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7 BIBLIOGRAPHY . Aoki, Shuji 1980 Review of the Occupation of Seamen in Japan. Mar itime Policy and Management, Vol. 7, No. 4: 233-239 . Arbe itsw issenschaf tliche Begle itfor schung nd The Ship of the Future Armbruster, William 1982 Two A. S. . -Flag Vessel s to Joint ABC Containerline ' ~ Fleet. The Journal 1 of Commerce, March 31. As fan Sh ipp ing 1982 Running Costs -- Management Operation of a Ship. Asian Shipping, Apr il 1982 Japanese Shipbuilders Meeting Challenge for Fuel and Manpower Economies. Asian Shipping, May, pg . 25 . Benford, Harry 1977 Observations Aboard the M/V ARARITA. Unpublished manuscript , 1983 Some Observations on Ship Manning Developments in Northern Europe, and Implications for Design. Institut for Schiffs -- und Meerestechnik of Technische Un~versitat Berlin. Birch, John F. 1977 Traditional Manning...No Seaway to Efficiency? Marine Week, February 4, pg. 12. 1977 Proposals for Modern Ship Manning. Safety at Sea International, December, pg . 23. 1979 Some Factors Relating to Shipping Accidents. Safety at Sea, November, pgs. 36-39. 73

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74 Bonwick, George J. (ed) 1965 Automation on Shipboard: Proceedings of a Seminar Held at Elsinore, Denmark, by the International Institute for Labour Studies, September 13-21. New York: Macmillan & Co. Binkhorst, Din P. J. -1981 Dutch Socio-technical Research Shows Need for Changes on Board. Norwegian Shipping News, No. 6, pg. 97. 1982 Social-Organizational Considerations for the Design and Functioning of Ships. Symposi im, Ship-Trans-Port Rotterdam, September 6-10, Netherlands Maritime Institute. 8jurstrom, Per-Olov 1972 Development Pro ject: Manning of Technically Advanced Ships of the Future. Swedish Shipowners' Assocation. Blenkey, Nicholas 1979 The Mariner as Manager. Marine Engineering/Log, October, pg. 75. Brafelt nd Research Pro jects Regarding Engineers Stand By Duty Systems. Unpublished manuscript. Bremen International 1981 The Ship of the Future on and Her Crewing. firemen International ~ November 11 O Brewer, James 1980 Manning Cuts a Threat to Ships' Safety -- ITF. Lloyd's List, March 27, pg. 1. 1980 Norway Ship Manning Deal a Big Success. Lloyd's List, January 12, pg. 1 1980 Best Savings is Manning Cuts. Lloyd's List, February 15, pg. 3. British Shipbuilders 1981 Notes on the Design of a 35, 000 dwt Bulk Carrier Intended to be Operated by a Reduced Number of Crew. British Shipbui lder s . Buck, P.B. 1965 Technological Change and the Merchant Seaman. International Labour Review, Vol. 92, No. 4:298-313. Cain, John G.D. 1978 Human Factors in Ship Design. Marine Engineers Review, September, pg. 10.

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75 Cain, J.G.D. and M. R.. Hatfield 1979 Design Workshop -- Superstructure. Sealife Programme, General Council of British Shipping. Calhoun, Jesse M. nd Improving Operating Competitiveness of the U.S. Merchant Marine: Labor. Unpublished manuscript. Cherel, R. 1977 The Dual-Purpose Officer: A New Approach to Ship Operations. Conference on Education and Training for Seagoing Officers in Europe, Bremen, October. 1978 Polyvalence -- Training for Dual-Purpose Off icers. Nautical Review, June, pg. 6. Container isation International 1980 The Crew-Cutting Puzzle. Containerisation International, Vol. 14, No. 11:41-45. 1981 Evergreen Mellows with Competition. Container isation International, August, pus. 28-29 . Dana Consult nd Sh ipboard Management . Copenhagen: DFDS . Echo 1982 Shipboard Management a Challenge. Echo, CN Marine, December. Widen, Rodney M. 1962 Ship Management: A Study in Definition and Measurement. Cambridge, Mass.: Cornell Maritime Press. Elliot, Bryan 1980 The Pace of Change: Or Who Will Be Redundant Next? Safety at Sea, No. 134, May. Elmer, A. 1982 Training Program to Improve Shipboard Management. Proceedings of the 1982 API Tanker Conference, innovations -- Looking Ahead.. Fairplay 1977 Manning: The Hidden Complications. Fairplay International Shipping Weekly, January 20 , pg. So. 1978 Now the Japanese Look for Reduced Manning Levels. Fairplay International Shipping Weekly, December. 1978 Swedish Unions Agree on Minimum Crew Numbers. Fairplay International Shipping Weekly, December.

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76 1980 Norweg fan Survivors Ready to Reverse the Decline . Fairplay International Shipping Weekly, May 1, pg . 37. 1980 New Training System of West German Crews. Fairplay International Shipping Weekly, May 1, pg . 23. 1980 Changing the Training System for Reduced Crew Numbers. Fairplay International Shipping Weekly, June 26, pg. 24. 1981 MMI Delivers ~Super-Rationalized. Coal Carrier to NYK, the First Ship with the MEDEA System. Fairplay, January 15, pg. 29. 1981 Des ign and Organization Clues to Mar item Survival. Fairplay, September 17, pgs. 35-36 . 1981 The Netherlands: Bluepr int for Mar ine Health. Fairplay, November 5. 1982 Ship Management: Of Flags and Men. Fairplay, Vol. 283, No. 5156: 21-27 . 1983 Big Manning Cut Agreed for U. R. -Flag Chemical Tankers . Fairpisy, March 17, pg . 17 . Far East Shipbuilding 1981 Automation and Reduced Manning: Fleet Aims to Stay Competitive. Far East Shipbu ild ing . Fillion, Roger 1982 Cruise Line Planning Innovation Ship Scheme. Journal of Commerce, June 14, pg . 24b. Flising, A. and B. Werelius 1972 Manning of Technically Advanced Ships: A Compilation of Experience from Present Organization and Equipment on Swedish Sh ips . Gaffney, J. F. 1982 Ship Management -- The Wave of the Future. Proceedings of the 1982 API Tanker Conference, .Innovations -- Looking Ahead. ~ Gaffney, Michael (ed) 1978 Proceedings of The Human Element in Ship Operation Symposium. Castine, Center for Advanced Maritime Studies, Maine Maritime Academy.

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77 Gaffney, Michael 1981 Reduced Manning in the Liner Trades: Technological Capabilities and Organizational Implications. Proceedings of the Conference, The Management of Change Aboard Ship, ~ Center for Advanced Maritime Studies, Maine Maritime Academy. 1981 U a S . Merchant Mar ine Per sonnet Research . Proceedings of Symposium, International Shipboard Habitability Design Conference, Apr il 7-9, Society of Naval Architects and Mar ine Eng ineers . 1981 The Potential for Organizational Development in the U. S. Merchant Mar ine . Proceedings of the Conference, The Management of Change Aboard Ship,. Center for Advanced Mar itime Studies, Maine Mar itime Academy . Galbraith, A. A. 1982 Designing Ships Around the Men. Fairplay, February 26, pg. 27. General Council of Br itish Shipping 1982 Shipboard Organization -- Summary of Recent Developments. GCBS Presentation on Cost-Ef festive Manning, September 15, General Council of BE itish Shipping . German Shipowners' Association i979 Tar if f Agreement for the Test of Pro ject ~Container-Vessel with 18-Person Crew.. German Shipowners' Association. G limbers, Henry and Hans Loden 1980 Reduced Manning on Merchant Ships: A Practical Exper fence. Brostro~os. Gottlieb, Bertram 1971 The Effects of Technological Change on the Merchant Semnan. Congress of Mar iport ' 71, Baltimore, Apt il 7 . Gray, Tony 1979 Europort Looks at Danger of Boredom. Lloyd' ~ List, November 13, pg. 5. Gray, W. O. 1981 Human Factors and Safety. Shipeare and Mar itime Management, Vol. 13, No. 6, June. Grey, Michael 1978 And God Help All Who Sail in Her: An Original Report by the Sealife Team Looks at Ship Design and the Seafarer. Faisplay International Shipping Weekly, June 1, pg. 9-11.

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78 1980 Def fine Me Eff iciency: Michael Grey Attacks the Modern Concepts of Jeff icient. Manning Levels. Fairplay International Shipping Weekly, May 15 . 1981 Manning -- Changes But Not Too Quickly ' Fairplay, November 5, pg. 28. Guy, John 1983 Time to Overhaul Overtime. Lloyd' ~ Ship Manager, February. 1983 Pitfalls on the Road to Social Integration. Lloyd' s Ship Manager, March, pg. 9. Hatf ield, M. R. and M. H. Smith nd PRO Restructur ing. Unpublished manuscr ipt. Hatf ield, M. R. and M. H. Smith 1975 Implications of Advanced Automation for Ships' Personnel: Job Requirements and Crew Organization. Paper No. 6, Symposium on the Use of Computers in Shipboard Automation, The Royal Institution of Naval Architects. Hamanda, Noboru 1981 Shin Aitok i Maru. is the Fruit of Advanced Technology in Japan. Zosen, Sol. 26, No. 2: 43-44 . Hangar Strom, N . K . 1976 Organizational Experiments in M/S HOEGH MISTRAL and M/T HOEGH MULTINA. Leif Boegh Co. Heirung, Er ik 1976 Ship Management--Ship Board Management. Arab Shipping and Trade Conference, Kuwait, February 17-18, Copenhagen: DFDS A/S . Bughes, D. 1980 Ship Systems -- The Impact of Change: Notes from the Conference. Seaways, March, pg . 11. Hunter, C. G. W. 1982 Better Utilization of Manpower Resources. Seaways, March, pg . 2 . srael Shipping Research Institute 1979 The Israel Shipping Research Institute tISRI). Unpublished manuscr ipt, Maifa. IMCO 1982 Pr inciples of Safe Manning . Ren A. 481 (XII I, Inter-governmental Mar itime Consultative Organization .

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79 1982 Final Report of the Steering Committee for Trials on Swedish Cargo Ships Above 1600 grt Operating Without Morse Radiotelegraphy in the Nor th Sea and the Baltic: Note by the Government of Sweden. Agenda Item No. 10, Subcommittee on Radioco~mounications. 24th Session, February 23. I nstitut fur Sch if f sbetr iebaforschung 1974 Cr iter ia Governing the Purposeful Inning of German Seacraft. Flensburg, Institut fur Schiffsbetr iebsforschung . International Bulk Journal 1981 Norwegian Shipowners Fighting High Cost and Protectionism to Remain Competitive. International Bulk Journal, July, pas. 16-17. 1982 Ship Management Trend Develops as Shipping Complexity Increases. International Bulk Journal, September, pg. 52. Jackson, John 1979 The Training Implications of General Purpose Manning on Merchant Ships, Proceedings of Europort '79, pa,. 67-76. Jackson, John and Roy Talkie 1975 General Purpose Manning: A Case Study of Organizational Innovation -- Part ~ . Mar Time Studies and Management, No. 2: 132-137. 1975 General Purpose Manning: A Case Study of Organizational Innovation -- Part II . Mar itime Studies and Management, NO. 2: 215 - 220. Japanese Ministry of Transpor t 1971 Report on the Tr ial Design of a Diesel Tanker Operated by a Highly Centralized Control {9-Han Project}. English translation by Swedish Shipowner~ ' Association. 1978 White Paper on Shipping. Tokyo, Ministry of Transport . Jones, Allan P. et al. 1973 Organizational Climate Related to Shipboard Functioning: A Preliminary Study. Off ice of Naval Research, ~IS, U. S. Department of Co~erce, AD-764 139. Ring, John 1979 Modern Technology and the Manning of Merchant Ships. Third International Symposium on Ship Operation Automation. Tokyo, November 26-29, pg. 24. 1982 Ship Control -- An Operational Perspective. RINA Ship Control Group, November 23 .

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80 Koburger, C. W. 1982 The Minimum-Manned Ship. Seaways, January, pg . Koishi, Yasumichi 1981 Work Simplif ication Through the Transformation of Work Onboard. Maritime Policy and Management, Vol. 8, No. 4: 261-266. Koyama, T. 1979 Onboard Systems in the Late 1980so Third International Symposium, Ship Operation Automation, Tokyo, November 26-29. Lloyd, C. M. R. 1981 Manning for the Future. Seaways, September. Lloyd's List 1978 Thebeland -- Design for Economy. Lloyd's List, December 14, pg. 14. 1979 Designing Congenial Ships. Lloyd's List, July 3, pg. 4. 1979 Swedish Yourself Line Hits Break-even Point. Lloyd' s List, December 7, ~ . 3 . 1981 Large Container ship Run by 16. Lloyd's List, June 26, pg. SS. 1981 West Germans Adopt Flexible Crew Rules. Lloyd ' s List, November 6, pg. 10A. 1982 Japan in Moire to Stop Owners Flagging Out. ~ Lloyd' s List, March 10, pg. 3. Lloyd ' s Ship Manager 1981 Captain Julian Jensen: DEDS -- Operational Freedom and Delegation, the Key Management Ideas. Lloyd's Ship Manager, March. 1981 Scandinavian Ship Management: Managing to Survive and Keep Ahead of Change. Lloyd's Ship Manager, May, pg. 27. 1981 Is Financial Devolution the Only Solution? Lloyd ' s Ship Manager, September, pg. 8. 1981 Financial Devolution: 2, Enhancing Cost-Effective Vessel Operations. Lloyd's Ship Manager, October, pg. 8. 1982 Emphasis on theWord ~Pride.: Sten-Crister of the Salen Shipping Companies. Lloyd' s Ship Manager, Vol. 2, No. 10: 54-55 .

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81 1982 Swedish Ship Management: A Quantum Leap into the Future Fails to Bridge Gap. Lloyd's Ship Manager, March, pg. 15. 1982 Japanese Ship Management: A New Crisis for Major Lines or Only Rationalization? Lloyd's Ship Manager, December. 1982 Exxon: Developing Human Resource Management. Lloyd's Shi p Manager, July, pg. 170 1982 Texaco: Go-Ahead for Shipboard Control. Lloyd's Ship Manager, July, pg. 19. 1982 Japanese Ship Management. Lloyd's Ship Manager, December, pg. 17. 1983 Ship of the Future Project Looks at Fuel-Economy and 12-Man Crews. Lloyd'. Ship Manager, January, pg. 13. 1983 Crew Costs: As Inflation Falls and Unemployment Grows. Lloyd 'a Ship Manager, February, pg. 13. Lloyd's Shipping Economist 1980 Crew Pay: Probing the Mystery. Lloyd's Shipping Economist, February, pgs. 16-17. MacElrevey, Daniel 1982 Shipboard Management: Concept for the Times. Marine Engineer/Log, April, pg. 47. Mackay, R. H. 1980 Some modern Ideas on Shipboard Management. Transactions of the Institute of Mar ine Eng inters, Vol. . 92, Paper No. 4, pg. 78. Mannhe~, Bilha F. and Eliezer Rosenstein 1966 Social, Occupational and Attitudinal Characteristics Related to Occupational Behavior and Commitment. Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. 1975 Occupational Behavior and Commitment of Seamen: Activity and its Correlates. Behavioral Sciences Mimeograph Series No. 9, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. 1975 Occupational Behavior and Commitment of Seamen: Staying or Leaving the Occupation. Maritime Studies and Management, No. 3: 53-65. Mar ine Eng ineer ing/Log 1980 Tomorrow's Bull Carriers: World's Loneliest Ships? Marine Eng ineer ing/Log, November .

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82 1983 Manning Levels Set for Further Cuts. Marine Engineering/Log, August, pg. 63. Marine Engineers Review 1982 Reduced Manning -- Growing Interest, Marine Engineers Review, May, pg . 27 . . . Marine Week 1979 Compromise at 21. Marine Week, December 14-20, pg . 7. Mariner s ' Association 1980 Regulations of Mariners' Association for Test Run of Pro ject: Container-Vessel with 18-Person Crew. ~ Mariners' Assoc fat ion, Hamburg . Maritime Administration 1971 U. S. Seamen and the Seafaring Environment: Symposium Report. Kings Point, N.Y., National Maritime Research Center, MA-GEN-510-72005. McCowen, Peter and Michael Barry 1978 Central Manpower Supply to the Merchant Navy: Intermediate Report. Sealife Programme, General Council of British Shipping. McDonald, Colin 1978 Radio Officers and the Future. Sealife Programme, General Council of British Shipowners. Moreby, David a. 197S The Human Element in Shipping. Colchester: Seat rade Publications. 1981 The Future of Ship Organizations. Sapanut, Vol. 11, No. 3:1-13. nd The Effects of Automation and Crew Reductions on Job Satisfaction Aboard Ship. Unpublished manuscript. London Tavistock Institute. 1971 The Socio-Technical System Ship With Regard to Ships' Safety. Hansa, No. 10:1064-1067. ~ 1971 The Complexity of Change in Ships' Manning Systems. Marine Engineers Review, February. 1974 Organizational Issues in Shipping. MacGregor Memorial Lecuture, University of Trondheim, Norwegian Institute of Technology, Division of Ship Design, March 19.

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83 19 81 Human Factors in Shipping. The Motor Ship, December . 1981 Ef fective Manning . Seatrade, October, pg. 144. 1981 Ergosea '81: A Summing-Up. Proceedings of the Ergosea '81 Conference, The Second International Conference on Human Factors at Sea, Plymouth, October S-8 . Moreby, David H. and Sheila Eccleston 1979 A Conceptual Approach to The Training of Navigation Off icers and Shipping Managers. Proceedings of Europort '71, pgs. 93-104. Motor Ship 1976 Planning of Automated Ships. The Motor Ship, February, pOs . 12 4-125 ~ 1980a Crew of 18 Planned for Large Container Ships. The Motor Ship, April, pg. 9. 1980b Norwegians are Leading Seamen in Pay. The Motor Ship, May, Pg- a. 1980 Marine Automat ion in the 1980s . The Motor Ship Conf erence, 1980, 'the Motor Ship, May, pg. 75. 1980 Kilo Maru.: An Economy Propulsion Tanker With a Medium Speed M.A. N. Engine. The Motor Ship, fly, pg . 23. 1983 Imagination and Reduced Manning. The Motor Ship, May, pg. 96. Mottley, Bob 1978 The Human Element in Ship Operations. American Maritime Officer. National Research Council 1974 The Seagoing Workforce: Implications of Technological Change. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, AD/A-000 250. NK Overseas 1979 Shipboard Automation and Super Manpower-Saving Ships. NK Overseas, No. 24, pgs. 5-6. NKK NKK 1978 Reduced Crew Ships for the 1980~. NKK. nd Summary Report on a Study of Rationalization of Mooring Operations. Nippon Kokan K.K., Basic Ship Design Department.

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84 The Naval Architect 1976 Sealife Program to Probe Designer/Seafarer Relationship. The Naval Arch itect , September, pg . 160 . Neil, Tim 1983 Shear Says U. S. Car r lets Need to Reduce Costs . Journal of Co~erce, Apr il 8, pg . 12A. Netherlands Directorate for Shipping and Maritme Policy 1982 Note on the Rationalization of the Shipping Industry in the Netherlands. Directorate for Shipping and Maritime Policy. Norweg fan Mar iti~ne Directorate 1983 Regulations of 17 February 1983 Concerning the Manning of Norwegian Ships. Norwegian Mar itime Directorate. Norwegian Shipowners ' Association nd Shipboard Organisation: Research and Exper iments. Norweg fan Shipowners ' Association. nd Revision of Japanese Laws Relating to Seafarers. 1978 Studies and Experiments in the Field of Organizations on- Board: Norway. Norwegian Shipowners ' Association. 1983 Manning Regulations in Norway -- Technical Requirements. Norweg fan Sh ipowner s ' ASSOC iation . 1983 New Manning Rules in Norway. Norwegian Shipowners ' Assoc iation . Norweg fan Shipping News 197S Manning the World's Ships in the 1980s. Norwegian Shipping News, No. 11, pgs. 25-26 . 1978 Manning and the Quality of Work Life: Social and Economic Consideration. Norwegian Shipping News, No. 19, pg. 5. 1979 M/S ~Altnes. -- Purpose-Built Minibulker for the Jebsen Group. Norwegian Shipping News, No. 3. 1980 Advanced Technology for Reduced Manning . Norweg fan Shipping News, No. 13, pg . 12. 1982 Ship of the Future Project Needs Test Ships. Norwegian Shipping News, September 10, pa. 20. 1982 Veritas to Develop Model to Determine Manpower Requirements. Norwegian Shipping News, October 15.

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85 1982 Towards Flexible or Locked Manning Levels? Norwegian Sh ipping News, October 15 . 1982 Japan to Test 17-Man Crew. Norweg fan Shipping News, October 15. 1982 Survey of International Manning Conventions/Recommendations. Norwegian Shipping News, October IS e 1982 Inning Proposal has Few Friends. Norwegian Shipping News, October 15. Orito, H. et al 1979 A Practical Approach for High Level Ship Rationalization. Third International Symposium on Ship Operation Automation, Tokyo, November 26-29. Ontonar i, T. 1979 Reduced Crews and Future Ship Systems. Ship Systems, the Impact of Change, the Nautical Institute, London, November 21-22, pgs. 192-220 . PanOcean-Anco 1981 PanOcean-Anco Consultative Committee: Constitution and Terms of Ref er ence . PanOcasn-Anco Ltd . Parker, Julian nd Sealife -- Effective Use of Manpower. Nautical Review. Parton, David 1981 Fr idt jof Lorentzen: Maintaining Standards . Seatrade, Apt il. pgs. 24-25. Pelfrey, Melvin H. 1979 On ~H=nanizing. the Workplace. American Maritime Officer, Vol. 9, No. 3, pg. 11. Quinn, P.T. 1979 Membership Participation in Union Development: Working Paper One on the National Union of Seamen. London: Tavistock Institute of B`nnan Relations. 1981 Management of Human Relations Onboard Ship: A Community Perspective. Proceedings of the Conference on Ship Operation and Safety, Southampton, Apt il 7-9 . Roggema, Jacques and Nils Kristian Ba~erstrom nd New Organization Forms On Board. Oslo: Work Research Institutes .

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86 Roggema, J. 1971 The Hoegh Mistral Pro ject; A Preliminary Sununing-up. Oslo: Work Research Institutes. 1971 Organisational Consequences of ED Operation in Merchant Ships: A Preliminary Note. Oslo: Work Research Institutes. 1977 The Des ign of Shipboard Orgar~ination: Some Exper fences With a Matr ix-Type of Organisation in Norway. Mar idle Policy and Management ~ No . 4: 265027 6 . 1977 The Project with the Long Breath. Shell Personnel Management Rev iew, September, pg . 10 . Roggema, J. and M. H. Smith 1982 On the Process of Organisational Change in Shipping. Seaways, Apt il. 1982 The Brokers of Change Sound the Alarm Bells. Lloyd's Ship Manager, March, pg. 6. 1983 Organisational Change in the Shipping Industry: Issues in the Transformation of Basic Assumptions. Human Relations, Vol. 36, No. 8, pgs. 765-790. Rogne, Par 1 1974 Redesigning the Process of Superstructure Design. Oslo: Work Research Institutes. 1980 A Reduction in Manning: Viewpoints and Questions. Oslo: Work Research Institutes. Rosenstein, Elizier nd Organizational Changes in Shipping -- Symposium Alms and a Review of Recent Literature. Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. 1983 Consensus and Conflict in Israeli Shipping. Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. Rosenstein, E. and A. M. Goldstein (eds.) 1983 Organisational Change" in Shipping in Europe and Israel. Haifa: Israel Shipping Research Institute. Royal Netherlands Shipowners' Association 1982 Sugary of the Annual Report of the Royal Netherlands Shipowners ' Association. Safety at Sea 1978 Polish Manning Exper iment. Safety at Sea, July, pg . ~ .

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87 1979 Sealife' ~ Act:onenodation Survey. Safety at Sea, August . 1981 Manning Levels and Automation. Safety at Sea, November, Pg. 19. Sagen, Arne 1982 The Changing Shape of Shipping. OceanVoice, July. 1982 Ship Operation of the Future. Norwegian Maritime Research, No. 4. 1983 Ship Management: Integrated Systems or Independent Sub-Systems? Mar itime Asia, February, pg . 37. Sch jetlein, Sir i 1978 The Superstructure of Ships as an Expression of a New Vision of the Work Environment at Sea. Oslo: Work Research Institutes . 1978 Ship Superstructures and the Working Environment. Norwegian Shipping News, No. 22F, pg . 33 . Sealife Progr~ne 1975 An Examination of the Validity of the Flensburg Project Data with Respect to its Applicability to the a. K. Merchant Mar ine. Sealife Project 1. General Council on Br itch Shipping . 1976 Manpower Recruitment, Selection, and Induction. Sealife Programae, General Council on British Shipping. 1978 Changing Shipping Organizations: A Compilation of Nine Case Histor ies Published by the Sealife Organization. Sealife Program, General Council on Br itish Shipping. 1978 Ship Design and Seafarers. Sealife Programs, General Council on Br itish Shipping . 1979 Regional Meetings on Executive Committee Statement. Sealife Programae, General Council on Br itish Shipping. Seatrade 1981 A Balanced Life. Seatrade, Vol. 11, No. 8. 1982 Slow Progress. Seatrade, April, pg. 3. Seitz, Frank C. 1981 Shipboard Manning Reduction: flow Few Will Do? U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, October, pg . 50 .

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88 Sharpe, P. 1978 Industry Level Interventions: Some Exper fence from the U. K. Shipping Industry' s Sealife Programne. First European Forum on Organisation Development. 1979 U. R. Merchant Nary Manpower Systems and the Case for Change . Nautical Institute Conference, Ship Systems -- the Impact of Change, ~ November 21-22. 1980 Sealife Program: Chief Executive' s Sugary Report. General Council on Br itish Shipping . Shell Tankers B.,J. nd P.L.A. (Project with a Long Breath), How and Why. Shell Tankers B.~. Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering International 1979 Designed for a Crew of Eighteen. Shipbuilding and Marine Engineer ing International, December . 1980 German Outlook to Future Ships -- An Imminent Reality? Sh ipbuilding and Mar ine Eng ineer ing International, September, pg. 363. 1981 Frankfurt Express, Sh ipbuilding and Mar ine Engineer ing International, Vol. 104, No. 1252, October . Shipoare and Management 1981 Ever Lucky: 1800 TED Containership with Complement of 17. - Shipeare and Management, August, pg. 11. Shipping and Trade News 1979 Japan' ~ Merchant Shipping Enters New Age of Rationalization. Shipping and Trade News, October 5, pg. 48. 1979 Seafaring Systems Needs Revision in Shipping ' s High-Technology Era . Shipping and Trade News , October S. pg. 77. Smith, M. H. 1978 Shipowners ' Views on Policies and Changes Concerning the U.K. Rating: Report on the Series of Four Conferences, July 1977 to February 1978. Sealife Programed, General Council on Br itish Shipping . 1979 Productivity and Hierarchy Aboard the Deep~Sea Ship: A Report on the General Implications of the Sealife Shipboard Exper iments. Sealife Program, General Council on Br itish Sh ipping .

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89 1979 Shipboard Change: The Reactions of Seafarers: Second Report on the Sealife Shipboard Pro jects. Sealife Program, General Council on Br itish Shipping . 1982 The Implementation of a Shipboard Management Program. Seaways, October, pg . 11. Smith, M. H. and J. Roggema 1978 Crew Stability and Shipboard Management. Sealife Program, General Council on British Shippinge 1979 Emerging Organisational Values in Shipping: Part I, Crew Stability. Mar itime Policy and Management, Sol. 6, No. 2 . 1979 Emerging Organisational Values in Shipping: Part II, Towards a Redistribution of Responsibility Onboard Ship. Maritime Policy and Management, Vol. 6, No. 2. 1980 Emerging Organisational Values in Shipping: Part III, The Matrix Organization -- Towards a Multiple-Skill Structure. Maritime Policy and Management, Vol. Z. No. 4 :241-2S4. 1980 Emerging Organisational Values in Shipping: Part Id, Decentralization -- The Redef inition of Author ity in Shipping Company Organization. Mar itime Policy and Management, Vol. 7, No. 4 :255-269. Smith , M. H., D. W. F. Gosden , and P. . Elk ington nd Staying Safe and Retaining Earnings: A Team Approach to Systems Integr ity on LPG Car r iers. Liverpool, Bibby Bros. & Co. Smith, P. W. R. 1975 Sealife Bulletin No. 1. Sealife Progra~e, General Council on BE itish Shipping . 1980 Development of a Shipping Company Management Structure to Promote Cost Effective Operation. Shipeare '80, Lisbon, Apr il 21-25. Shoj i, One and Nomoto Kensaku 1979 An Ergonomic Study on Regular Staf f of Oceangoing ilessels . Third International Symposium on Ship Operation Automation, Tokyo, November 26-29. Speans, J. A. 1979 Training of Merchant Marine Officers in the Netherlands: Present and Future. Proceedings of Europort '79, pee. 77-84 .

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so Spool, Mar k D . 1982 Shipboard Management of the 1980s. Proceedings of the 1982 API Tanker Conference, Innovation -- Looking Ahead. n Stevenson, S. S. 1968 Work Study in the Operation of Ships. 7th European Work Study Federation Conference, Dublin, Say 21-24. Sundby ~ Per a R. 1981 The Master as Ship Manager. International Symposium on Ship Operations. November 17-19, New York. Svinski, U. 1982 aim Line's Experience in the }ntroduction of Changes in Their Fleet. Sapanut, Journal of Israel Shipping Research Institute, Winter 1981/82, Vol. 2, No. 3 . Swedish Shipowners ' Association 1983 Manning Requirements for Swedish Merchant Ships. Swedish Shipowners ' Association. Telachow, B . 1979 New Shipping Technology Demands a Review of Cress Composit' on . Proceedings of Eurocort ' 79 Conference, Amsterdam, November 14, pg. 39. Thorsrud ~ E a 1971 Democratisation of Work Organisatzons: Self-regulating Units Onboard Ships. Oslo: No-Shipping ' 71. 1980 Changing Organisational Patterns in Norwegian Shipping. Proceedings of Safety of Life at Sea, Oslo, October 20-21. Tobin, Jennefer nd Management Content of Merchant Navy Officers' Jobs: Research Report. Merchant Nary Training Board. nd Management Content of Merchant Navy Of f icer s ' Jobs: Management Task Index - Guide. Merchant Navy Training Board. 1981 Learning from Past Errors. Lloyd's Ship Manager, April, pg. 35. Trutnef f, Henry F . 1981 A Survey of Shipboard Management Systems in Relation to U. S. Mar it ime Labor, Manning Scales, and the Mar ine End ironment . International Symposia on Ship Operations, November 17-19, New York.

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91 U. R. Depar tment of Trade 1977 Deck inning of Merchant Ships Registered in the United Kingdom. Merchant Shipping Notice No. M. 798. Superband Deutscher Reeder 1972 The Ship of the Future and its Crew: A Study. British Ship Research Association Translation No. 3778. Ton Sydow, Or istian 1972 Gains to Swedish Shipowners by Rationalized Manning Methods. The Motor Ship, January, pg. 457. Wall, Jan-Erik 1980 Type n of Ships and Operational Modes a Norwegian Shipping News, No. 3: 10-17 . Weight, D. J. 1979 Into the Eighties -- Some Thoughts on Deck and Engineer Training for the Next Decade. Proceedings of Europort ' 79 Conference, Amsterdam, November 13-14, pg. 1. Wester~reld, Th. G. A. 1979 Training of Tanker Crews in a Changing Shipboard Organization. Proceedings of E~roport '79 Conference, Amsterdam, November 13-14, pg. 29. Willi^'nn, G. J. 1980 A Critical Comment on Remerging Values in Shipping: Part I. by M. B. Smith and J. Roggema. Maritime Policy and Management, Vol. 7, No. 3: 205-206. Wilson, A. 1981 The Ship and its Management Accountability: A Supplement. Proceedings of Conference on Ship Operation and Safety, Southampton, April 7-9. Whitfield, Martin 1983 BP Officers Oppose Plan for Mixed Messing. Lloyd's List, July 8. Yamashita, Isamu 1977 Technical Development of Ships in the Future. Rosen, June, pg. 20. Yerkes, Robert S. 1983 Automation and Electronics Maintenance on High Technology Vessels -- A New Approach. Proceedings of SNAME STAR Symposium, April 6-8, pg. 81.

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92 Zosen 1978 Most Advanced RO/RO Ship Thebeland. ~ Zosen, December, pg. 26. 19 78 Development of Energy and Labor-Saving Ships in Japan. Zosen, June, pg . 32 . 1979 Manpower Cutbacks Essential for Japanese Maritime Industry. Zosen, February, pgs. 5-6. 1979 Demand for Highly Rationalized Ships Rising. Zosen, May, pg. 30. 1979 Rationalized Ships Introduced by Mitsui. Zosen, November, pg. 16. 19 79 Highly Rationalized Ship Completed. Zosen, December, pg . 16 . 1980 Reduced Crew and Future Ship Systems. Zosen, January. 1980 Highly Rationalized Containership Halcuba Maru. ~ Zosen, February, pg . 22. 1980 ~Nichigoh Maru. Built for Japan/Australia Run. Zosen, April, pg. 180 1980 14 Program Ships JO be Used for Seafaring Experiments. Zosen, April, pg. 10. 1980 Highly Rationalized Containership Built by KEI for Europe Service. Zosen, November, pg. 24. 1981 Highly Rationalized Buffer .Horyu Maru.. Zosen, February, Pg. 12. 1981 Basic Plan of Highly Rationalized Coal Carrier. Zosen, March, pg. 20. Zweig, Phillip L. 1977 Technology Goes to Sea. New York Times, March 6. O 1981 The Brostrom Experiment: Manning at a Minimum. lOOAl, Lloyd's Register of Shipping.