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References Abbott, F. S. 1983. A simple field effectiveness test for dispersants and recent dispersant effectiveness test results. Spill Technol. Newsletter 8:197-108. . 1984. Guidelines on the use and acceptability of oil spill dispersants 2nd edition. Spill Technol. Newsletter 9~1~:~10. Abbott, R. A. 1972. Acceptability criteria and testing procedures for oil spill treating agents. Toronto: Environment Ontario, Ministry of the Environment, Industrial Wastes Branch. 15 pp. Abel, P. D. 1974. Toxicity of synthetic detergents to fish and aquatic invertebrates. J. Fish. Biol. 6:279-298. Abernethy, S. A., M. Bobra, W. Y. Shin, P. G. Wells, and D. Mackay. 1986. Acute lethal toxicity of hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons to two planktonic crustaceans: The key role of organism-water partitioning. Aquat. Toxicol. 8:163- 174. Acreman. J. C., H. M. Dovey, L. Guanguo, P. J. Harrison, C. M. Lalli, K. Lee, T. R. Parsons, C. Xiaolin, and P. A. Thompson. 1984. An experimental marine ecosystem response to crude oil and Corexit 9527: Part 2 biological effects. Mar. Environ. Res. 13~4~:265-275. Adams, S. M., and J. M. Giddings. 1982. Review and evaluation of microcosms for assessing the effects of stress in marine ecosystems. Environ. laternat. 7:409-418. Ahsanullah, M., R. R. C. Edwards, D. G. Kay, and D. S. Negilski. 1982. Acute toxicity to the crab Paragrapsus qtladridentatus (H. Milne Edwards) of Kuwait light crude oil, BP/AB disperse, and an oil-dispersant mixture. Aust. J. Mar. Fieshwat. Res. 33~3~:45~464. Akesson, B. 1975. Bioassay studies with poly~haetes of the genus Ophryotrocha as test anunals. In Sublethal Effects of Toxic Chemicals on Aquatic Animals, J. H. Koeman and J. J. Strik, eds. New York: Elsevier. pp. 121-135. Albers, P. H. 1980. Transfer of crude oil from contaminated water to bird eggs. Environ. Res. 22~2~:307-314. 265

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266 USING OIL SPILL DISPERSANTS ON THE SEA . 1979. Effects of Corexit 9527 on the hatchability of mallard eggs. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 23~4/5~:661-668. Albers, P. H., and M. L. Gay. 1982. Effects of a chemical dispersant and crude oil on breeding ducks. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 29~4~:404-411. Allen, T. D., ed. 1984. Oil Spill Chemical Dispersants: Research, Experience, and Recommendations. STP 840. Philadelphia: ASTM. 465 pp. American Petroleum Institute (API). 1985. Oil Spill Response: Options for Minimizing Adverse Ecological Impacts. Publication No. 4398. Washington, D.C.: API. 98 PP. . 1987. Effects of a Dispersed and Undispersed Crude Oil on Mangroves, Seagrasses, and Corals. Publication 4460. Washington, D.C.: API. American Petroleum Institute (API) Task Force. 1986. The Role of Chemical Dis- persants in Oil Spill Control. Publication 4425. Washington, D.C.: API. 39 PP American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 1987. Ecological Considerations for the Use of Chemical Dispersants in Oil Spill Response Coral Reefs. In Annual Book of Standards, v. 11.04. pp. 909-923, 932-938, 941-961. Standard F929085, Marine Mammals; F930-85, Rocky Shores; F931-85, Seagrasses; F932- 85, Coral Reefs; F971-86, Mangroves; F972-86, Nearshore subtidal; F 973-86, Tidal Flats; F990-86, Sandy Beaches; F999-86, Gravel or Cobble Beaches; F1008- 86, Salt Marshes; F1009-86, Offshore; F101~86, Bird Habitats; F1012-86, The Arctic. Philadelphia: ASTM. Anderson, J. W. 1986. Predicting the effects of complex mixtures on marine inver- tebrates by use of a toxicity index. In Workshop on Hazardous Assessment for Complex Effluents. New York: Perg~non Press. pp. 115-122. Anderson, J. W., J. M. Ned, B. A. Cox, H. E. Tatem, and G. M. Hightower. 1974. Characteristics of dispersions and water-soluble extracts of crude and refined oils and their toxicity to estuarine crustaceans and fish. Mar. Biol. 27:75-88. Anderson, J. W., S. L. Kiesser, and J. W. Blaylock. 1980. The cumulative effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine crustaceans during constant exposure. Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 179:62-70. Anderson, J. W., S. L. Kiesser, R. M. Bean, R. G. Riley, and B. L. Thomas. 1981. Toxicity of chemically dispersed oil to shrimp exposed to constant and decreasing concentrations in a flowing system. Proc. 1981 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 69-75. Anderson, J. W., S. L. Kiesser, D. L. McQuerry, R. G. Riley, and M. L. Fleis~nn. 1984. Toxicity testing with constant or diluting concentrations of chemically dispersed oil. In Oil Spill Chemical Dispersants: Research, Experience, and Recommendations, T. E. Allen, ed. STP 840. Philadelphia: ASTM. pp. 1422. Anderson, J. W., S. L. Kiesser, D. L. McQuerry, and G. W. Felliniham. 1985. Effects of oil and chemically dispersed oil in sediments on clams. Proc. 1985 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 34~353. Anderson, J. W., D. L. McQuerry, and S. L. Kiesser. 1985. Laboratory evaluation of chemical Dispersants for use on oil spills at sea. Environmental Science and Technology. Sequim, Wash.: Battelle Northwest Laboratories. pp. 454-457. Anderson, J. W., R. Riley, S. Kiesser, and J. Gurtisen. 1987. Toxicity of dispersed and undispersed Pru&oe Bay crude oil fractions to shrimp and fish. Proc. 1987 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 235-240. Araujo, R. P de A., K. Momo, E. Gherardi-Goldstein, M. G. Nipper, and P. G. Wells. 1987. Marine dispersant program for licensing and research in Sao Paula state, Brazil. Proc. 1987 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 289-292.

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REFERENCES 267 Aravamudan, K. S., P. K. Raj, and G. Marsh. 1981. Simplified models to predict the breakup of oil on rough seas. Proc. 1981 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 153-160. Atlas, R. M. 1985. Effects of hydrocarbons on microorganisms and petroleum biodegra~ cation in arctic ecosystems. In Petroleum Effects in the Arctic Environment, F. R. Engelhardt, ed. London: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. pp. 6~99. Atwood, D. K., ed. 1980. Preliminary Results from the September 1979 Re- searcher/Pierce Ixtoc-I Cruise. Proceedings of a symposium at Key Biscayne, FL, June ~10, 1980. Boulder, Colo.: NOAA Office of Marine Pollution Assess- men,t. pp. 10-11. Audunson, T., V. Dalen, J. P. Mathisen, J. Holdorsen, and F. Krogh. 1980. SLIKFORCASTa simulation program for oil spill emergency tracking and long term contingency planning. Proc. Petromar 1980, Monaco. London: The Oil Industry International E & P Forum. Audunson, T., H. K. Celius, O. Johansen, P. Steinbakke, and S. E. Sorstrom. 1984. The Experimental Oil Spill on Haltenb~ken 1982. Publication No. 112. Tron&eim, Norway: Continental Shelf Institute. 109 pp. Audunson, T., O. Johansen, J. Kolnes, and S. E. Sorstrom. 1987. Injection of Oil Spill Chemicals into a Blowing Well. Proc. 1987 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 335-340. Auger, C., and J. Croquette. 1980. L'utilisation des dispersants. Bull. Cedre. 1:7-12. Avolizi, R. J., and M. Nuwayhid. 1974. Effects of crude oil and dispersants on biYalves. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 5(10):149-153. Ayers, R. R., and A. V. Barnett. 1977. SOCK an oil skilraning kit for vessels of convenience. Proc. 1977 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 361-365. Ayers, R. R., J. P. Fraser, and L. J. Kazmierczalc. 1975. Developing an open-seas skimmer. Proc. 1975 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 401-408. Baca, B. J., and C. D. Getter. 1984. The toxicity of oil and chemically dispersed oil to the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. In Oil Spill Chemical Dispersant~: Research, Experience, and Recommendations, T. E. Allen, ed. STP 840. Philadelphia: ASTM. pp. 314-323. Badkus, R. H., G. R. Flierl, D. R. Kester, D. B. Olson, P. L. Richardson, A. C. Vastano, P. H. Wiebe, and J. H. Worrnuth. 1981. Gulf Stream cold core rings: Their physics, chemistry, and biology. Science 212:1091-1100. Baker, J. M. 1976. Environmental effect of oil and the chemicals used to control it on the shore and splash zones. In The Control of Oil Pollution on the Sea and Inland Waters, J. Wardley-Smith, ed. London: Graham and Trotman Ltd. pp. 57-72. Baker, J. M., and G. B. Crapp. 1974. Toxicity tests for predicting the ecological effects of oil and emulsifier pollution on littoral communities. In Ecological Aspects of Toxicity Testing of Oils and D spersants, L. R. Beynon and E. B. Cowell, eds. Barking, Essex, U.K.: Applied Science Publishers Ltd. pp. 2~40. Balcer, J. M., J. H. Cruthers, D. I. Little, J. H. Oldham, and C. M. Wilson. 1984. Comparison of the fate and ecological effects of dispersed and non-dispersed oil in a Yariety of marine habitats. In Oil Spill Chemical Disnersants: Resea~ch Experience, and Recommendations, T. E. Allen, ed. STP 840. Philadelphia: ASTM. pp. 23~279. Ballou, T. G., S. C. Hess, C. D. Getter, A. Knap, R. Dodge, and T. Sleeter. 1987. Final results of the API Tropics oil spill and dispersant use experiments in P~na. Proc. 1987 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. 634 pp. ~ _ ,

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268 ~~c O~ Same ~~ o~ ~ Sag Berm, W. D. 1913. I~ ~ e~l~tl~. j. Pays. Cam. 17:501-519. B~o~e~, G., at. Aims Y. Le. ~ G. La She. 1987. Dlspe=~ sang Ha. Panic. lg87 OU Sag Cog. ~on, D.C.: API. an. 31~316. Brag, j. E., a. polyp, ad A. Ha. log. Deterrers: Enacts ~ the wench sexes ~ the lab, as ~~s Oe suede. Scam 4~605-1607. Blot, C., ad G. C~t~ng. lag. Realty ~ by Espied oll ~ a How- t~o~ system. ~ ate ad Enacts ~ Oll in Mane Ecosystem, J. gaper W. J. ~ an Baa, em. Dam, I~ Net~: ~1~ ma. pp. 20~209. Blot, C., C. Bond, G. Cater, ad C. GateGer. 19~. I~ l~=t_ce of a tlon access to Cation e~tl-~=s ~ toasty of ~~ aspect. 7tb Arctic bane Olls~D P=~ ~c~ Seam. Ottawa: Envl~ Cage E~o~t~ Protection S=vlc~ a. 17~201. Bier, W. R. 1973. Labor ad Beg tootle of s_c~~ gang arms use ~ oD coDecung Bate P~c. just Cog on Pre-nuon ad Cobra of O11 Sag, 1973. a, D.C~ API. a. 241-246. Batted ~~ Statute. 1970. Oll spa table ~~ fist comedies: Status rot. Protect 0~7. Report to Aback Petaled Statute Cog - ~ OU ad ate Co~d~ ~ B~t^ P=1~ Niger L^o~o~ age, length. Battened, C. N., ad F. R. Berg~st. 1~2. Response ~ _ ~t~tl~ Gastropod to fad expose of _ oll ad a aspect. Am. Pout. Bat. 13~:15~162. Bear, C. D., J. A Ll~owl~, a. j. Shader, ad J. A. Stand. lea. Redone Sage ~ bane Blota fir Blouse Sty ~ Oll ad Oll Dlsp~ as. P~Ucatlon 4167. bath, D.C.: API. Bear, K. W., ~ G. P. Lo. 19~. Pe ~ e~tlon of a ~w ve~atHe oU ~10 aspen. Proc. 19= OH spa came. _~0~, D.C: API. pp. 61-64. Bean, G. L., F. Cage, P. ~=t-~o~O, R. A. by, ~ K. Lea ma. 19~. Co~dbutl~ to the study ~ ~~ ~slc~~c~ partly Eta on me gas. I. Actlon of detents on the pate ScofeZ~is Z~osu. am. 1~2~:~3~. on the ~p~d~tl~, Melon ad sett~t ~ the pob~eto~ Mead ~~leIfo am. Am. Bat. 14{3):1~188. B^re, R. leg. E~ctlv~ess of the beg -~catlon of back ~-e=_ts on oU. Report No. ~6. Ott_a: Em St-- ~-vlug ~ ad S. L. lass E-r~nt~ H-e~ Ltd. . 1gar. use ~ ~^pr~s~ data ~~ ~ gabled ~1 spa ~sp~lug. Panic. 1987 OU Sat Comas. ~on, D.C.: API. a. lg~302. Begot, L. Ran ~ E. B. Coat, em. log. Exact Aspens of ~cl~ ~tlng O16 ~ Dlsp~s. Bag, Essex, u.x. Applied Scl~ce P-~^=, Ltd. 1~ a. _~ ~ In Paw ad eels alto ~1. U.S. Em_ P~te~l~ Agency ~^~ ~ Sag. ~-~0~377 a. B1~, P. J., ad G. A. Sexy. leg. I~ BIOS antler ~1 splD coats agues users. Proc. 1~1 Ott Spa Cobble. Length, D.C.: API. pp. 18~172.

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REFERENCES 269 . 1983a. BIOS Project preliminary results. Proceedings of the Arctic Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar. Ottawa: Environmental Protection Service. pp. 292-295. . 1983b. The BIOS projectan update. Proc. 1983 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 451-455. Blacklaw, J. R., J. A. Strand, and P. C. WaLkup. 1971. Assessment of oil spill treating agent test methods. Proc. Joint Conference on Prevention and Control of Oil Spills. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 253-261. Bladkman, R. A. A., F. L. Franklin, M. G. Norton, and K. W. Wilson. 1977. New procedures for the toxicity testing of oil slick dispersants. Fisheries Research Technical Report No. 39. Lowestoft, U.K.: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, Directorate of Fisheries Research. 7 pp. . 1978. New procedures for the toxicity testing of oil slick dispersants in the United Kingdom. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 9:234-238. Blaikley, D. R., G. F. L. Dietzel, A. W. Glass, and P. J. van Kleef. 1977. SLIKTRAK a computer simulation of offshore oil spills, cleanup, effects and associated costs. Proc. 1977 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 45-54. Bobra, A. M., and D. Mackay. 1984. Acute toxicity of dispersants, physically and chemically dispersed crude oil (fresh and weathered) to Daphnia magna at 5 and 20C. Unpublished paper. Esso Resources Ltd., Calgary, Alberta. Bobra, A. M., and P. T. Chung. 1986. A catalog of oil properties, 2d ed. Environmental Protection Service Report E~77. Ottawa: Environment Canada. Bobra, A., D. Mackay, and W. Y. Shin. 1979. Distribution of hydrocarbons among oil, water and vapor phases during oil dispersant toxicity tests. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 23~45~:558-565. Bobra, A. M., S. Abernethy, P. G. Wells, and D. Mackay. 1984. Recent toxicity studies at the University of Toronto. Proc. 7th Annual Arctic Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar. Edmonton, Alberta: Environment Canada. pp. 82-90. Bobra, A. M., W. Y. Shin, D. Mackay, and R. H. Goodman. 1987. Acute toxicity of dispersed fresh and weathered crude oil and dispersants to DapAnia magna. Unpublished paper given at ASTM meeting, Williamsburg, Virgina, October. Bocard, C. 1985. L'Operation Protecmar VI. Bull. du Cedre 22:6-10. Bocard, C., and C. Gatellier. 1981. Breaking of fresh and weathered emulsions by chemicals. Proc. 1981 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 601-607. . 1982. Protecmar III. Report IFP 30482. Institut Francais du Petrole, Paris. Bocard, C., and G. Castaing. 1986. Dispersant effectiveness evaluation in a dynamic flow-through system: The IFP dilution test. Oil and Chem. Pollut. 3~6~:433-444. Bocard, C., C. Gatellier, J. Croquette, and F. Merlin. 1981. Operation Protecmar. Spill Tech. Newsletter (March-April):54-85. Bocard, C., J. Ducreaux, and C. Gatellier. 1983. Protecmar IV. Report IFT 31478. Institut Francais du Petrole, Paris. Bocard, C., G. Castaing, and C. Gatellier. 1984. Chemical oil dispersion in trials at sea and in laboratory tests: The key role of dilution processes. In Oil Spill Chemical Dispersants: Research, Experience, and Recommendations, T. E. Allen, ed. STP 840. Philadelphia: ASTM. pp. 125-142. Bocard, C., G. Castaing, J. Ducreux, C. Gatellier, J. Croquette, and F. Merlin. 1987. Protecrnar: The French experience from a seven-year dispersant offshore trials program. Proc. 1987 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 225-229. Boehm, P. D. 1983. Longterm fate of crude oil in the Arctic nearshore environment the BIOS experiments. Proc. 6th Arctic Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar. Edmonton, Alberta: Environmental Protection Service. pp. 280 291.

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270 USING OIL SPILL DISPERSANTS ON THE SEA . 1984. The comparative fate of chemically dispersed and untreated oils in - an Arctic nearshore environment. In Oil Spill Chemical Dispersants: Research, Experience, and Recommendations, T. E. Allen, ed. STP 840. Philadelphia: ASTM. pp. 338-360. . 1985. Transport and transformation processes regarding hydrocarbon and metal pollutants in offshore sedimentary environments. In The Long-term Effects of Offshore Oil and Gas Development, D. F. Boesch and N. N. Rabalais, eds. Essex, U.K.: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. Boehm, P. D., and D. L. Fiest. 1982. Subsurface distributions of petroleum from an offshore well blowout. The Ixtoc I blowout, Bay of Campeche. Environ. Sci. Technol. 16:67-74. Boehm, P. D., D. L. Fiest, D. Mackay, and S. Paterson. 1981. Physical-chemical weathering of petroleum hydrocarbons from the Ixtoc I blowout chemical meat surements and a weathering model. Proc. 1981 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 453-460. Boehm, P. D., W. Steinhauer, D. Cobb, S. Duffy, and J. Brown. 1984. Chemistry 2: analytical biogeochemistry 1983 study results. Baffin Island Oil Spill Working Report 8~2. Ottawa: Environmental Protection Service. 139 pp. Boehm, P. D., W. Steinhauer, A. Requejo, D. Cobb, S. Duffy, and J. Brown. 1985. Comparative fate of chemically dispersed and untreated oil in the Arctic: Baffin Island Oil Spill studies 198(~83. Proc. 1985 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 561-569. Boehm, P. D., M. S. Steinhauer, D. R. Green, B. Fowler, B. Humphrey, D. L. Fiest, and W. J. Cretney. 1987. Comparative fate of chemically dispersed and beached crude oil in subtidal sediments of the arctic nearshore. Arctic 40(suppl. 1~:133-148. Boesch, D. F., and N. N. Rabalais. 1987. Long Term Environmental Effects of Onshore Oil and Gas Development. Barking, Essex, U.K.: Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. Boney, A. D. 1968. Experiments with some detergents and certain intertidal algae. In The Biological Effects of Oil Pollution on Littoral Communities, J. D. Carthy and D. R. Arthur, eds. Supplement to Vol. 2 of Field Studies. London: Field Studies Council. pp. 55-72. Borseth, J., T. Aunsas, M. Ekker, and K. E. Zachariassen. 1986. A comparison of in viva and in situ exposure of marine fish eggs to Statflord A + B crude oil topped at 15C and this oil premixed with Finasol OSR-5. Abstract presented at International Seminar on Chemical and Natural Dispersion of Oil on Sea, Heimdal, Norway, November. Bowden, K. F. 1965. Horizontal mixing in the sea due to a shearing current. J. Fluid Mech. 21 :~95. Bouwmeester, R. J. B., and R. B. Wallace. 1986a. Oil entrainment by breaking waves. Proc. 9th Arctic Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar. Edmonton, Alberta: Environmental Protection Service. pp 39-49. . 1986b. Dispersion of oil on a water surface due to wind and wave action. Department of Civil Engineering, Michigan State University quoted by R. B. Wallace, T. M. Rushlow, and R. J. B. Bouwmeester. 1986. In situ measurement of oil droplets using an image processing system. Proc. 9th Arctic Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar, pp. 421-429. Ottawa: Environmental Protection Service. This latter paper describes the equipment but gives no numerical results. Braaten, B., A. Granmo, and R. Lange. 1972. Tissue swelling in Mytilus edulis L. - induced by exposure to a nonionic surface active agent. Norw. J. Zool. 20:137-140.

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REFERENCES 271 Brannon, E. L., T. P. Quinn, R. P. Whitman, A. E. Nevissi, R. E. Nakatani, and Ce De McAuliffe. 1986. Homing of adult chinook salmon after brief exposure to whole and dispersed crude oil. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 115:823-827. Bratbak, G., M. Heldal, G. Knutsen, T. Lien, and S. Norland. 1982. Correla- tion of dispersant electiveness Ed toxicity of oil dispersants towards the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardti. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 13~10~:351-353. Bridle, A. L., T. H. Wander, W. Zegveld, and H. B. van der Heiide. 1980. Formation, prevention, and breaking of sea water in crude oil emulsions (chocolate mousses). Mar. Poll. Bull. 11:343-348. Brochu, C., E. Pelletier, G. Caron, and J. E. Desnoyers. 1987. Dispersion of crude oil in seawater: The role of synthetic surfactants. Oil and Chem. Pollut. 3~1986/87~:257-279. Brown, H. M., R. H. Goodman, and G. P. Canevari. 1987. Where has all the oil gone? Dispersed oil detection in a wave basin and at sea. Proc. 1987 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 307-312. Buist, I. 1979. An experimental study on the dispersion of oil slicks into the water column. M.A.Sc. Thesis, University of Toronto. Buist, I. A., and S. L. Ross. 1986. A study of chemicals to inhibit emulsification and promote dispersion of oil spills. International Seminar on Chemical and Natural Dispersion of Oil on the Sea. Heimdal, Norway, November. . 1987. Emulsion inhibitors: A new concept in oil spill treatment. Proc. 1987 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C.: API. pp. 217-222. Bunch, J. N. 1987. Effects of petroleum releases on bacterial numbers and micro- heterotrophic activity in the water and sediment of an arctic marine ecosystem. Arctic 40(Suppl. 1~:172-183. Bunch, J. N., C. Bedard, and T. Cartier. 1983. Abundance and Activity of Het- erotrophic Marine Bacteria in Selected Bays at Cape Hatt, N.W.T.: Effects of Oil Spills, 1981. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, No. 1708. 96 pp. Bunch, J. N., C. Bedard, and F. Dugre. 1985. Environmental chemistry data from an arctic marine environment at Cape Hatt, N.W.T.: 1981-1982. Canadian Data Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 578. Ste.-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec: Arctic Biological Station. 83 pp. Bunch, J. N., and R. C. Harland. 1976. Biodegradation of Crude Petroleum by the Indigenous Microbial Flora of the Beaulort Sea. Beaufort Sea Technical Report No. 10, Beaulort Sea Project, Dept. Environ. Victoria, B.C. 52 pp. Burns, W., and M. J. Herz. 1976. Development and field testing of a light aircraft oil surveillance system (LOASS). Report, NASA CR-2739 CG-D-1-76. Washington, D.C.: NASA. Burwood, R., and G. C. Spears. 1974. Photo-oxidation as a factor in the environmental dispersal of crude oil. Estuar. Coast. Mar. Sci. 2:117-135. Butler, R. G., and D. B. Pealcall. 1982. Effect of oil dispersant mixtures on the basal metabolic rate of ducks. Bull. Environ. Contam. To~cicol. 29:52~524. Butler, R. G., W. Trivelpiece, D. Miller, P. Bishop, C. D'Amico, M. D'Amico, G. Lamert, and D. Pealcall. 1979. Further studies of the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine birds. Bull. Mt. Desert Is. Biol. Lab. 19:33-35. Butler, R. G., W. Trivelpiece, and D. S. Miller. 1982. The effects of oil, dispersant, and emulsions on the survival and behavior of an estuarine teleost and an intertidal amphipod. Environ. Res. 27~2~:266-276.

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