8856 -.1927 .8248 ( ,3463) ( .3683) ( .4679) Period 6 (24+ souths) coust"ot -3.659* .0258 -3.242. .0391 -1.166* .3117 (.2127) (.2271) (.3300) bresstfeedingb .0988 1,104 .0740 1.077 .5309 1.700 ( .1765) ( .1906) ( .2878) cootrecept ions .2967. 1,345 .1413 1.152 - .0033 .9967 ( .1420) ( .1510) ( .2208) ch i ld survivelb .3360 1.399 .2826 1.327 - .9579* .3837 ( .1993) ( .2123) ( .3058) 10g 1 ike 1 ibood -6744. -~416. -2478. N 2309 1908 956 Nbtes : a Indicecor verieble : l-~es. b Ti~e-~"ryiog indic"tor v"risble : 1=ye' i" per~od p ~nd "11 prev~ous per~ods, c [: ;;; log indicetor verisble : 1-~es in period p, p.1, . . . ,6. St~nderd errors "~e in perenkbeses, * iodicetes @ketistic.1 sig~ificence "t tbe .05 1~1.

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