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Appendix State Education Commission Provisions on Study Abroad STATE EDUCATION COMMISSION ISSUES PROVISIONS ON STUDY ABROAD Beijing, XINHUA Domestic Service in Chinese, 10 June 87. ~ans- lated in JPRS-CAR-87-024, July 23, 1987, pp. 8~99. (Text) Beijing, 10 June (XINHUA) With the approval of the party Central Committee and the State Council, the State Education Com- m~ssion recently decided to make public "Certain Interim Provisions of the State Education Commission on the Work of Sending Person- ne! To Study Abroad." The CPC Central Committee and the State Council last year specif- icaLy discussed the work of sending personnel to study abroad. The party Central Committee and the State Council hold that since the 3rd Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, China has made great achievements in sending personnel to study abroad in various forms, and the practice must be firmly continued in the future because it completely conforms to our long-term policy of opening to the outside world. In order to make the work of send- ing personnel to study abroad meet the needs of our country's Four Modernizations, the party Central Committee and the State Council 123

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124 OH NEST STUDENTS IN AMERICA have instructed the departments concerned and the Chinese Em- bassies and Consulates abroad to actively improve the work on the principle of summing up experience, promoting what is beneficial, and eliminating what Is harmful. They have also entrusted the State Education Commission with the work of sending personnel to study abroad. Following the instructions of the party Central Committee and the State Council, the State Education Commission has formulated cer- ta~n interim provisions on the work of sending personnel to study abroad and begun to implement the provisions since December last year. The contents of the provisions are as follows: I. Guiding Principles for the Work of Sending Personnel ~ Study Abroad 1. To send Chinese citizens to study in institutions of higher learn- ing and research organizations in foreign countries through various channels and in various forms is a component part of China's policy of opening to the outside world. The practice is an important way to learn advanced science and technology, applicable economic and administrative management experience, and other useful knowledge from foreign countries, and to train our highly specialized personnel. It helps develop friendship and exchanges between the Chinese peo- ple and the people of other countries. Therefore, we must continue, for a long time to come, the practice of sending personnel to study abroad in various forms in a planned way to meet the needs of our building socialist material and spiritual civilizations. 2. The work of sending personnel to study abroad should consider the realities of our socialist modernization program and meet the needs of our domestic production and construction, scientific research, and personnel training so as to solve the important questions concerning scientific research and production and enhance our ability to train highly specialized personnel. 3. The work of sending personnel to study abroad should be done on the principle of learning the strong points of foreign countries. While we must study basic sciences as well as applied science and engineering, emphasis should be placed on the latter at present.

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APPENDIX 125 Attention should be paid to the needs of developing our country's vocational and technical education. 4. Personnel should be sent to study abroad according to needs; qual- ity should be ensured; study should be coordinated with application; management and education of personnel studying abroad should be improved; and efforts should be made to create the necessary condi- tions for personnel studying abroad to apply what they have learned and play a positive role in China's socialist modernization after they return home. 5. Personnel studying abroad must abide by the relevant laws and regulations of China as well as the laws of the country where they study. They must respect the customs, habits, and religious beliefs of the host country. H. Management of Work of Sending Personnel to Study Abroad 1. The State Education Commission, working under the leadership of the State Council in accordance with the principles and policies of sending personnel to study abroad by the state, is in charge of the work of sending personnel to study abroad, and placement after their return home. Planning for sending personnel of non- educational departments to study abroad and their placement after their return shah be the joint responsibility of the State Scientific and Technological Commission and the State Economic Commission working in accordance with unified principles and policies. 2. Adhering to the principle of simplifying administrative procedures and clelegating powers to lower-level units, the state will control only a portion of the personnel to be sent to study abroad and will allocate the rest to employing organizations. After conducting experiments at selected organizations, the organization that sends personnel to study abroad shall gradually take the responsibility of controlling funds earmarked for study abroad and maintaining spending within the authorized amount. 3. Units sending personnel to study abroad should appoint a spe- cialized organization or specialized personnel to keep in touch with

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126 CHINESE STUDENTS IN AMERICA the personnel sent, guiding their study abroad and actively coor- dinating with and assisting Chinese Embassies and Consulates in administering the affairs concerning personnel studying abroad. 4. Successful administration of the affairs concerning personnel studying abroad is an important task of the Chinese Embassies and Consulates. The educational section (group) of the embassy or con- sulate dispatched by the State Education Commission and the cadres appointed by the embassy or consulate to administer the affairs con- cerning personnel studying abroad shall work under the leadership of the embassy or consulate to handle the specific tasks in admin- istering the affairs concerning these personnel during the period of their study abroad. 5. The educational section (group) of the embassy or consulate or cadres in charge of administering the affairs concerning person- nel studying abroad as well as the departments and units sending the personnel abroad should show concern for the personnel sent, help them resolve difficulties or problems encountered, keep them in- formed of the country's developments and needs, and enthusiastically serve them. Embassies and consulates should carry out education in patriotism, collectivism, and socialist ideas and ethics among the per- sonnel studying abroad and help strengthen their faith in revitalizing China through hard work. 6. "Student associations, "friendship associations," and other groups formed by personnel studying abroad are mass organizations through which personnel studying abroad will educate themselves, administer their own affairs, and provide services for the members. 7. Departments at home responsible for administering the affairs of personnel studying abroad and departments and units sending the personnel abroad should promptly make job arrangements for personnel returning from their study abroad to ensure that they can fully display their role. m. Selection of Personnel Studymg Abroad on Government Program 1. Personnel studying abroad on government programs refers to persons systematically, and through various means, sent abroad for

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APPENDIX 127 study in accordance with the needs of China's development; they are funded, either wholly or partly, by the state or the relevant departments, localities, or units. Persons who are selected nationwide uniformly according to state plans and who are sent abroad on funds falling under the category of uniform expenditures are called "personnel studying abroad on state programs" ("state program personnel" for short). Persons who are selected from a given locality or unit according to the plans of the department, locality, or unit and who are sent abroad on funds falling under the category of the department, locality, or unit expenditure (including those who have the approval and support of the units they work for, have received scholarships, loans, or financial aid, and are incorporated in the plan for personnel studying abroad) are called "personnel studying abroad on department, locality, or unit programs" ("unit program personnel" for short). 2. Personnel studying abroad on government programs can be di- vided into undergraduate students, graduate students, advanced studies personnel, and visiting scholars. Normally, the period of study abroad! for regular or professional undergraduates and graduate students shall be decided by the units sending them abroad in accordance with the academic system of the host country. The period of study for advanced studies personnel and visiting scholars shall normally range from 3 to 12 months, as dictated by the actual needs of the advanced studies ~d research; in extraordinary circumstances, it can last 18 months. In any case, the units sending the personnel abroad shall decide the length of stay in accordance with their own plans. 4. Units sending personnel abroad should help and guide the per- sonne] in the selection of the institutions for study and for doing practical work or research. The selected institutions should have a fairly high academic standard or be strong in a given field. 5. Qualifications of personnel studying abroad on government pro grams: (1) Political Qualifications

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128 CHINESE STUDENTS IN AMERICA They must be personnel who ardently love the motherland and social- ism; have good ideological and moral qualities; have distinguished themselves in practical work and study; and have actively served socialist modernization. (2) Vocational Qualifications Personnel studying abroad as undergraduates should be high school graduates with outstanding academic records. Personnel studying abroad as graduates should have graduated from college or higher ed- ucational institutions with outstanding academic records and should have work experience prior to their departure for abroad. The length of their practical work shall be decided in accordance with the char- acteristics of their discipline. Personnel going abroad for advanced studies or as visiting scholars should be backbone professional person- nel engaged in teaching, research, or production, having graduated from colleges or higher educational institutions and having worked in their special field at institutions of higher learning, research units, or industrial or mining enterprises for more than five years (the period may be appropriately shortened if the personnel are extremely out- standing or if the work requirements so dictate), or persons holding master's degrees engaged in their special field of work or in vocational or technical educational work for more than two years. The age limit for advanced studies personnel and visiting scholars should be set ac- cording to the nature of their studies and research. Generally, their age should not be over 50. The age signet may be appropriately eased for visiting scholars at or above associate professor or research fellow level who go abroad for a short period (three to six months). (3) Foreign Language Requirements Personnel studying abroad should have a good command of the lan- guage of the host country. They should be able to read professional books and periodicals in the foreign language with relative ease; to comprehend, speak, and write the foreign language to a certain de- gree; and to carry out academic exchanges in the foreign language after a short period of training. Personnel studying abroad as under- graduates should be able to receive lectures in the foreign language. (4) Physical Conditions The health of the personnel going abroad for study on government programs must conform with health criteria for personnel studying

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APPENDIX abroad; health certificates (valid for one year) must be obta hospitals at the provincial and municipal levels. 129 ined from 6. Selection of personnel studying abroad on government programs: (1) The State Education Commission shall decide on the number and category of the state program personnel and the proportion among various destination countries and various disciplines and shall ar- range for their selection. The department, localities, or units sending personnel abroad to study shall decide on the number and category of the unit program personnel and the proportion among various des- tination countries and between various disciplines and shall arrange for their selection in accordance with the general guidelines of the State Education Commission for the Record through the responsible departments. (2) Advanced studies personnel and visiting scholars studying abroad on government programs shall be selected through a process involving recommendation by the unit, evaluation by the academic organiza- tion or technological department, review (check) by the personnel department, and approval by the leadership. (3) Personnel studying abroad as undergraduates or graduates on government programs shall be selected through a process combining examination and overall evaluation of the personnel's moral, intel- lectual, and physical standards. 7. Signing an "agreement on studying abroad": (1) Prior to the formalities for going abroad, personnel on government programs shall sign an "agreement on studying abroad" between sending units and the personnel leaving for study abroad and have it publicly notarized. (2) The contents of the "agreement on studying abroad" must specify the objectives, subjects, and length of required service at home after studying abroad; expenses to be provided to personnel studying; and rights, obligations, and responsibilities of the sending unit and the personnel sent to study abroad.

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130 CHINESE STUDENTS IN AMERICA 8. Preparation and intensive training of personnel going to study abroad on government programs: Prior to the personnel departing for study abroad, the sending unit should adopt various forms of short-term intensive training programs to help the personnel be prepared ideologically. The intensive train- ing program should include: principles and policies of foreign affairs, regulations governing personnel studying abroad, foreign laws, intro- duction to conditions in the host countries, and other appropriate matters. 9. Regulations governing wages, seniority, and management of ex- penses incurred: (1) During the approved period of studying abroad of the personnel and visiting scholars, their wages will continue to be issued by the original units and their seniority will also be protected. For graduates sent abroad on doctorate programs, the period of their study abroad will be counted as equivalent in seniority at home after they obtain their degrees. As for those employed personnel who are sent abroad to study, their wages at home during their studying abroad will be handled in accordance with the regulations governing personnel who are in the same category. (2) The expenses of personnel sent by the state to study abroad, such as clothing purchase fees, travel expenses, tuition, and living expenses during their study abroad, and round-trip expenses for graduates and undergraduates to vacation at home during their studies, shall be handled according to the unified state regulations. (3) The expenses of the personnel sent by units to study abroad, such as clothing purchase fees, travel expenses, tuition, and living expenses for graduates and undergraduates during their studies, shall be handled according to stipulated regulations, and in accordance with the specific conditions of the sending units coupled with unified state regulations governing the sending department, locality, and unit. 10. Personnel sent to study abroad should study hard and return home to serve the country as planned. During or after their study

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APPENDIX 131 abroad, the personnel in general must not change their student sta- tus. If there is a need for them to extend their stay, they should submit their application to the original sending unit for approval ahead of time. During their extended period of studying abroad, their wages at home should be issued by the original unit as before. As for those who, without official approval, do not return home as scheduled the extension will be held as leave without pay for the first year. After one year, whether their posts shall be reserved will depend on decisions of the sending units regarding the various conditions. 11. The State Education Commission will be in charge of expenses required to send personnel to study abroad by the state and provide guidance for regulating and managing expenses of studying abroad to the sending departments, localities, and units. The specific manage- ment of expenses of the personnel sent to study abroad by the state shall be taken care of by special officials of the education department (section) of an embassy or a consulate or shall be handled by the financial department of an embassy or consulate. IV. Engaging in Postdoctorate Research or Practical Gaining Abroad: i. The subjects on which postdoctorate research are done or training received should be able to facilitate development of China's science and technology. 2. Those who engage in postdoctorate research are in two categories: (a) those with doctorate degrees who have been employed at home may apply to do postdoctorate research abroad; and (b) those grad- uates studying abroad who have obtained doctorate degrees may apply to do postdoctorate research immediately afterward. Receiving practical training abroad means that after obtaining their master's or doctorate degrees, the graduate students receive short- term training in a company or an enterprise without changing their student status. 3. Regulations governing examination and approval of those who are employed at home and apply to do postdoctorate research or receive such practical training abroad:

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132 CHINESE STUDENTS IN AMERICA (1) The applicant should submit a report of application to the em- ploying unit explaining reasons, subject matters, and time of the projected postdoctorate research or practical training. (2) The employing unit should organize a group of experts and pro- fessors to examine the objectives of proposed postdoctorate research or the work scope of such practical training and give their opinions. After approval by responsible officials of the unit, the application should then be transmitted to the pertinent department of min- istry or commission, province, autonomous region, or municipality- depending on which administration it belongs to-for examination of and approval for proceeding to formalities for going abroad. (3) Expenses required for the postdoctorate research or practical training abroad should be covered by the sending unit. (4) Those who are chosen for doing postdoctorate research or receiv- ing practical training abroad wiD still be issued wages despite their absence at home. 4. Regulations governing examination of and approval for applica- tions for doing postdoctorate research or receiving practical train- ing abroad directly submitted by graduates just receiving degrees abroad: (1) Applicant should submit a report to the original sending unit and Chinese Embassy or Consulate abroad ahead of time explaining rea- sons for, and subject matter and time of, the projected postdoctorate research program and practical training. (2) Within three months after receipt of the application, the sending unit at home should organize a group of experts and professors to exarn~ne and give their opinions on the proposal. After approval by the responsible official of the unit, the applicant wiD be notified of the results by the embassy or consulate abroad. If no reply is received from the sending unit after three months, the decision will be made by the Chinese Embassy or Consulate abroad. (3) After the applicant has made proper arrangements with and received a letter of appointment from the foreign institute where he/she will do the postdoctorate work or receive practical training,

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APPENDIX 133 he/she should personally inform the sending unit at home and the Chinese Embassy or Consulate abroad of the objectives of the post- doctorate research or work scope of the practical training, where the postdoctorate program ~ to be conducted, and the time needed. If the research topic or practice work scope ~ different from that spec- ified in the application, a new application should be submitted for examination and approval. (4) All expenses required for the postdoctorate research or training period and traveling expenses for returning home after completing the postdoctorate program will be borne by the applicant. (5) Those who wish to be transferred to a third country for postdoc- torate research or training after they have obtained their doctorate degrees abroad should submit their application for such purpose after having worked at home for a certain period of tune. If one needs to be transferred to a third country from abroad due to some special reason, the application should be submitted six months in advance to the pertinent department of a ministry or commission, province, autonomous region, or municipality~epending on which administration it belongs to for approval. (6) The duration of a postdoctorate research or training program generally ranges from one to one-and-a-half years. V. Home Leave for Personnel Studying Abroad and Spouse Visitation 1. Home leave for personnel studying abroad and visitation of their spouses abroad should be geared to helping the personnel understand the needs for and development of national construction projects, pay- ing due attention to learning and living conditions of the personnel, and taking into consideration the working pattern of the units con- cerned at home. 2. As for those who are sent abroad on undergraduate and doctorate programs with a specified time of more than three years, they will enjoy a paid home leave after two years studying abroad. (During this tune, the graduates of doctorate programs shout have obtained the PhD candidate qualification.)

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134 CHINESE STUDENTS IN AMERICA 3. A person who is qualified for paid home leave should apply to a Chinese Embassy or Consulate abroad by hen/herself according to certain regulations and return home via a designated route. 4. Applications for hence leave paid by undergraduates and graduates studying abroad themselves can be submitted to a Chinese Embassy or Consulate abroad for examination and approval on the condition that it will not affect their studies. . 5. During the period of their paid or self-paid home leave vacations, the funds enjoyed by the state or sending units will be stopped. As for their living expenses at home, they will be arranged by the sending unit in accordance with unified state regulations concerning the matter, coupled with certification from a Chinese Embassy or Consulate abroad. 6. The length of the home leave of the undergraduates and graduates studying abroad depends on the length of school vacations. 7. Since the time of studying abroad for the graduate students is relatively longer, the application of their spouses for visiting them abroad should be handled according to the Deregulations Governing Exit and Entry of Citizens of the People's Republic of China." If the spouse of the graduate sent to study abroad is currently employed, he/she should apply to the employing unit for visitation leave. With the approval of the employing unit, the visitation leave normally ranges from three to six months. Wages for the first 3 months will still be issued; the fourth to sixth months will be leave without pay; from the seventh month on, whether the post will be reserved depends on the decision of the employing unit. If, during the visiting period, the spouse of the graduate student has obtained foreign scholarships or subsidiary funding and applies for studying abroad she/he can report to her/his employing unit for approval during her/his visitation abroad, thus becoming a public- or self-funded student studying abroad through proper procedure. 8. If the spouse of a graduate student sent to study abroad on gov- ernment programs is the graduating student or postgraduate student of an institution of higher learning in China still pursuing her/his studies, generally speaking, no leave for visiting relatives abroad will

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APPENDIX 135 be approved in order to not interrupt her/tam studies and research program. 9. Personnel sent to pursue advanced study abroad on government programs, and visiting scholars, according to regulations, are not entitled to home leave because the duration of their stay abroad is relatively short. Generally speaking, no leave for visiting relatives abroad will be granted to their spouses in China either, if the spouses are on-the-job employees. VI. Studying Abroad at One's Own E~enee 1. We shouIc] support those who go abroad for study at their own expense as it is a way of training talented personnel for national construction. Politically, they should be treated the same, without discrimination, as those personnel studying abroad on government programs. We should show concern for them, take good care of them, and encourage them to complete their studies at an early date and then return home to dedicate themselves to socialist modernization of the motherland. 2. Personnel going abroad for studying at their own expense refers to those Chinese citizens who have reliable proof that they can study or pursue advanced studies at foreign institutions of higher learning or scientific research institutions with financial support from their relatives and friends residing abroad or in Hong Kong, Macao, or Taiwan; or with the foreign exchange of their own or of their relatives and friends in China. 3. Those personnel who are not on the job; undergraduates of insti- tutions of higher learning; returned overseas Chinese and their de- pendents; the dependents in China of overseas Chinese; Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan compatriots; and Chinese of foreign nationality are eligible for application to study abroad at their own expense so Tong as they conform to the stipulations of article 2 and have obtained admission to a foreign school and the financial guarantee. 4. In order to ensure a smooth order of work at institutions of higher learning, scientific research institutions, and other units in China, their employees requesting to leave their posts and pursue study

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136 CHINESE STUDENTS IN AMERICA abroad at their own expense must obtain prior approval from their employing units. Graduating students of the institutions of higher learning who have been included in the state assignment plan should accept the assign- ment and serve for the country. Graduate students in China must endeavor to complete their studies and research program In accordance with the regulations governing their status as students. Generally, they are not allowed to interrupt their studies to go abroad for study at their own expense. 5. Application for studying abroad at their own expense by back- bone specialized and technical personnel should be treated as cases of "state program personnel" as much as possible. They include assist ant research fellows, lecturers, engineers, physicians-in-charge, personnel of higher positions, graduate students who have obtained their master's degrees, outstanding writers and artists, outstanding athletes, backbone office staff, and personnel having special skills or talents. During the period of study abroad, they shall be treated as "state program personnel with regard to management abroad and wages at home. 6. Undergraduates of institutions of higher learning who have oh tained approval to study abroad at their own expense may retain their status as a student for one year. On-thejob personnel who have obtained approval to study abroad at their own expense may retain their public office for one year, but their wages wiD be sus- pended, beginning in the month before the month of their departure. 7. When on-the-job personnel return to work in China after having completed their self-funded study abroad, their length of service prior to departure may be retained and calculated in addition to the work period after their return. For those who have obtained a doctorate degree abroad, their length of service in China is calculated in the same way as that for the "state program personnel." 8. Prior to departure of the personnel going abroad for study at their own expense, the units of these personnel and departments in charge of education of the ministries, commissions, provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities concerned should brief them

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APPENDIX 137 on regulations concerning study abroad and relevant situations at home and abroad, and guide them in making arrangements for study abroad. 9. After those personnel going abroad for study at their own expense have arrived in foreign countries, they should report to and keep in touch with the Chinese Embassies and Consulates there. The Chi- nese Embassies and Consulates abroad, as well as the departments concerned at home, shout also take the initiative to maintain- con- tact with those who study abroad at their own expense, protect their legitimate interests and rights, encourage them to study hard, and show concern for their life and study abroad. 10. The international traveling expenses for the return trip of those who have studied abroad at their own expense, have obtained a bachelor's or higher degree, and are coming back to work in China shall be borne by the state or the employing units. The employing units shall provide their families at home with allowances according to their situations. 11. Chinese students studying abroad at their own expense who are graduating from graduate schools or are completing regular or spe- cialized undergraduate courses there may ask for a job assignment from the state by contacting Chinese Embassies and Consulates six months before their graduation to process the relevant registration, so that the State Education Commission may arrange their job as- signment. They may also register with the State Education Com- rn~ - ion after their return to China. In this case, their application will be processed in accordance with the regulations governing job assignment and wage standards for "state program personnel" under the same category. Where previously promulgated regulations governing study abroad contravene these regulations, they are superseded by these regula- tions.

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