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Index A Acute toxic exposure, 82, 97-117, 255, 257 Advection, 41, 42-46, 50 in models, 44, 46, 63, 65, 67-69 Aerial techniques and aircraft, 2-3, 60 calibration, 229 design of application system, 224-226, 228-229, 234, 236, 242-243 droplet behavior, 60, 217 field studies, 169-175 history, 23 large spins, 13, 263 spotter craft, 238, 240, 242, 263 spray systems, 216, 217, 233-234 waterborne vet, 19, 228, 231 Aesthetics, 6-8, 21 Airborne DispersazIt Delivery System, 225-226 Aircraft, see Aerial techniques and aircraft Air jets, 15-16 Alaska, 249-250, 251, 252-253 Algae lab studies, 130-131 mesocosm and field studies, 183, 187-188, 204-205, 207 red algae, toxic reaction, 214 327 ABuanes, 36, 73,158 American Petroleum Institute, 22, 38, 73, 168-173, 219, 245, 248, 252 Amoco Cadiz, 38 Application strategies, 25-26, 264 connnuand and control, 237-238 spersAnt types, 220-221, 309-316; see also BP dispersants; Corexit dispersants; Finasol dispersants dosage controls, 221-222, 228-229 droplet size, 216-220 spray systems, 215-229 see also Equipment; Treatment methods (non-chemical) Arabian Gulf, Casbah 6 blowout, 23, 37, 320 Arctic Marine Oilspill Program, 23 Arctic zone, see Polar regions Argo Merchant, 152, 236 Aromaticity, 53, 73, 116 Asph~tenes, 53-54 B Baffin Island Oil Spill Project (BIOS), 4, 23, 177, 186,197, 207, 208 biodegradation, 158-159,

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328 subtidal and intertidal habitats, 188-193,199, 200 Benthos and sediments, 8 in decision schema, 241 oil/dispersant mixtures and, 27,62-63, subtidal and intertidal, 188-193 190-193,196, 199, 206-207, 208, 214 241, 260-261 surfactant absorption, 36,196 see also Crustaceans; Seagrasses Betelgeuse, 321 Bioassays ppm-hr concept, 6~61 toxicity testing, 83, 84, 118, 122-155, 255 Biodegradation of dispersants, 36 dispersants used to aid, 20-21, 155-159, 255 field studies, 158-159 laboratory studies, 156-157, 260 mesocosm studies, 157-158, 187-188, 260 of oil, 17, 18, 27, 42, 62 Biological eBects, 255, 257-260 field and mesocosm studies, 186-208 models, 63 shorelines, 21, 22, 27 see also Ecological effects; Marine organisms; Plants (vegetation); Toxicity, general; Toxicity, specific organisms Birds, 2, 5, 7, 27, 160-162, 261-262 Boats, see Ships Ed boats Booms, 15, 19, 20, 223, 227, 236 BP dispersants, 21, 57, 62,113, 114, 120-121,135, 138,176, 196 Brazil, 96 Bubble barriers, 15-16 C Calibration issues, 228-229, 244, 263 Canada, 1, 74 Controlled Ecosystem Pollution Experiment (CEPEX), 157-158, 166, 175-176 development of dispersant use, 22-23, 227, 233, 313 models of dispersion, 66 regulatory issues, 234 toxicologic testing, 83-84, 96, 257 INDEX Caribbean Sea, 202 Case studies, 24, 317-321 Chemical processes and effects, 256-257 composition of dispersants, 29-36 composition of oils, 51-54 photochemic~, 17, 25, 27, 42, 49, 69, 77, 78, 79 salinity, 25,29-30, 73 see also Mousse fo~mation/dispersion; Toxicity, general; Toxicity, specific organisms Chevron Main Pass Block 41, 2, 37, 237, 317-318 Chronic toxic eXposllre, 82, 255 Cleanup methods (non-chemical), see Treatment methods (non-chemical) Coastal zones, 4 aesthetic and ecological damage, 7, 27 beach tests for dispersant toxicity, 96 economic damage, 7-9 littoral and sublittoral habitats, 22, 146, 167 mechanical cleanup methods, shorelines, 16-17, 18, 20 recreation resources, 7-8, 18, 20 sat marshes, 4, 196-197, 214 subtidal and intertidal habitats, 4, 27, 160, 167, 19~-208, 214, 241, 255, 261 Coast Guard skimmers and barriers, 16d statistics on spill sources, 10, 12, 14 Connnuand and control, 237-238 Computer science decision tree (EPA), 245, 246, 250, 252-253 real time, 63, 176 Continental Shelf Institute (Norway), 66 Contingency planning, 234-235, 255, 263-264 Controlled Ecosystem Pollution Experiment, 157-158,166,175-176 Copepoda, 107, 138-139,140 Corm reefs, 4, 204-206, 214 Corexit dispemants, 57,60, 62, 108-109, 111-112,114, 116,120-121,122, 128, 134,144, 145,153, 160-162, 163, 167,176, 183,187, 189,194, 198 Critical micelle concentration, 31

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C~stace~, toxic exposed g7$ 98-g, 101-103, 12g, 135, 13~146 s~ Obo S^ Cams If, fig, 260 In, ace, Gag S_ ~ -~t~ tests, 77 am, 14, 16, 19 saw forces, 3, fig, go-= so ObO ~ D De~oda, 1~, 14O, 142-144 De~sl~ fig bum, 6, 2~253 c~-t~ Ocelot tree (E~), 245, 246, 2SO, 252-253 c~t~cy Mung, 2~-235, 255, 2~-264 sputa, 244-253 Dam ~~- ~_~ bums, 5 in modds, 65, 67~, I, age, ~ Dlspe~lon of 011~ Sea Sl~atl~, 6~g Dome cobra, 221~2~ ~8~29 Dam water, S Droplets aspens, Ha, 122, 21~220 logy tests, 711 72, 77 Maze ~w am, 21~2O, 223-224, 2 sup Sacs, 5, 2S, 32, 42, 5O1 51, 56, 5~591 220 -~ a, ~~ Encoders, 10~1~, 134 Ec~o~c~ enacts, 5, -7, 244, 256, 2~262 Spews, mtl~^ ~ lee, lo Litton ~d smutty brutes, 22, 1~, 167 Idea ~ subtly ad lutertld~ blats, 4, 27, 1~, 167, 1~-20S, 214, 214, 25S, 261 sea sho C~t~ ages; ~~ obese; zloty, genera; 329 Ec~o~c ~to=, cuts ~e-, ~ ~~c~ clam costs, S ma_ Its, as, 5~1, 2~ fitly, 24-26 arm, 1~1~, 18~, ~5 I, ~ socosm stem, 1~-168 adds, 67 Vetoing, 22~234, 242, 244 of t~e/~spe=~t maying, 3~35, 51-54, 72 so_ ~ tam Respects, 22 stamp fir, 1~ tamp sperm, 215-244 t~ldty "~, 27, 85, go, 128 also ~ ~~vlslble te~n;~e, 231-232 ~en' ~ 31~20 Em, s ~l~/~sp~l~ Italy AM ~ Each ~atlo~ fir aspects, 34, 3~13 clslon the ~ re~atlons, 245, 248, 25O, 252-253 l^o~t~ tests, 72, 7~74, 7~77 sag she data, 10 t~l~ty tests, 1 Empty, 23 boom, 15, 19, 2O, 223, 227, 236 awe Id, 15-16 coon 6~-, 228-22g, 244, 263 v~cr~ ad Ills, 22~22S lied sendug, 37, lS4-lS5, 232-233 Each clam, S. 12, 13, 14-17, lS, 127, 24?, 254-255 Iced hang, 233 ~6 an, 21~22O, 22~224, 236, Ago ~- 2= revote saga, 37, 45, 166, 176, 1~-185, 2~234, 263, 264 bath, 43 = ~ brew, 16 say system, 215-219 t~lokt -ns~g, 37, 18~185, 223 ho Amp tam Ice; Sags ad boas Europe, 22

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330 Evaporative processes, 17, 61 dispersed oil, 61 laboratory tests, 77, 78 models, 63 volatile hydrocarbons loss from slicks, 9, 47-49, 167 Exxon, 22, 219, 235 F Field studies, 5, 209-213 American Petroleum Institute, 22, 38, 73, 168-173, 219, 245, 248, 252 Amoco Cadiz, 38 Baffin Island Oil Spill Project (BIOS), 4, 23, 188-193, 158-159, 177, 186, 188-193, 197, 199, 200, 207, 208 biological, 183-208, 260 chemical and physical, 179-186 dispersants applied to spills, 2, 4, 24-25, 60, 165-214 evaporative loss of hydrocarbons, 48 vs laboratory studies, 26, 39, 147-154 microbial degradation, 158-159 model validation, 69 north temperate and arctic tests, 175-179, 188-201 Protecmar study, 173-175 toxicity, lab vs field studies, 147-154 see also Oil spills, specific Finasol dispersants, 107, 167, 181 Fire use and hazards, 9, 17 Fish and fisheries, 5, 7, 200-201 dispersants and, 19-20, 36 dispersed vs untreated oil, effects, 20~201 littoral and sublittoral habitats, 22, 146, 167 toxicity, 100, 101-109, 111-113, 130-154, 214, 261 Fluid dynamics, see Nozzle flow; Slick dynamics Flume tests, 77-78 Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, 83, 84 Forests, see Mangroves France, 23, 75, 233 French Institute of Petroleum (IFP), 74-75, 77 Protecmar study, 173-175, 179 Frick's Law, 39, 46 INDEX G Gulf of Mexico Ixtoc I, 2, 10, 16, 24, 39-41, 44, 57, 320 seagrasses, 202 Gulf Stream, 43 H Halifax trials, 38 Halten Bank experiment, 45 Casbah 6, 23, 37, 320 Health hazards, spray crews, 9, 247 Helicopters, 216, 226, 242-243 History of dispersant use, 21-23, 31-34 Houghton, 21 Hovercraft, 226-228 Hubbs Marine Research Institute, 163-164 Hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB), 29-30, 31-32, 35, 72, 74, 97, 118 Hydrofoils, 226-228 Hydrologic particulates, see Suspended particulate matter I Ichthyoplankton, 134-135, 136-137 Infrared sensing, 37, 184-185, 232-233 Institut Francaise du Petrol, see French Institute of Petroleum (IFP) Interface tension, see Surface and interface dynamics Intelnational cooperation, 23 American Petroleum Institute, 22, 38, 73, 168-173, 219, 245, 248, 252 Canada/U.S. research, 22 dispersant guidelines, 22, 88 standard testing guidelines, 73-74, 258 Intertidal habitats, see Subtidal and intertidal habitats Ixtoc 1, 2, 10, 24, 39-41, 44, 57, 320 mechanical cleanup, 16 model of, 40-41 L Labofina test, 52, 56-57, 71, 74, 75-76, 174 Laboratory studies, 2, 20, 7079, 126-155

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INDEX bioassays, 60-61, 83, 84, 118, 126-155, 255 biodegradation, 20, 156-157, 260 dosages for dispersants, 221-222, 228-229 vs field studies, 26, 39, 147-155, 259 fish toxicity effects, 200-201 flume tests, 77-78 interracial tension, 31, 70 Labofina test, 52, 56-57, 71, 74, 75-76, 174 model validation, 69, 70 suspended particulates, 62 surfactant effectiveness, 22 temperature effects on droplets, 59 toxicity, 70, 79, 84-85, 97, 122-123, 125, 126-155, 259, 261-262 Linear aLkyl benzenes (LAB), 36 Linear aLkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), 36 Long Cove, 4, 186, 197, 198-199 M Maclcay-Nadeau-Steelman (MNS) test, 70, 71, 72, 75-76, 79 Maine, 4 Main Pass Block 41, 2, 37, 237, 317-318 Malaysia, 207 Mangroves, 4, 206-208, 214, 261 Marine Ecosystem Research Laboratory, 187-188 Marine mammals, 3, 5, 27, 160, 163-164, 261-262 Marine organisms subtidal and intertidal habitats, 4, 27, 160, 167, 193-209, 214, 241, 255, 261 toxicity effects, laboratory studies, 129-155, 186-206 see also individual classes and species Mathematical models, see Models Mechanical cleanup, 8, 247, 254-255 booms, 15, 19, 20, 223, 227, 236 methods and limitations, 12, 13, 14-16 of shorelines, 16-17, 18 skimmers, 16, 242 toxicity effects, chemical cleanup vet, 127 Mesocosm studies, 20 331 biodegradation, 157-158, 187-188 toxicity, 166-168, 193-195, 209-213 Meteorology, see Weather factors Microbial degradation, see Biodegradation Microorganisms, 187-188 Microwave sensing, 233 Models advection, 44, 46, 63, 65, 68-69 decision-making schemata, 244-253 Dispersion of Oil on Sea Simulation, 6069 droplet formation, 63, 67 oil fate and dispersion, 63~9 real time, 63, 176 slick herding, 57-58 slick resurfacing, 65, 68, 69 slick spreading, 38-39 toxicity, 145, 162 validation, 69, 70 weathering, 48, 64 Mollusks, 131, 134, 146-147, 148 Mousse processes, 243, 256 dispersion, 51, 53-54, 57 formation, 40 41, 49-50, laboratory tests, 77, 78, 80 in models, 63 N Naphthenic acids, 53 National Contingency Plan, 234, 309-313 National Contingency Product Schedule, 34, 309-313 Netherlands, 23, 233 North Sea, 16, 179 Norway, 23, 35, 37, 75, 179, 230, 233 Nozzle flow, 217-220, 22~224, 236, 263 air and water jets, 15-16 o Ocean circulation and dispersion processes, 2, 4107, 239, 256, 260 laboratory studies, 5 see also Advection; Currents; Slick dynamics, Turbulence; Wave processes (marine) Offshore oil and gas operations. see also Oil spills, specific , 10, 237

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334 bioassays, 60-61, 83, 84,118,126-155, 255 chronic exposure, 82,255 cleanup crews, effects on, 9, 247 dispersants, 5, 22, 24, 26-27, 84-123, 96-164,257-258 dispersed oil, 5,22,24,26-27, 123-164,258-259,261-262 dosage controls, 221-222,228-229 effectiveness v&, 27, 85, 96,128 exposure assessment, 124,128-129, 259 field tests, 147-155,259 hydrocarbon components, 47-49 joint toxicity, 125-126 laboratory tests, 70, 79,122-123,125, 126-155,200-201,258,259,262 levels and effects of toxicity by marine species and/or oil/dispersant type, 100, 101-109,111-113, 130-154 mesocosm studies, 166-168,193-195, 209-213 physiology, 117-118, 259 sublethal exposures, 3, 7, 116,117, 118,120-121,143,162,195, 257-258 testing, 81-164 temperature influences, 116 weathering and, 128,146 Toxicity, specific organisms algae, 130-131,187-188,204-205,207, 214 copepoda, 107,138-139,140 coral, 4,204-206,214 crustaceans, 97,98-99,101-103,128, 135,138-146 decapoda, 139,140,142-144 echinoderms, 104-106,134 fish, 5, 7,19-20, 22, 36,100-109, 111-113,130-154 mangroves, 206-208, 214 marine nunnn~ds, 163-164, 261 mollusks, 131,134,146-147,148 pLunkton, 97, 98-99,130,131, 134-135,136-137,187-188 protozoa, 131 seabirds, 2, 5, 7,27,160-162,261-262 seagrasses, 4, 195-196, 201-204, 214 shellfish, 8,194-195,199,214 Tropical zones field tests, 186, 201-202 INDEX mangroveS,4, 206 - 208,214 seagrasses, 4,195-196,201-204, 214 subtidal and intertidal habitats, 4,209 Treatment methods (non-chemical), 13-18 burning, 17 gelling, 17 - 18 mechanics, 8,12,13,14-16, 127, 247 natural dispersion, 17,18,241, 243 shoreline, 1017 sinking, 17 Turbulence, 25, 260 laboratory studies, 5, 71-79 slick dynamics, 28,41,46-47,58-59, 69 U U]traviolet sensing, 37,184-185,223 United Kingdom, 22,23,83,86, 96, 174, 196, 233 United Nations Environmental Programme, 83,84 University of Rhode Island, 187-188 University of Toronto, 66 Urquiloa, 130 V Vascular plants, 130-131,214 Videotapes, 231-232,263 Viscosity laboratory experiments, 72,174-175 oil dispersion effects, 3,25,38,54-56, 180-182,217,220,240 solvents and, 34 temperature effects, 59 of various oils, 53 Volatile hydrocarbons, 220 evaporative loss from slicks, 9, 25, 47-49,167 W War, 10 Warren Spring Laboratory (WSL), 175-176,223, 228 Labofina test, 52, 56-57, 71, 74, 75-76 Water jets, 15-16 Wave processes "marine) laboratory studies, 5, 72, 75, 77-78 mechanical cleanup and, 14,16,19

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INDEX Saudi Arabia, Casbah 6 spill, 23,37, 320 Seabirds, see Birds Seagrasses, 4,195-196, 201-204, 214 Sediments, see Benthos and sediments; Particulates Sequim Bay, 200 Shake-Hask tests, 70, 74, 79 Shallow-water environments, 22, 255, 261-262 see also Subtidal and intertidal habitats Shellfish, 8, 194-195, 199, 214 Ships and boats, 2-3, 222-224, 228-229 hovercraft and hydrofoils, 226-228 oil spill sources, 9-11 skimmers, 16, 242 spray systems, 23, 50, 216, 242, 243, 263 tankers, 9-11, 38 see also Mechanical cleanup Shorelines, see Coastal zones Skimmers, 16, 242 Slick dyn~nics, 57-59 advection, 41, 42-46, 65 chemical properties of oil, 51-53 dispersed slick oil concentration, 60-61 droplet factors, 5, 28, 42,50, 51, 56, 58-59, 65, 71, 72, 217, 220 evaporative processes, 9, 17, 47-49, 61, 63, 77, 78, 167 field tests, 168-186 herding, 57-58 laboratory tests, 70-79 mechanical cleanup and, 15 mesocosm tests, 166-168 spreading, 38-41, 42 subsurface processes, 43, 47, 60-61 tar bans, 20-21, 46 thickness, 28, 36-38, 65, 67, 72, 75, 77, 78, 216, 221-222, 230, 240, 256 turbulence, 28, 41, 46-47 Solvents fate in aqueous environment, 36 hydrocarbon-based, 56 in surfactants, 34 toxicity, 97 Sources of spills, 9-11, 244 see also Oil spills, specific Spray systems, 215-229 aerial, 216, 217, 233-234 333 boat-mounted, 23, 50, 216, 242, 243, 263 crews, toxic hazards, 9, 247 wave processes and, 25,238 Standards effectiveness, 166 inte~nationa1 guidelines, 22, 258 testing oils and dispersants, 73-74, 84 toxicity testing, 27, 83, 87-9S, 116, 258 Stoke's Law, 67 Sublethal toxic exposures, 3, 7, 116, 117, 118,143, 162,195, 257-258 by chemical type, 12 0121 Subtidal and intertidal habitats, 4, 27, 160, 167,193-209,214, 241, 255, 261 Surface and interface dynamics, 40, 220 critical micelle concentration, 31 laboratory studies, 70 surfactant orientation, 33, 50-51 see also Droplets; Slick dynamics Suspended particulate matter, see Particulates Sweden, 23, 233 T Tankers, 9-11, 38 Tar bans, 20-21, 46 Temperate zones field tests, 175-179,186 Subtidal and intertidal habitats, 4, 193-200 Temperature effects, 25, 34, 35, 56, 59, 73, 240 evaporative processes, 9, 17, 47-49, 61, 63, 77, 78, 167 fire as cleanup method, 17 in models, 67, 68 toxicity, 116-117, 257 Tetradecane, 73 Tidal waters, see Subtidal and intertidal habitats Time factors, 54-57, 240, 247, 255 dispersed oil concentration, 6~61, 71 laboratory tests, 75, 76, 114 see also Weathering Torrey Canyon Spill, 2, 7,21, 22, 23, 317-318 Toxicity acute exposure, 82, 97-117, 255, 257

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~ ~ 6~ sag Sacs, 2S, 42, 243 Slug ~d, 25, 238 tag teats, 7 Ma am, 2 I, at, I, aim ma, lo Clod, 14, 16, 19, 48, 51, as, fig, 224, age age -~= ~~, ~1 ~~ bo PI ma; Beam am; ~~ z atbedug, 1~, 173, 2 evaporative, 4~9, 61 in Soda, at, ~ t~l~ty ~d, 128, 13O, 146 v~co~ty of ~1 ~d, 3, 54-55 ~1~ Fatly, 67 ~H Aims, 39 see ~~, OH In, spedAc Item, see Sat =~- ~st G_, 194 gad ~~ clam, 19, 224, 229, 236 aspen ~xt~e e~tl~ss, 51 e~oratlve loss of Ohs, 48 _ ~ 14, 16 am, a, 69 sag patted exacts, 224 W11~, 5 see ~~o B1^; awe as; v~ Bash z _, ~L 1~, 18~