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Index A Abscisic acid, 381, 382, 384, 389 Acanthamaeba, 114 Acclimation, 369-370, 397 Acetolactate synthase, 398 Acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmitter, 125,127,132, 184-186 receptor, 61, 62, 124,125, 127, 178, 182, 184, 185, 253 Acetylcholinesterase, 185 Acid precipitation, 3, 303, 314, 319 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) animal disease models, 26 contemporary problem, 2, 17 HIV vaccine, 349-351 lymphokine use, 239 mechanism, 224, 233, 242, 253 monoclonal antibodies, 28 research areas, 9, 340 therapies, 242, 259 worldwide incidence, 349 Actin filaments, 60, 65, 66, 79, 111-115, 121, 141 Action potentials, 176,182-183, 185 Activase, 373-374 Activation, 145-146 Active zones, 186 Acyclovir, 348-349, 352 Ada protein, 97 425 Adaptation, 270, 272, 288-290 Adaptive radiation, 275, 279-281 Addressing mechanism, 194 Adenine arabinoside, 352 Adenosine, 19 Adenosine deaminase, 348 Adenosine diphosphate-ribose, 131 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 374, 388 ATPases, 116 mechanism, 52, 94, 113 mitochondrial synthesis of, 5, 108 Adenovims, 63, 351 Adenyl cyclase, 128, 130, 131, 200 Adenylnudeotides, 100 Adhering junctions, 162 Adhesins, 246 Adhesion factors, 363 Adhesion molecules, see Cell-adhesion molecules Adipocytes, 360-361 Adipose tissue, 360-361 Adoption studies, 221, 222 Adrenalin, 45 p-Adrenergic receptors, 45, 61, 128, 185, 253, 360 ,B-Adrenoceptor blockers, 222 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 186 Aedes aegypyti, 261 Affective illness, 220, 222-223, 347 Affinity chranatography, 356 African birds, 277

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426 African cichlids, 275-276, 281 African clawed frog, 16, 17 Aging process, l 17, 168-169, 177 Aggression, 296, 299 p-Agonists, 360, 361 Agriculture, see Plant biology and agriculture Agriculture Department (USDA), 407-408, 419 Agrobacterium, 378, 384, 397, 400-401 A. tumefaciens, 9, 25-26, 380,382, 390-392 Airbome sensors, 315 Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Ad ministration, 407 Alcohol use, 336 Aleurone system, 382, 383 Alfalfa, 380 Alfalfa mosaic virus, 393, 394 Algae, 365, 366 Alkaline phosphatase, 267 Alkaloids, 277 Allelopathic phenomena, 294 Allergies, 324-326 Allopurinol, 334 Alnus, 380 Alpha helices, 42, 54, 61-62,75,182 Alzheimer's disease, 2, 17, 219, 344, 347 Amantadine, 351 Amazon characoid fishes, 275-276 Amino acids, 21, 40, 105 derivatives, 121 feed additives, 363 neurotransmitter, 186 c-Aminobutyric acid, 124 y-Aminobutync acid (GABA), 186 Amish community, 347 Ammonia, 146, 369, 377 Amnesia, 200, 212 Amoebas, 79 Amphetamines, 220 Amphibians, 79, 93, 158, 167, 191, 194 Amphiphiles, 66 a-Amylase, 382 Amyloid beta protein precursor gene, 347 Amyloid polyneuropathy, 348 Amyloplasts, 134, 374 Anabaena, 378 Analytical chemistry, 293, 315 Anaphylatoxins, 241 Anaphylaxis, 243, 255, 325, 326 Androgenetic embryos, 145 Anemia, 104 Anesthetics, 127 INDEX Angina, 357 Angiotensin-converting enzyme, 56 Angle bending, 73 Animals disease models, 26 DNA repair and mutagenesis, 97, 98 ecological studies, 289 gene expression, 101-102 livestock husbandry, 27, 311, 323, 359 364, 413 natural toxins, 126, 289 pheromones, 293 RNA splicing, 101 transgenic studies, 23-27, 103 vision studies, 198, 204-205 see also specif c species Ankylosing spondylitis, 335 Ant evolution, 280 Antennapedia genes, 155 Anthocyanins, 380 Antiarrhythmics, 127 Antibiotics bacterial destruction of, 56 bacterial resistance to, 261, 263 magainins, 16, 17 molecular structure, 4 plant-made, 138 Antibodies, see Immune system and infectious diseases Antibody probes, 7, 114, 115, 188; see also Monoclonal antibody technique Anticoagulants, 27, 68,357-358 Antidepressant drugs, 222 Antifreeze proteins, 289 Antigens, see Immune system and infectious diseases Anti-idiotypic antibodies, 350 Antipsychotics, 127 Antisense RNA, 158 Antiviral compounds, 56, 64, 102, 348-349, 351-352 Aplysia, 128, 179 Apo A, 333 Apo B-100, 333 Apolipoproteins, 329, 330, 333 Aquaria, 421 Aquatic life, see Oceanic environment Arabidopsis, 171, 375 Arabidopsis th~liana, 385, 397, 398 Arachidonic acid, 187, 324, 325 Archaebacteria, 263 Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid, 118, 163

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INDEX Arterio-venous occlusions, 357 Arthritis, 117, 224, 244, 334-336 Arthropods, 271 Artificial intelligence, 8, 178, 208 Asialoerythrocytes, 247 Asialoglycoproteins, 247 Asparagine, 49 Association areas, 180 Aster formation, 119 Asthma, 326 Ataxia telangiectasia, 98 Atherosclerosis, S. 17, 324, 328-334 Atmosphere changes, 3, 305, 307, 313-314 ecological studies, 303-304 photosynthesis role, 365 Atomic force microscope, 34, 35 Atrial natnuretic factor (ANF), 326-328 Atriopeptigen, 326 Atriopeptin, 326-328 Attention studies, 8, 204, 212-213 Autecology, 288-290 Autocrine hormones, 123 Autonomic neurons, 160 Autoradiography, 191, 327 Auxins, 172, 381-384, 391, 399 Averaging methods, 65 Axons, 111, 160, 176, 178, 180, 187, 194 Axoplasmic transport, 7, 33, 188-189, 250 Azidothymidine (AZT), 242 B B lymphocytes, 27, 225; see also hnmune system and infectious diseases Babirusa, 364 Bacillus thu~ingiensis, 392 Bacteremia, 250, see also Immune system and infectious diseases Bacteria 427 RNA transcription, 99 symbiotic relationships, 138 virulence factors, 245 Bacterial viruses, 95, 96 Bacteriophage genomes, 89 Bacteriophage ~-174, 89 Bacteriorhodopsin, 61 Baker's yeast, 148 Basement membrane, 117, 118, 121 BasoEhils, 241, 243 Behavior, see Nervous system and behavior Bending mechanism, 57 Biocatalysis, 352 Biochemical process industry, 352-359, 417 Biochemistry, 85, 352 Biogenesis mitochondria, 79, 108-111 photosynthetic apparatus, 136 Biogenic amides, 200, 222 Biogeography, 277, 308-309, 319 Biological Research Resources program, 285, 420 Biological response modifiers, 342 Biological sciences antibiotic resistance, 261, 263 characteristics, 77 deep-sea environment, 303, 310 DNA repair and mutagenesis, 97 evolutionary studies, 263, 268, 281-282 gene expression, 153 genetic engineering, 317 genomes, 89 nitrogen location, 135, 366, 377-381 photosynthesis role, 365 protein traffic regulation, 107 RNA splicing, 101 research needs and opportunities, 1-3 synergistic interactions, 3-4, 15-18, 37-38 Biomechanics, 271, 274 Bioreactors, 354 Biosphere, 304 Biotechnology definition, 413 funding, 418 industry goals, 2, 352-359 industry profile, 413-414 microbial ecology, 16-17, 317, 322 plant biology, 397 vaccine development, 350 see also Genetic engineering; Transgenic organisms Biparental androgenomes, 145 Biparental gynogenomes, 145 Bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder, 220, 222-223, 347 Bird studies, 272, 277, 297 Bladder cancer, 52, 339, 344 Blastomeres, 152 Blastula, 159, 160 Blood clots, 43, 68,333, 357-358 Blood-dotting factor Am, 43, 68 Blood disorders, 324 Blood glucose regulation, 70 Blood vessel proliferation, 150

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428 Blue-green algae, 365 Blue-light photoreceptor, 384, 385 Bond stretching, 73 Bone fractures, 357 Bone marrow, 147, 224, 338, 342-343 Bone tissue, 117, 118 Bordatella pertussis, 131 Borrelia burgdorferi 335 Botanical gardens, 284, 421 Botulism, 132 Bradyrhizabium, 378 Brain cells, 112, 117, 175; see also Nervous system and behavior Brassica, 387 Brassicaceae, 398 Breast cancer, 339 Breeding population, 299, 311-312 Breeding structure, 299 Bronchospasm, 255 Bryophytes, 170 a-Bungarotoxin, 185 Burkitt's lymphoma, 43, 340, 351 Butterflies, 293 C C-fos proto-oncogenes, 232 C-myc oncogenes, 341 C-myc proto oncogenes, 230,340 Cabbage, 387 Caenorhabditis elegans, 46, 179, 192 Cajel, see Ramon y Cajal Calcium channels, 116, 125, 127, 128, 199 Calcium ions activation role, l 14, 129, 145-146,200, 243 second messenger, 5, 124, 132, 185-187 Calcium phosphate, 118 Califomia red scale, 291 Callose, 138 Cancer, 2, 17 causes and nature, 5, 336-337, 344 colon, 344 control, 339-340 gene expression, 102-104 HIV infection, 349 mechanisms, 93, 100, 118, 122-123 natural killer cells, 238-239 oncogenes, 71, 133-134, 252, 340-341 therapies, 56, 126, 239, 257, 337-339, 342-344 viral agents, 340 INDEX Cells Candidate gene strategy, 345, 347 Capacitation, 144-145 Captopril, 56 Carbohydrates molecular structure, 4,39,40,42 protein modification, 45 research areas, 49-51, 58 Carbon dioxide, 3, 313, 314 Carbon isotope ratios, 316, 317 Carbonic anhydrase, 316 2'-Ca~bo~cyarabinitol-l-phosphate, 373 Carcinogen exposure, 336 Cardiac disorders, 324 Cardiovascular disease, 5, 17, 324, 328-334 Cardiovascular function, 325, 326 Caltilage, 117 CAT scanning, 180, 221 Cat studies, 198, 203 Catalysis, 372, 379 Catalytic RNAs, 58, 101 Catastrophic events, 305 Catecholamines, 186 Ceanothus, 380 Cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs), 6, 141, 159-164, 192-193 Cell culture techniques, 55, 356 Cell-surface molecules, 49, 161-162, 192-193, 233 Cell-surface receptors communication mechanism, 5, 70-71, 107, 120, 123-124, 141, 164 growth-factor receptors, 150-151 HIV receptor, 233 microbial infection, 252 structure and composition, 61-62, 246 cytoplasm structure and function, 101 108 death, 151 differentiation, 141 division, 108, 118-120, 146-152 elastic properties, 34 extracellular matrix, 117-118 fundamental biological unit, 4, 77-78 fusion, 108, 352 growth, 56, 146-152 junctions, 62, 120, 121, 141, 162 membrane, see Plasma membrane mitochondrial function and biogenesis, 108-111 motility, 5, 6, 111, 113-115, 132, 159-164 nucleus, 79-84

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INDEX oncogene influence, 133-134 plant cells, see Plant biology and agriculture regulation, see Signaling processes structure, 111-112 Cellular biology biomechanics applications, 274 research opportunities, 4-5, 18, 323 research strategies, 78-79, 141 Cellulose microfibrils, 172-174, 369 Cellulose synthesis, 138, 173-174 Cenozoic epoch, 280 Centrifuges, 414 Centrioles, 119 Centromeres, 83, 119, 120 Centrosomes, 112, 115, 146 Cerebellum, 208, 211 Cerebral cortex, 196 Cerebral infarction, 328 Chaotic behavior, 320 Characoid fish, 275-276 Character disorder, 220 Cheetahs, 311 Chemical ecology, 16, 292-295 Chemical industry, 413 Chemical synthesis, 4, 28, 30, 71, 75 Chemoaffinity hypothesis, 194 Chemoattractants, 115 Chemosynthetic bacteria, 303 Chemotactic molecules, 146 Chemotherapy, 338, 339, 342-343 Chick studies, 79, 191, 198 Chickens, 340, 362 Chimeric proteins, 69-71 Chinese hogs, 361,364 Chlamydomonas, 79, 135 Chlorine, 243 Chlorofluorocarbons, 305 Chlorophyll, 135, 373 Chlorophyta, 366 Chloroplasts, 106, 107, 134-137, 375 Cholera, 131, 350 Cholesterol egg content, 362 derivatives, 121 regulation, 71, 324, 328-334 Cholinergic neurons, 195 Chromatin, 81-82, 99, 144, 153 Chromatography, 315, 324, 356 Chromophores, 384 Chromosomes, 80-84, 92-93, 119-120, 146- 148 429 Chylomicrons, 329 Cicadas, 290 Cichlid evolution, 275-276, 281 Cigarette smoking, 330, 332,339 Cilia, 113, 119 Cimetidine, 324 Circadian rhythms, 151, 202 Circular dichroism, 372 Citrus fruit pests, 291 Clean studies, 149, 159 Clathrin, 60, 116 Climatic charge, 3, 282,305, 3a7,313-314 Clonal analysts, 1 genetic diseases, 345-348 nervous system, 179, 185, 188, 193 pathogenesis, 249, 256 plant development, 170 Clonal selection theory, 225 Clover roots, 247 Coastal-zone color scanner, 314 Coat protein, 394, 397 Coated pits, 69, 116 Cobra toxin, 126 Cocaine, 127 Coding regions, 99 Cognition, 7, 8, 177, 198-201, 210-214 Coleochaete, 366 Collagens, 117, 118, 121, 163 Colon cancer, 344 Colony formation, 120 Colony-stimulating factors, 167, 335, 342 Color blindness, 201 Combinatonal algorithms, 74 Comma cold virus, 64 Communicating junctions, 162 Communication mechanisms, see Signaling processes Communication strategies, 10, 217-219, 295, 296 Community ecology, 288, 301-305 Comparative psychology, 295 Competitive Research Grants Office, 419 Complement system, 241, 244, 258, 343 Computer-aided light microscopy, 65 Computerized axial tomography (CAT scanning), 180, 221 Computers and data anaylsis artificial intelligence, 8, 178, 208 biotechnology applications, 356 canputer vision, 205 general applications, 4, 36-37

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Ins Romeos, 1 13,4= . m^~ar Isles, ~ sodas, 11, 397 pit Edit As, 76 ms~_s, 415 =~= dam, 37, as, 76, _g, 199-2W, 211, 213 e sit it, 126 C^~ city, 73~4 Ate dssue, 117-118, 1~ I, ~8 Sits =~- ~s~ By) Digits, 228 In, 1~ 114 - Age, SOB, 319 I, 131 ~^,2~ Cam bat), 43, 13S, 2~, 368, 386, 389, . . ~1 Ads Alum, 1 at, 213 ~ 121, 1= Coot Cicada, 363 Cosmetic Hindus-, 117 C~m,370 C~=lchomk~s~u~um,42 C=yO~sm~=,179 Cmuu~ldJAkob~s~se,236,337 Cue Cam Eulogy ad ~d~kum Cms~pn*e=1~,394,397 Cms~k~ ~,138 C~wngaD,~,380,39~392,401 Cg.-d~n~o~op~61,~,184 ~,~X~ Cdc~m~rm~c~m~393 Cd=m,127 cy=~=teda,36S,373~378 cy~og~s,~7 C9~cad~os~em~opbospbsm,\124, 128-132,187,199,~ Cycling _ =~em-~os~m,128,1~, 201,3~ Cychns,149,152 Cido~y:=asepa~way,323,326 Cyclos~dnA,236 Cysm~emsidues,70 cyst ~,1~,3~ Id p-~no~gom~,395 ~,~ cy~g~edcs,345 cy~",335 Cymkk~,113,119 Cyo~n~381,382,39~392,3 Cy"~.~df=t ~1-232 C~o~asu~4,~,101,104-1~,113,1~148 Cy~s~e,19 Cy~skda=,J,66,111-112,170,187-189 cy~s~,1~-1~,374 C/~dcd~gs,344 Cy"~.dd~,255 D D ~ =~e,361,362,364 Dam =~ysis,~.Compum~ ad Ma =~sis DDE,~1 DDT,2~1 Ik~pm~168-169,195 Do _ ,211,212 See, ~E ~k =~1 D~msem~ec~=,393,393 Ddb="ad~,313 Drays kghthne^g,374 Dome~y~=,102 D~nm~np~t ~=,318 Landaus, 160,176,180, 188 2-~=y-D-glucose, 352 ~cleic add, ~e MA In, 139 -and=, 220, 222-223, 347 Used Act, 289 ~1 acceded 53-~S Act, as, 141,142, 163-1 Iced mechanism, 1~ ~1~,~,31~317 vU-~g cart, 3~, Be, 31t 3 v~ at, 3~ v~ Eulogy, 140-174 ~ ~ 11 -~s--gm~, 1~-1 Cal modems ad adhesion, 139-1 ~ at, tubed-, 141, 144-146 _, 1~1~ gene express-, 133-159 nimbus system, 7, 8, 189-198 ovendew,5~,77~8,1 pram Anna -,1~-1 1~1~ USA ~hies,140-142

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INDEX training needs, 410 Diabetes, 220, 224, 234,330, 332 Diacylglycerol (DAG),5, 129, 130, 132, 146, 187 Dictyostelium, 88 Dictyostel~um discoideum, 114 Diet choices, 297, 336, 340 Differentiation factors, lS1 Digital image processing, 33 Dibydrofolate reductase, 56 Dinoflagellate toxin, 126 Diphenylbutylpiperidines, 221 Diphtheria toxin, 126, 250, 257 Disease animal and plant resistance, 27, 138, 311, 392-397 degenerative, 119 plant productivity decrease, 368 transgenic animal models, 26 Disease mechanism, see Immune system and infectious diseases Disease treatment, see Medicine and disease treatment; Monoclonal antibody technique Diversity, see Evolutionary biology; Species extinction DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) folding and bending, 57, 81-82 methylation, 101-102 mitochondrial DNA, 109 molecular stnacture, 1, 41, 56-57, 71 noncoding, 88 repair and mutagenesis, 96-98 replication, 90-93, 119, 146 synthesis, 31 see also Recombinant DNA techniques DNA-cutting enzymes, 21 DNA helicase, 92 DNAjoining enzymes, 21 DNA polymerase I, 30 DNA polymerase m, 90, 91 DNA sequencing data accumulation, 18, 28, 37, 43, 76, 420 evolutionary studies, 9, 263-267 genetics applications, 85, 135 methods, 30-31 research goals and strategies, 46-49 DNA topoisomerase II, 82 Domains, 69,72, 82, 99, 182 Dopadecarboxylase mutant, 200 Dopanune, 186, 200, 209, 220-222, 347 Dormancy, 385 431 Double helices, 42 Down's syndrome, 94 Drosophila studies developmental biology, 6, 141, 144, 151- 156 evolutionary biology, 268, 281 genetics, 46, 94, 102 nervous system, 179, 190, 200 Drought tolerance, 18 Drug develoEnnent, see Medicine and disease treatment Duehenne's muscular dystrophy, 104, 344- 346 Duffy antigen, 249 Dunce mutation, 200 Dwarfism, 356-357 Dye studies, 139 Dynamical systems theory, 319 Dynein, 113-114, 189 Dyslexia, 8, 214 Dystonia, 207 EEcology and ecosystems, 287-322 adaptation to environmental vanation, 288-290, 36~370 agroecosystems, 292 behavioral ecology, 214-219, 271-272, 295-297, 299-301 biomechanics applications, 274 chemical ecology, 16, 292-295 community ecology, 301-305 conservation ecology, 18, 307-312 ecological problems, 287-288, 305-314 funding, 418419 genetic ecology, 298-301 global climate change, 3, 313-314 industry profile, 413 mathematical models, 10, 317-321 microbial ecology, 303 natural disasters, 305, 306 population regulation, 290-291 research opportunities, 3, 321-322 study focus, 10-11, 287 technological advances, 16-17, 314-317 training needs, 410, 411 Ecophysiology, 315 Ectoderm, 190 Education and training, 12, 284, 405-412 Effector nerve cells, 181 Egg cells, 80, 141-146

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432 Egg content, 362 Elastic, 117 Electrokinetic separations, 356 Electromyography, 274 Electron microscopy cell motility studies, 113, 114 ecological studies, 315 molecular structure applications, 42, 60, 61, 65~6, 372 nervous system studies, 7, 184, 188, 189 pathogenesis observations, 248, 256 Electron paramagnetic resonance spectros copy, 372-373 Electron-storage rings, 58 Electron transfer, 374 Electr~horesis, 30, 57, 345 Electroporation, 401 Elicitors, 395 Embryogenesis, 27, 112; see also Develop mental biology Embryonic genes, 154 Employment profile, 412-414 Emus, 277 Encephalopathies, 256 End-plate potential, 184-185 Endocrine glands, 122, 191, 328 Endocrinology, 295 Endocytosis, 79 Endoglycosidases, 50 Endonucleolytic cleavage, 101 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), 70, 105-107, 129, 132 p-Endorphin, 186 Endosperm, 382 Energy, Department of (DOE), 419 Energy industries, 413 Energy minimization, 73-74 Engineering applications, 274 Enhancer sequence, 99-100, 102, 153, 252, 254, 400 Environment, see Ecology and ecosystems Enzymes, 21, 352, 374 molecular structure, 4, 52, 53, 56 Eocene age, 280 Eosinophilia, 255 Eosinophils, 243 Epidemiology, 9, 319 Epidermal cells, 122 Epidermal growth factor (EGF), 70, 122, 124, 126, 150-151, 195, 360 Epigenetic development, 151 Epilepsy, 200, 212 INDEX Epinephrine, 121,128, 130 Epithelial cells, 1 13, 114, 117, 1 18, 120-123, 167 Epitopes, 225 Epstein-Barr virus, 43, 253, 340, 351 Equipment, see Instrumentation and specie c instrumentation and techniques Erythropoietin, 122, 167 Escherichia cold studies, 363 evolutionary biology, 266-267 genetics, 46, 90, 95, 97 molecular structure, 60, 61 pathogenesis, 245, 248 Esterases, 238 Estrogens, 121 Estuaries, 321 Ethology, 215, 295 Ethylene, 173-174, 381, 382, 384 Euglena, 135 Eukaryotes, 77, 104-107, 136-137 European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), 48 Evolutionary biology, 260-286 adaptation, 270-271 behavioral ecology, 214-219, 271-273, 299-301 biomechanics, 274 contemporary research, 283-286 evolutionary processes, 9, 265-270 functional morphology, 273, 275 genetic ecology, 298-301 number and distribution of species, 9-10, 276, 307-308 paleobiology, 279-283 research opportunities, 263-265 resistance mechanism, 260-263 systematics, 9-10, 274, 276-279, 283-285 training needs, 411-412 Excitatory postsynaptic potental, 181 Exocytosis, 79, 107, 186 Exons, 53, 58, 69, 267 Extensin, 137-139 Extemal cues, 141-142, 152 Extinction, see Species extinction Extracellular matri~c animals, 117-118 cell proliferation control by, 150-151 cell-to-cell communication, 12~121 growth factor control of, 150 morphogenesis role of, 163-164 osteoarthritis, 336 plants, 5, 137-139

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INDEX E,ctrastriate cortex, 203 Eye movements, 208, 213 Eyeblink response, 211 F Fabaceae, 377-380 Fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrcxnetry, 49 Fatty acid deficiency, 325-326 Fatty acylation, 70 Feed additives, 363 Feedback control, 148, 151, 208 Fermentation process, 78 Ferns, 170 Ferrodoxin-thioredoxin system, 373 Fertility, 24-25 Fertilization, 141, 142, 144-146 Fibrin, 333, 357 Fibrinogen, 333 Fibroblast growth factor, 150, 195 Fibroblasts, 117, 122, 147, 167 Fibronectin, 118, 163, 248 Filamentous complexes, 60 Filopodia, 194 Fimbriae, 246 First Awards Program, 417 Fission yeast, 148 Fish studies, 165 ecological studies, 289, 290, 300, 317 evolutionary biology, 275-276, 281 nervous system, 178, 194 Fisheries management, 291, 319 Flagella, 113, 119 Flagellates, 248 Flash fluorescence, 374 Flavonoids, 380 Flightless ratite birds, 277 Florigen, 389 Flow cytometry, 3-4, 31-32 Flow-sheet simulation techniques, 356 Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, 31-32 Fluorescence microscopy, 7, 33-34, 115, 188, 314-315 Fly studies, 269, 298 Folding DNA, 57, 81-82 plants, 373 proteins, 4, 37, 45, 51-53, 70-76, 267 Food additives, 413 Food and Drug Administration, 350, 357 Food production, 366 433 Foot-and-mouth disease, 362, 363 Foraging behavior, 10, 295, 297 Forests, 305, 314-315, 319, 321; see also Tropical forests Fossil fuel combustion, 313 Fossil record, 264, 279-283 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 372 FranlEa, 366, 379 French beans, 389 Frog studies developmental biology, 141, 148, 149, 152, 166 frog skin antibiotics, 16, 17 natural toxin, 126 Frontal lobes, 214 Frost damage, 369-370, 397 Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, 374 Fruitflies, 79; see also Drosophila studies Funding, 13, 47, 76, 284, 405, 407408, 416- 422 F. ung1 mycorrhizal fungi, 366, 367 pathogenesis, 250, 254 RNA splicing, 101, 109 weed control, 393 see also Yeast studies G Game theory, 215, 301 Gametes, 141 Gametogenesis, 142-146 Gametophytes, 170 Ganglia, 191, 195 Gap junctions, 62, 120, 121, 168 Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 315, 324 Gastrula, 159 Gastrulation, 160, 163, 190 Gating process, 182-183 Gel electrophoresis, 30, 57 GenBank, 48 Gene diagnosis, 346 Gene expression, 179, 258, 362 mechanism, 57-58, 68, 98-103, 153-159 plants, 134-136 research areas, 6, 80, 109, 141 Gene library, 87 Gene mapping, 103-104, 135, 344-345 Gene therapy, 24-25, 347-348 Gene transfers, 23, 102-103 Genealogy, 278

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434 Genetic analysis, 85-88 Genetic diseases, 104, 344-348 Genetic ecology, 298-301, 317 Genetic engineering ecological studies, 317, 322 immune system applications, 55 livestock, 363-364 mechanisms, 21, 23, 157-1S8, 352, 354, 355 patent activity, 404 plants, 27, 174, 286, 367, 369, 375, 389, 394, 397402 see also Transgenic organisms Genetics research, 84 Genome, 77, 80, 82, 88-89, 103-104, 270 Genotype, 85 Germ cells, 80, 119, 141, 142, 163 Germ layers, 160 Germplasm, 285-286 Gerstmann-Straussler syndrome, 256 Gibberella~jikuroi 382 Gibberellic acid, 172, 174 Gibberellins, 381-384 Glaciation, 282 Gland cells, 160 Glial cells, 175, 190-192 Global change, 3, 305, 307, 313-314 Glomen~lonephntis, 248, 325-326 Glomerulus, 325 Glucagon, 128 Glucose, 130 Glucosinolates, 277 Glutamate, 184, 186 Glutamine synthetase, 393 Glycine, 186 Glycogen, 132 Glycolipids, 51 Glycolysis, 108 Gylcolytic enzymes, 112 Glycoproteins, 45, 49-51, 161-163, 247, 352, 387, 389 Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), 117, 118 Glycosylation, 106, 138, 352, 354-355, 357 Glycosyltransferases, 50 Glyphosphate, 401 Gnd genes, 266 Golgi complex, 69, 106-107 Gonadotropin, 24-25, 143, 197 Gonorrhea, 261 Gout, 334 Gouty arthntis, 334 Graduate Record Exam test scores, 405 INDEX Grafts and transplants, 8, 234, 236 Granulocytes, 167 Granulcxnas, 243 Granulomatous disease, 345-346 Graph theoory, 319 Gravity sensors, 385 Green algae, 135, 366 Gn enhouse gases, 3, 305, 314 Growth chambers, 370 Growth cones, 160, 162, 163, 194 Grow~ factors cell development, 120-123, 133, 141, 146, 150-151, 166 mammary, 362 medical applications, 2, 5, 18, 342, 344 neural development, 195 see also specific growth factors Growth hormone, 122, 133, 174, 360 Grow~-hormone releasing factors, 360 Growth phase, G1 and G2, 118, 146, 147 Growth process livestock regulation, 360-361, 363-364 plants, 381-390 see also Developmental biology Guanine, 19 Guanosine taphosphate (GTP), 124, 130, 133, 187 Guinea pigs, 247 Guthrie, Woody, 220 Gynogenetic embryos, 145 Gypsy moths, 11, 290 H Habitat loss, 18, 277, 307, 308 Habitat selection, 296-297 Habituation, 199, 213 Halobacterium halobiwn, 61 Haploid spores, 170 Haptens, 55 Hare populations, 290 Hazardous waste disposal, 352 Health care, see Medicine and disease treatment Heart attack (myocardial infarction), 5, 326, 328, 357 Heart muscle, 121, 128 Heavy-metal tolerance, 263 Helices, 42 Helminths, 244, 255 Helper T cells, 234, 235, 240 Hematopoietic system, 168

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INDEX Hemlock, 289 Hemoglobin, 41, 56, 67,98 Hemophilia, 43, 104 Hensen's node, 190 Hepann, 255, 351 Hepatic diseases, 328 Hepatitis B vaccine, 358 virus, 340, 351 Hepatocytes, 168 Herbicides, 383 mechanism, 55, 174 natural herbicides, 393 resistance to, 18, 261, 398, 401 Herpes virus, 250, 252, 348-349, 351, 352 Heterothilic binding, 193 He~camethylene bisacetamide, 344 Hippacampus, 212 Histamine, 243, 255 Histocompatibility locus, 311, 335 Histones, 61, 81, 144 HLA-B27 genes, 335 HLA molecules, 236 Hodgkin's disease, 338, 339 Homeabox, 155-158 Homeodomain, 155 Homeostasis, 146, 167-168, 326-328 Homeotic genes, 6, 155, 157, 171 Homologous recombination, 88, 94-95, 158, 348 Homology relationships, 37 Homophilic binding, 192 Hormones, 146 brain development, 196-197 cancer control, 344 cell regulation by, 5, 118, 120-123, 133 egg growth regulation by, 143 plant growth regulation by, 138, 172-174, 381-384 regulation of, 24-25, 357 Horseshoe crabs, 296 Houseflies, 260-261 Human factor Am, 43, 68 Human genome, 46 Human growth hormone, 24, 27,68,356,358 Human immunodeficiency virus (~V), see Acquired immune deficiency syndrome Hunting management, 291 Huntington's disease, 104, 207, 219-220, 344 Hyaluronic amd, 163 Hybridization, 55, 269,273,385-386 435 Hybridomas, 231, 343 Hydrogen bonding energies, 75 Hydrogen ions, 116, 145-146 Hydrogen isotope ratios, 316-317 Hydrogen sulfide, 303 Hydrolases, 382 Hydrothermal vents, 303, 310 Hydro~cyindoleacidic acid, 223 Hypercholesterolemia, 331, 332 Hypereosinophilia, 255 Hypersensitivity, 241-244, 255 Hypertension, 56, 222, 324, 328, 330, 332, 334 Hypenriglyceridemia, 330 Hyperuricemia, 334 Hypenrariable regions, 227 Hypocalcemia, 131 Hypochlonte, 243 Hypochlorous acid, 243 Hypothalamus, 197, 326 Imaging techniques, 8, 65, 207, 214,315,374 hnino-dipropionitrile, 188 Immune system and infectious diseases, 224- 259 antibiotic resistance in bacteria, 261 antibiotics, vaccines, antiviral agents, 348-352 antibody diversity, 93, 96 antigen-antibody interactions, 55-56, 60 B lymphocytes, 229-233 cell and tissue tropism, 252-254 canplement system, 241 DNA recombination studies, 96 evolutionary ecology, 299 gene expression research, 102 growth factors role, 342-343 glycoprotein role, 49 immune deficiency, 348 immunomodulators, 123 immunoglobulin (Ig), 227-229,389 inflammation and phagocytosis, 241-244 injury mediation, 254-255, 257 livestock, 362 overview and conclusions, 8-9, 258-259 pathogenesis mechanism, 245-252, 256, 258 pathogenic microorganisms, 244 regulation of immune response, 240

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438 Mannose, 246 Marine life, see Oceanic environment Mass spectometIy,49,137, 316 Mast cells, 241, 243, 255 Mastitis, 362,363 Materials science, 274 Maternal genes, 154 Mathematical models, see Models Mating pheromones, 148 Maturation-promoting factor, 149, 152 Measles, 66, 348,350 Medicine and disease treatment arthritis, 117, 224, 244, 334-336 biochemical process industry, 352-359, 413 cancer, see Cancer drug delivery, 126 drug design, 56, 64, 68, 102, 124, 126- 127, 324-328 genetic disorders, 27, 344-348 lipoprotein abnormalities, 328-334 livestock disease, 362-363 medical advances, 323 microbial infection control, 348-352 prosthetic limbs, 208 research opportunities, 2, 17-18 see also Monoclonal antibody technique Meiosis, 83, 94, 119, 120, 143-144, 147, 170 Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, 186 Melanomas, 342 Membrane proteins, see Plasma membrane Memory and learning, 7, 8, 177, 198-201, 210-214, 296 Mengovirus, 255 Mental illness, 5 Mental retardation, 131 Meristems, 174, 367 Mesenchymal cells, 122, 123, 191 Mesoderm, 190 Mesozoic age, 280 Messenger molecules, 121-122; see also Signaling processes Messenger RNA (mRNA), 79 morphogenesis role, 163, 166 nervous system studies, 188 synthesis, 80 transcription (gene expression), 57, 99- 101, 154, 158, 159 translation into protein, 80, 87, 105, 106 Metabolic labeling, 49 Metamorphosis, 167 Meteorite collisions, 281 INDEX Methane, 3, 303,310, 314 Methionine, 363 Methyl-a-D-mannoside, 246 Methylation, 101-102, 144 a-Methyldopa, 222 Mevacor, 324 Mice developmental biology, 145, 156, 168 drug studies, 325 helper T cells, 240 lymphomas, 341 mouse genome, 46, 276 pheromones, 293 transgenic studies, 23-25, 347, 348 viral studies, 252 Microbial ecology, 303, 317, 322 Microbial pathogenesis, see Immune system and infectious diseases Microbiology, 263, 352, 404 Microchemical techniques, 3, 28, 30-31 Microelectrodes, 184, 315 Microfibrils, 172-174, 369 Microfossils, 284 p-Microglobulin, 234 Microinjection, 7, 188, 347 Micropipettes, 178 Microscopy, 4, 32-35, 188 Microtopography, 310 Microtubule-dynein system, 113-114, 189 Microtubules, 141 assembly, 60, 67 atonal transport, 188-189 cell division, 119 cell motility, 65, 113 cell structure, I I 1 -112 mitotic movement, 83, 115 plant growth, 173-174 Milk yield, 361, 362 Minichromosomes, 83-84 Minority groups, degree activity, 12, 409 Mitochondna, 5, 70, 79, 106-111, 134, 279, 386, 389-390 Mitogens, 122 Mitosis, 80, 82, 83, 108, 114, 118-120, 14 148 Mitotic spindle, 119, 120 Models behavioral ecology, 215, 297 cognition studies, 210-211 ecological studies, 10, 303-304, 317-321 evolutionary studies, 10, 264, 269, 271, 278

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INDEX Molecular archeology, 44 Molecular assemblies, 4, 50, 60-67 Molecular biology animal agriculture, 359, 362-363 developmental biology studies, 141 ecological studies, 289 evolutionary biology, 9, 263-265, 272, 279 medical research, 323 microbial ecology studies, 16-17, 317 patent activity, 404 plant studies, 383, 397 structural biology applications, 59 training needs, 410411 Molecular dynamics, 74 Molecular genetics evolutionary ecology, 298-299 immune system studies, 341 nervous system studies, 8, 219-220, 347 plant studies, 376, 397, 398 research applications, 21, 85 Molecular structure and function, see Structural biology Mollusks, 282, 317 Molybdenum-iron cofactor, 377, 379 Monkey studies, 198, 203, 204, 213, 214, 332 Monoclonal antibody technique cell studies, 139, 164 immune system applications, 228-229, 231, 257, 343, 363 mechanism, 27-28 nervous system studies, 184, 192, 203 plant studies, 139 research tool, 1-3, 5, 31, 354 virus studies, 64 Monocultures, 285-286 Monocytes, 243 Mononucleosis, 43 Morphogenesis, 27; see also Developmental biology Morphogens, 6, 166, 167 Morphology, 264, 271, 273, 275 Mortality schedules, 299 Mosaic development, 151 Mosquitoes, 261, 277 Moths, 11, 290, 291, 293 Motility, 5, 111-115, 132, 159-164 Motor control, 7-8, 177, 179, 198, 205-209 Motor proteins, 113-114 MPTP, 209 Mu bacterial virus, 96 Mumps, 350 439 Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, 61, 185 Muscle cells, 117, 118, 274 Muscle contraction, 60, 113, 121, 129, 132 Muscle synthesis, 360-361 Museums, 284-285, 420421 Mussels, 3 17 Mustard, 386, 387, 398 Mutant studies cell motility, 115 development process, 151, 154-156 DNA replication, 90 evolutionary studies, 273 genetic analysis, 85-87 plant development, 170-171 signaling process, 71 structural analyses, 67, 68, 75 Mutations, 147 Mycorrhizal fungi, 366, 367 Myoblasts, 360, 361 Myocardial infarction, 326, 328 Myoglobin, 379 Myosin, 60, 65, 66, 79, 113-115 Myotonic dystrophy, 344 Myotubes, 360, 361 Myrica, 380 My~omatosis virus, 291 My~own~s, 253 N Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 43, 340 National Biomedical Research Foundation, 48 National Cancer statue, 407 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 407 National Hormone and Pituitary Program, 356 National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 407 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 407, 408, 417, 419 National Science Foundation (NSF), 285, 310, 407, 417422 Natural disasters, 305-307 Natural killer (NK) cells, 238-239, 255 Natural resources management, 352 Natural selection, 267-268, 288, 298-299 Nature reserves, 310-311, 319 Nectru: haematococca, 395-396 Nematodes, 46, 147, 151, 152, 165, 179, 192 Neonatal enteroto~cicosis, 362, 363 Nepotism, 216

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440 Nerve growth factor (NGF), 122, 133,188, 189, 195, 196 Nenre impulses, 176, 182 Nervous system and behavior, 175-223 atonal transport, 187-189 behavior ontogeny, 181-182,197-198 behavioral abnormalities, 219-223 behavioral ecology, 10, 214-219, 271 272, 295-297, 299-301 cancer therapy, 339 cell biology, 147, 177, 180 cell life span, 169, 195 cognition, 210-214 development, 189-198 evolutionary studies, 270 HIV effects, 349 human brain studies, 179-180 learning and memory, 198-201 microbial transport, 249-250 morphogenesis, 160-163 nerve cell functioning, 125, 127-128, 181-187 neuroscience objectives, 175-178, 219 motor control, 177-178, 205-209 plasticity, 196-197 research strategies, 33, 178-180 training needs, 410 vision, 201-205 Neural crest, 160, 163, 191 Neural plate, 190 Neural tubes, 160 Neuroblastoma, 344 Neuroblasts, 148 Neurofibromatosis, 219, 344 Neuroleptics, 127, 220-221 Neurological diseases, 8, 219-220 Neuromodulators, 7, 186 Neuromuscular blocking agents, 127 Neuromuscular junctions, 178, 183-186, 194 Neuropeptides, 179, 184, 186 Neuropsychiatric disorders, 347 Neurosis, 220 Neuroto~cins, 126-127, 182 Neurotransmitters, 7, 146, 176, 182-186, 207, 347 Neutron scattering, 43, 60, 67, 75, 372 Neutrophils, 168, 169, 243 Niacin, 363 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, 62, 185 Nif genes, 377-378 Nitrogen siltation, 2, 135, 366, 377-381 INDEX isotope ratios, 316, 317 plant needs, 368, 369 Nitrogenase, 335, 377-379 Nitrous oxide, 314 Nod genes, 379 Nodulins, 379 Nomenclature problems, 48 Nondestructive analyses, 315 Nonpsychotic disturbances, 220 No~ine, 391 Noradrenaline, 184 Non:pinephnne, 127-130, 186, 222, 324, 347 Notochord, 190, 274 Nuclear envelope, 80-81, 119, 120 Nuclear lamina, 81 Nuclear magnetic resonance (Now) spectroscopy DNA recombination studies, 96 ecological studies, 315 molecular structure applications, 16,42, 49, 51, 57, 59~0, 73-76 plant biology applications, 137, 372, 374 training needs, 410411 Nuclear pores, 66, 80-81, 101 Nuclear spin engineering, 410 Nucleic acids, 352 molecular structure, 4, 3943, 51 sequence data, 43, 48 see also DNA; RNA Nucleocapsids, 251 Nucleolar organizer, 84 Nucleolus, 82, 84, 106 Nucleoside analogs, 352 Nucleosomes, 60, 61, 67, 81 Nucleotide-binding domain, 52 Nucleus, 77, 79-84, 104, 105, 134 Nutrient cycling, 319 o Obesity treatment, 357 Oceanic environment aquatic life, 294-295, 362 biodiversity, 309-310 fossil record, 282 microbial ecology, 303, 310 modeling, 303-304 Octopine, 391 Octopus studies, 296 Oilseed rape, 387 Olfactory transduction, 128 Oligocene epoch, 280

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INDEX Oligogalacturonide, 138, 396 Oligonucleotide probes, 31, 87 Oligopeptides, 351 Oligosaccharides, 36, 49-51, 138, 357-358 Oncogenes, 71, 133-134, 150, 252, 337, 340, 341 Oocyles, 143-144 Oogenesis, 143-144 Opine amino acid, 391, 392 Opsin genes, 201 Optical microscopy, 32-34 Optical monitonng, 203 Optical spectroscopy, 72, 74, 132 Optimization models, 215 Optimization theory, 301, 319 Organ grafts, 8, 234, 236 Organelles cell structure, 112 mitochondrial activity, 5, 109 motility, 5, 111, 114, 115 photosynthesis activity, 135 stricture and function, 60, 67, 78, 104 transport, 33 Organic geochemistry, 264 Origin of Species, The (Darwin), 270 Osteoarthritis, 334, 336 Osteogenic patterns, 274 Osteoporosis, 118, 357 Osteosarcoma, 339 Ostriches, 277 O'cidative phosphorylation apparatus, 5, 109 111 Ozone, 3, 313, 314 p Pacemaker cells, 152 Papaverine, 127 Paleabiology, 263, 264, 279-284 Paleoclimates, 316 Paleaecology, 315-316 Papilloma virus, 340 Paracnne hormones, 122-123 Paramyxoviruses, 253, 351 Parasites genetic recombination, 93 host-parasite relationships, 138, 300, 319 intracellular destruction of, 243 pathogenesis mechanism, 49, 249, 258 research needs, 419-420 Parasympathetic nervous system, 127 Parenchymal cells, 147 Parental care behavior, 296, 297 441 Parietal lobe, 213 Padc planning, 319 Padcinson's disease, 207, 209 Parthenogenesis, 144, 145, 271 Passenger pigeons, 291 Patch clamp technique, 7, 125, 128, 184, 201 Patent activity, 404 Patemity analysis, 299 Pathogenesis plant-pathogen interactions, 11, 390-397 see also Immune system and infectious diseases Pattem formation, 6, 153, 164-167, 193-195 Peas, 395 Penicillin, 56 Peptides antiviral action, 351 folding, 70, 72 neuropeptides, 179, 184, 186 receptors, 163 steroid mimicking by, 360 synthesis, 1, 28, 30, 71, 75, 186 Perilcaryon, 188 Permeability modifiers, 116 Peroxidase, 138 Pest control, 16, 291 Pesticide resistance, 260-263, 289 Pesticides, 369 PET scanning, 180, 203, 223 Petunia, 375 Petunia plants, 386 pHl, 145-146 Phagocytes, 117, 343 Phagocytosis, 241-244 Pharmaceuticals, see Medicine and disease treatment Phenol components, 138 Phenolic compounds, 277, 380 Phenotype, 85-87 PhenyL~cetonuria, 104 Pheromones, 16, 148, 293-296 PhoA genes, 266 Phosphate attachment, 114 Phosphates, 45, 374 Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2), 129, 146 Phosphodiesterase, 128, 200 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, 266 Phosphoinositol tumover, 187 Phospholipase C, 129, 187 Phospholipids, 130 Phosphoncacetate, 352 Phosphonofonnate, 352

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442 Phosphorus, 366, 368, 369 Phosphorylation,S, 1()9-111, 128 Photoacoustic spectroscopy, 374 Photosutotrophic cultured cell lines, 374-375 Photography, 264 Photoreaction center, 4, 53-55, 60, 61, 372, 374 Photoreceptors, 384-385 Photorespiration, 398 Photosynthesis, 2, 4, 78, 98, 134-136, 316, 365-366, 371-376 Phototropism, 384-385 Phylogenetic analysis, 272-273, 277, 278 Physarum, 114 Physiology, 60, 65, 264,271, 295, 296 Phytoale~cins, 138, 395-396 Phytochrome, 384, 385, 400 Pigment cells, 160, 191 Pigs, swine, hogs, 332, 361, 364 Pill, 246 Pisatin, 395 Pisatin demethylase, 395-396 Pituitary gland, 197, 356 Plant biology and agriculture, 365-402 agricultural management, 291, 292, 319 agricultural productivity, 367-368, 374 cell biology, 5, 134-139 ecological studies, 294, 304, 365-366 environmental adaptations, 289, 366-370 funding, 419 genetic improvement, 397402 germplasm collection and conservation, 285-286 herbicide resistance, 18, 261 industry profile, 413 insecticide resistance, 260-263 natural toxins, 126, 127, 138 nitrogen fixation, 135, 366, 377-381 photosynthesis, 4, 78, 98, 134-136, 316, 365-366, 371-376 physiochemical requirements, 368-369 plant development, 6-7, 169-174, 381-390 plant-pathogen interactions, 11, 319, 390 397 research opportunities, 2-3, 11, 18, 277 RNA splicing, 101 stable isotope measurements, 316, 317 training needs, 412 transgenic studies, 18, 25, 27 Plasma membrane, 104 egg membrane, 143 protein synthesis and regulation, 69-70, 105-108 INDEX structure and function, 61-62, 64, 65, 115 116 transmembrane signaling, 120-121, 124 133 transport mechanisms, 116-117 Plasmacytomas, 341 Plasmalemma, 104, 105, 107, 115, 116, 121 Plasmids, 261 Plasmin, 357 Plasminogen, 333, 357 Plasmodesmata, 5, 134 Plasmodiwn P. falciparwn, 248,351 P. knowlesi, 248 P. malarial, 258 P. vivax, 248 Plastids, 5, led, 134-137, 374 Plastoquinone, 401 Plate tectonics, 264 Phtelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), 44, 122, 124, 129, 333, 335 Platelets, 114, 132, 325 Pleistocene epoch, 281, 282 Poison ivy, 289 Polar planar compounds, 344 Pollen, 386, 387,.389 Pollen fossils, 284 Poliomyelitis, 348, 350 Poliovirus, 63, 64, 252, 253, 255, 350 Pollutants exposure, 336 Pollution, 3, 305, 307, 313-314 Polyadenylation, 100, 101 Polycystic kidney disease, 344 Polyclonal antibodies, 192, 257 Polyethylene glycol, 401 Polymerase chain reactions, 150 Polymorphisms, 266-267, 301 Polypeptides, 70-71,75, 106, 110, 386,388 Polynbonucleotides, 352 Polynbosanes, 112 Polysaccharides, 58, 117, 137, 138, 163 Population, human, 308 Population ecology, 290-291 Population genetics, 215, 261, 262, 265, 267, 269, 272, 273 Population theory, 318-320 Porins, 239 Positional information, 6, 151, 157, 164-167, 193-195 Positron emission tomography (PET scanning), 180, 203, 223 Potassium, 368

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INDEX Potassium channels, 116,125,128,179,183, 185, 199, 200 Potatoes, 396 Power generation, 319, 321 Pox viruses, 352 Precambrian period, 264, 282-284 Predator-prey interactions, 296 Prefrontal cortex, 213 Prelocalized development, 151 Presidential Young Investigator Program, 417 Prickly-pear cactus, 291 Primary structure, 43-51 Prion proteins, 256 Procedural memory, 211 Profilin, 114 Prokaryotes, 77, 97, 104-107 Proliferative diseases, 5, 119; see also Cancer Proliferative response modulation, 129 Promoter sequence, 99, 102, 158, 378, 392, 400 Pronucleus, 144, 145 Pro-opiomelanocomn, 186 Propranolol, 324 Prostacyclin, 324 Prostaglandin endopero~cides, 324 Prostaglandins, 325, 335 Prosthetic limbs, 208 Protamines, 144 Proteases, 45, 53, 160, 252-255, 354 Protein-detergent micelles, 61 Protein Identification Resource, 48 Protein kinase C, 129, 146 Proteinase inhibitors, 396 Protein directed modification, 4, 68-71 folding, 4, 37, 45, 51-53, 71-75, 267, 373 G. 124, 127-132 molecular structure, 4, 3943, 51-56, 352 oligomers, 62, 66 phosphorylation, 70, 119, 124, 146, 199 process studies, 53, 58 sequencing technology, 1, 28, 30, 4346, 352, 420 synthesis and regulation, 4-5, 28, 30, 70, 79, 105-108, 149, 200 Proteogylcans, 64, 163 Proteolysis, 107 Proteus mirabilis, 246 Proto-oncogenes, 103-104, 133, 150, 230, 336, 340 Protoplasts, 399, 401 Protozoa, 101, 114 pathogenesis, 244, 250, 253, 254 443 Pseudahypoparathyroidism, type I, 131 Pseudomonas savastanoi, 382, 392 Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, 393 Psychiatric disorders, 8, 220-223 Psychotic disturbances, 220 Puffer fish toxin, 126 Pulmonary disorders, 324 Pulvinar area, 213 Purines, 186, 352 Pyrimidine, 352 Q Quantitative fluorescence microscopy, 7, 33- 34, 188 Quantitative genetic methods, 274, 298 Quatemary structures, 42, 62 R Rabbits, 211, 291 Rabies vines, 250, 253, 350, 351 Radar technologies, 314 Radiation therapy, 338, 339 Radioautography, 31 Radioimmunoassays, 328 Radioisotope determinations, 315-316 Radiometers, 314 Radiometric age determinations, 264 Rain forests, see Tropical forests Ramon y Cajal, S., 176, 198 Ras genes, 133 Rat studies, 168, 326 Ratite birds, 277 Ray studies, 185 RecA protein, 94, 97 Receptor processes, 176 Receptors, see Cell-surface receptors Recognition molecules, 393, 395-396 Recombinant DNA techniques development and procedures, 19-21, 93- 94,417 directed protein modification, 4, 67-71, 75 dlug development, 2, 353 feed additives production, 363 gene expression, 153 general applications, 1, 3, 17 homologous recombination, 88, 94-95 mitochondrial DNA studies, 109, 110 monogenesis, 164 nervous system studies, 7, 184 population genetics applications, 267

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444 site-specif~c recombination, 95-96 transgenic organisms, 21, 23-27,103 Recambinases, 95, 96 Red blood cells, 116, 167 Reflex behavior, 179, 181 Reforestation, 312 Regenerating systems, 167, 168, 194 Regulatory genes, 24-25 Regulatory issues, 358 Rehabilitation ecology, 306, 312, 322 Reinforcement process, 269 Remote sensing, 314-315 Renal cancer, 342 Renal disease, 236, 326 Renal function, 325-328 Renal stares, 334 Reovirus 3, 253 Reovi~uses, 250 Reproductive biology animal enhancement, 361-362 plants, 134, 369, 385-390 see also Developmental biology Research Associates Program, 407 Research infrastructure, 403423 education and training, 405412 employment profile, 412414 funding, 416420 information-handling requirements, 420 laboratory needs and costs, 414415 recommendations summarized, 12-13 research centers, 421422 systematics collection needs, 284-285, 420421 U.S. competitive position, 40304 women and minorities, 409 Reserpine, 270, 222 Resonance Raman spectroscopy, 372 Resource management, 304, 319 Respiration, 108, 134 Respiratory diseases, 362, 363 Restorer genes, 386, 388, 389 Restriction enzymes, 21, 101, 279 Restnction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), 87, 103, 104, 335 Retinal functioning, see Vision Retinoblastoma, 219, 346 Retinoic acid, 166 Retroviruses, 93, 96,340, 349, 352 Reverse genetics, 345, 347 Rhagoletis, 269 Rhamnogalacturonan II polymer, 137 Rhea, 277 Rheumatic fever, 248 INDEX Rheumatoid arthritis, 117, 224, 244, 334-336 Rheumatoid factors, 334 Rhinovirus, 63, 64 Rhizabium, 366, 377-380 R. meliloti, 378, 380 R. trifolii, 247 Rhodopseud~nonas viridis, 4, 372 Rhodopsin, 45, 61, 128, 179 Ribavirin, 352 Riboflavin, 363 Ribonucleic acid, see RNA Ribonucleoprotein particle, 106 Ribonucleotide reductase, 159 Ribonucleotides, 159 Ribosanal RNA (rRNA), 57, 84, 105 Ribosomes, 4, 60, 64, 67, 84, 105-106, 109 Ribulose bisphosphate carbo~cylase/ o~cygenase (rubisco), 136, 373, 376, 400 Ribulose 1,5 big-phosphate ca~bo~cylase, 316 Ricin, 126 Rickettsiae, 250, 254 RIDGE initiative, 310 Rifampicin, 352 Rimatadine, 351 RNA (ribonucleic acid) molecular structure, 57 transcription (gene e~cpression), 57, 69, 98-103, 119 RNA polymerase, 57, 60, 99, 102, 153 Robotics, 8, 47, 208, 415 Root rot, 395 Rotifers, 295 Rous sarcoma retrovirus, 133 Rubella, 66, 350 Ryegrass, 401 S S phase, 146 Saccharon~ces, 83 S. cerevisiae, 46 Salamanders, 198, 273-274 Salt marsh ecosystems, 317 Sampling techniques, 309 Satellite RNA, 393 Scanning acoustic microsc~e, 34 Scanning tunneling microscope, 34-35 Schizophrenia, 213, 220-222 Schwann cells, 160, 191 Sco~pion toxin, 126 Scrapie, 256 Sea anemones, 126, 274

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INDEX 445 Sea slugs, 128, 296 Sea snails, 179 Sea urchins, 79, 114, 141, 146, 149, 152 Seals, 289 Second messengers, 124; see also Nervous system and behavior, Signaling processes Secondary structure, 42 Secretion granules, 107 Secretion vacuoles, lD7 Secretory proteins, 106, 355-356 Secretory response modulation, 129 Seed banks, 3, 18, 312, 421 Seed-storage proteins, 388-390 Seedling culture systems, 370 Segmentation genes, 153-155, 157 Self-incompatibility, 134, 386-389 Self-protection, 393 Sensitization, 128, 199, 200 Sensor technology, 314-315, 354 Sensory neurons, 160, 191, 195 Septicemia, 250 Sequencing, see DNA sequencing; Proteins Senne, 49, 53 Serotonin, 128, 184, 186, 200, 222, 223 Serum, 122 Severe combined immunodef~ciency (SCID), 224 Sex steroids, 123 Sexual determination, 27, 196-197, 300 Sexual differentiation, 153 Sexual reproduction, see Developmental biology; Reproductive biology Sexual selection, 272, 293-294 Sheep, 364 Shigella fle~neri, 247 Sialic acid, 162, 248, 253 Sickle cell anemia, 56, 346, 348 Signaling processes cell-to~ell communication, 5, 118, 120 122 developmental activities, 141, 146, 150 151, 166 growth factors, 120-123, 133 mating pheromones, 148 mechanisms, 70-71, 106-108, 110, 116 plants, 9, 139, 166-167, 380, 392, 396 receptors, 123-124 sperm-egg interactions, 145 transmembrane, 124-133 see also Immune sytem and infectious diseases; Nervous system and behavior Simian virus 40, 92, 252 Simulation, see Models Sis oncogene, 44 Site-directed mutagenesis, 69-71, 182, 265, 267, 268, 348, 378 Skin cells, 112, 147 Sleeping sickness, 363 Slime molds, 88, 114 Slow viruses, 256 Smallpox, 348, 350 Snake venom, 289 snRNP (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein), 101 Sociobiology, 214-219, 295 Sodium channels, 116, 125, 127, 182-183, 185, 196 Soft tissue sarcomas, 339 Soil, 315, 366 Somaclonal variation, 400 Sanatic cells, 80, 94-95, 119 Somatomedins, 356, 360 Somatostatin, 360 Somatotropin, 360-364 Sorghum, 386 Soybeans, 389 Spatial frequency channels, 205 Speciation, 265, 268-270, 279, 281, 283 Species extinction, 299 as biological process, 265, 281, 283-284 conservation ecology, 3` 18, 307-312, 322 contemporary problem, 277, 286, 305, 307 economic and cultural issues, 307 number and distribution of species, 9-10, 276, 307-308 survey need, 3, 419 Species invasions, 312 Spectrophotometers, 414 Spectroscopy, 113 Speech mechanism, 180, 197 Sperm cells, 80, 141-146 Sperm tails, 113 Spin-echo NMR, 372 Spinach genome, 135 Spinal cord, 162, 187 Spleen, 224, 250, 339 Splicing, 57, 69, 100-101, 109, 163 Sponge studies, 274 Sporophytes, 170 Sporophytic incompatibility, 386 SPOT sensor, 314 Squid nervous system, 33, 178 Squirrels, 296 Src gene, 133

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446 Stable isotope determinations, 316-317 Staining methods, 274 Stasis, 283 Sterility, 134, 273, 386-389 Steroids, 123, 360 Stinging nettles, 289 Stochastic factors, 288 Stomata, 367, 382 Strabismus, 197 Stratosphere, 3, 314 Streptococcus bacteria, 246, 248 Streptococcus 5. mitts, 245 S. mutans, 245 S. salivariz~s, 245 S. sanguis, 247 Streptokinase, 358 Stress tolerance, 289, 319 Striate cortex, 202 Stroke, 5, 328 Structural biology, 39-76 directed protein modification, 67-71 folding, 71-75 goals and themes, 2, 4, 3941 hierarchical organization, 4143 molecular assemblies, 60-67 primary structure, 43-51 protein synthesis applications, 69-70, 108 techniques and instrumentation, 16, 76 three-dimensional structure, 51 60, 372 training needs, 410411 Suberin synthesis, 138 Substrate attachment, 120 Substrate proteins, 201 Succession, 288, 290, 301, 306, 319 Succulent plants, 289 Sucrose production, 374 Suicidal behavior, 223 Sulfation, 106 Sulfonylurea herbicides, 398, 401 Sulfur isotopes, 317 Superbeads/supercoils, 81 Superior colliculus, 213 Suppressor cells, 240-241 Surface molecules, 234, 237,240, 242; see also Cell-surface molecules Surgery, 337, 339 Symbiosis, 138, 317,380, 381 Sympathetic nervous system, 127 Synapsin I, 186 Synaptic connections, 160, 180, 181 potential, 183 INDEX response modulation, 129 vesicles, 33, 185-186 Synchrotron radiation, 58, 60, 64 Systematics contemporary need, 3, 9-10, 13, 272, 283- 285, 308-309, 420-421 methodology, 263, 274, 276-279 training needs, 284, 411 Systemic lupus e~ythematosus, 224, 230 T T-cell leukemia viruses, 340 T cell lymphoma virus 1,340 Twill receptor genes, 341 T lymphocytes, 225; see also hnmune system and infectious diseases T4 lymphocyte receptor, 253 Tab~oxinine-~-lactam, 393 Target cells, 176-177 Targeting signals, 70 Taste transduction, 128 Tauproteins,188 Telemetry, 264 Telomeres, 83 Tendon tissue, 117 Teratocarcinoma, 166, 344 Terpenes, 277 Tertiary structure, 42 Testicular carcinoma, 338 Testosterone, 121 Tetanus toxin, 132, 250, 257 Tetrodotoxin, 196, 289 Thalamic area, 213 Thematic mapper, 314 Therapeutic agents, see Medicine and disease treatment Thermodynamic measurements, 72 Thin-layer chromatography, 324 Thiol groups, 373 Thioredoxins, 373 Thiosemicarbazones, 352 Three~imensional structure, 4, 40, 42, 51-60 Threonine, 49 L-Threonine, 363 Thrombolytic agents, 358 Thrombosis, 326 Thromboxane A2, 324, 325 Thymidine, 191 Thymine, 19 Thymus, 169, 224, 237 Thyroid hormones, 121, 123

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INDE:X Ti plasmid, 25, 391-392 Time-resolved techniques, 65 Tissue culture, 370,397, 399400 Tissue culture centers, 312, 421 Tissue grafts, 8, 234, 236 Tissue injury, 325 Tissue plasminogen activator, 27, 68, 357 358 Tobacco mosaic virus, 393, 394 Tobacco plants, 135, 386, 389,393, 394, 398, 401 Tobacco ringspot virus, 393 Tobacco use, 330, 332, 336, 339 Tomatoes, 393, 384, 396 Tooth decay, 245 Torpedo T. California, 185 T. marm~rata, 185 Torsional rotations, 73 Toxic substances, 319 Toxins, 126, 132, 250, 254, 257 Toxoplasmosis, 243 Training and education, 12, 405412 Tranquilizers, 127 Transcription factor TFIIIA, 155 Transducin, 128 Transfection, 347 Transfer DNA (T-DNA), 11, 391-392, 397, 401 Transfer RNA (tRNA),57 Transferin, 126 Transforming growth factors, 151, 335 Transgenic organisms animal creation, 23-24 plant creation, 25-26 research uses,18,24-27, 67, 103, 347, 348, 394 Transmembrane signaling, 124-133, 396 Transport mechanisms, 116-117 Transposons, 88 Tree life cycles, 291 Tree rings, 317 Triazines, 401 Trifolin A, 247 Trimethoprim, 56 Triose phosphates, 374 Tripeptide receptors, 163 Trisomy diseases, 94 Trihum labeling, 191 Trophic factors, 151, 195-196 Trophic molecules, 189 Trophoblast, 145 447 Tropical forests, 314,366 conservation biology, 3, 18, 312 evolutionary history, 281 habitat loss, 305,308, 322 species cataloging need, 277, 283, 309 Tropism, 252-254 Troposphere, 314 rypanosoma T. crazy 258 T. gambiense, 258 Tlypanosomes, 350, 363 T'ypanosomiasis, 362 c-Tryptophan, 363 Tryptophan monooxygenase, 382 Tuberculosis, 243 Tubulin, 188 Tumor growth factors, 122, 150 Tumor necrosis factor, 133, 243, 255, 335, 342 Tumor promoters, 344 Tumongenesis, 147 crown gall, 25, 380, 390-392, 401 see also Cancer Tunneling electron micmcopy, 415 Turgor pressure, 172-173 Turnip mutation, 200 Twin studies, 214, 221-222 Tyrosine hydroxylase, 347 Tyrosine kinase, 70, 133,150 U Ulcer therapy, 324 Umwelt concept, 216 Unglycosylated proteins, 50 United Kingdom, 403-404 United Nations Environmental Program, 313 Universities, see Research infrastructure Urate e~ccretion, 334 Urokinase, 358 Urticaria, 255 Utenne cancer, 340 Utenne muscles, 121 V Vaccinatia' strategies, 319 Vaccines, 2, 340, 349-350, 363 Vaccinia virus, 249, 351 Vacuoles, 5, 134 van der Waals interactions, 73 Variable (V) regions, 227

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448 Vascular endothelium, 121 Vectors, 87 Vent biology, 303, 310 Vernalization, 385 Vertebrates, 190 Vesicle fusion, 108 Vesicular carriers, 107 Vestibular system, 208 Vibrio cholerae, 131, 350 Video technologies, 7, 33, 188, 189, 274 Vir region, 392 Via, 250; see also hnmune system and in- [ectious diseases Venous, 251 Viroids. 244 Virulence factors, 244 Virulence genes, 380 Viruses antiviral compounds, 56, 64, 102, 348- 349, 351-352 cancer agent, 340 crystallization problems, 66 DNA sequencing, 43-44 genetic recombination, 93 glycoprotein components, 49 in vitro assembly, 67 molecular structure studies, 4, 60, 62-64 plant resistance to, 393, 394, 397 RNA splicing, 101 virulence factors, 244 vision, 128, 130, 151, 187, 197, 198, 201- 205, 212-213 Vitamin Be, 70, 363 Vitamin D, 123 Vitamins, 344, 363 Volcanic eruptions, 289-290, 305, 306 Voltage-gated channels, 182, 183 W Warts, 249 Wasps, 280, 300 Water chemistry, 315 Watershed-ecosystem study method, 10, 302 303 Weed killers, 174, 393 Weeds, 11, 368, 401 Whales, 291, 317 White blood cells, 111, 114, 123 Whooping cough, 131 Wilm's tumor of childhood, 339 INDEX WithdrawaL reflex, 181 Women, academic degrees, 12, 409 Wounded cells healing mechanism, 138, 166, 167, 357, 360 infection initiation, 380 Wrasses, 300 Wrens, 297 X X chrmnosoine, 99 X-ray cine systems, 274 X-ray crystallography, 16, 36 cell motility studies, 114 crystallization problems, 66 DNA recombination studies, 96 DNA replication applications, 91 equpiment costs, 415 molecular structure applications, 4, 40, 42, 45, 51, 52, 58-63, 64, 65-66, 68, 72, 75, 76, 372 myosin charactenzation, 113 o~cidative phosphorylation apparatus, 111 training needs, 410-411 Xenografts, 236 Xenopus, 93, 149, 152, 155, 165 X. laevis, 16, 17 Xeroderma pigmentosum, 98 Xylem, 367 Xyloglucan, 138 y Yeast alanine transfer RNA, 43 Yeast studies, 15, 352 cell biology, 79, 83-84, 119-120 developmental process, 147-149, 152, 158 DNA repair and mutagenesis, 97 DNA sequence, 46 evolutionary studies, 268 genetic analysis, 88, 93, 94, 96 RNA splicing, 109 Yolk sac, 145 Zidovudine, 242 Zoos, 284, 3 1 1, 421 Zygotes, 144 z