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Innovation and Transfer of U. S . Air Force Manufacturing Technology Three Case Studies a repor t to the U. S . Air Force Systems Command by the Committee on Computer-Aided Manu factur ing Manufacturing Studies Board Assembly of Eng ineer ing Ilational Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D. C. 1981

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for the i r spec ial competences and with regard for appropr late balance . This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academv ' ~ Duroo':e': of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. , _ ~ _ En, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , _ _ _ ~ _ _ _ _ _ The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of ^, _ _ _ _ _ , ~ their services to the government, the public, and the scientif ic and engineering communities. It is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences . This report represents work under Contract E49620-78-0027 between the United States Air Force and the National Academy of Sciences. A`ra i fable f ram: Committee on Computer-Aided Manufacturing National Academy of Sciences 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America ii

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COMMITTEE ON COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING Joseph Harr ington, Jr . (Cha irman) Consulting Eng ineer James E. Ashton Deputy General Manager for Research and Engineering General Dynamics, Electric Boat Division Avak A`rak fan Vice President, Operations GTE Sylvania Erich Bloch Vice President of Technical Personnel Development IBM Corporation Franc is W. Boulger Senior Technical Advisor (Retired) Batelle Columbus Laboratory Harvey E. Buffum Director of Operations Technology Boeing Commercial Airplane Company Barbara A. Burns Senior Operations Research Analyst Lockheed Georgia Company Dennis Chamot Assistant Director, Department for Professional Employees AFL-CIO David A. Dorman Director, Industrial Engineering McDonnell Aircraft Company Herbert Fox Pope, Evans and Robbins Incorporated Bela Gold Director, Research Program in Industrial Economics Case Western Reserve University Dale B. Hartman Director of Manufacturing Technology Rughe s Al rcr af t Company

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William K. Holstein Dean, School of Business State University of New York at Albany Arnold Rriegler Director, Production Operations Collins Transmission Systems Division Rockwell International James F. Lardner Vice President, Components Division Deere and Company Robert J. Mayer Vice President Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. Martin J. McHale Vice President, Systems Development Control Data Corporation M. Eugene Merchant Principal Scientist, Manufacturing Research Cincinnati Milacron Inc. Nam P. Sub Professor of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ar thu r Thomson Director of Manufacturing Engineering Cleveland State University Richard E. Thomas Director, The Center for Strategic Technology Texas A&N University Philip West Technical Director, Process Equipment Development General Motors Corporation Staff: Joel D. Goldhar, Executive Secretary Janice E. Greene, Staff Officer Karen Laughlin, Administrative Assistant 1V

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION RESEARCH PROCEDURES FRAMEWORK AND ITS THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY FINDINGS HIP Casting Consolidation Technology Automated Assembly Fixture Drilling The Advanced Composite Tape Laying Head OBSERVATIONS AD ~C~DATIONS Aspects of Technology Aspects of Transferring Organizations Recommendations for Air Force Action Recommendations for Additional Study APPENDIX A HIP Casting Consolidation Technology APPENDIX B: Automated Assembly Fixture Drilling APPENDIX C: Advanced Composite Tape-Laying Head 1 1 2 6 6 9 12 15 15 16 17 17 19 27 36

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