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Index A Academic exchanges assurance of continuation of, 8 with Canada and European countries, 80 effects of student demonstrations on, 1-2, 3 disciplinary emphasis in, 13, 30, 124-125 importance to China, 27, 32, 36, 52, 115, 119, 124 of language students, 21 modernization of China through, 22-24 national work conference in China, 25-26 and PRC-U.S. relations, 20-21, 23, 114-122 obstacles to, 23 policy evolution in China on, 19-35 post-Mao resumption of, 22-25 purpose, 22-24 risks to China, 36; Cc Leo Brain drain selection process, 30 Sino-Soviet, 20 "spiritual pollution" from, 2, 67 139 Accord for Educational Exchanges, 23 Agreement on Cooperation in Science and Technology, 23 B Beijing Languages Institute, 27 Brain drain international perspective on, 53-56 official fears about, 14 of officially sponsored students/scholars, 38-39 of privately sponsored students, 39-42 projected magnitude of, 115 prospects for, 49-52 significance to China, 114, 122 during Sino-Soviet academic exchanges, 20 student perspectives on reasons for, 42-49 studies of, 53-54 see also Emigration/delayed returns of students

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140 INDEX C students/scholars; Student demonstrations; Visas/visa holders, F-1; Visas/visa holders, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 24, 46, J-1 60, 116 Cultural Revolution, 5, 23, 24, 47, Chinese students abroad 95, 108, 114-115 attitudes about professional goals, 5, 28, 37 Bourgeois liberalization of, 3-4, 8 characteristics of, 8, 11, 14, 23-24, 26, 30, 37-39, 42, 47, 62, 64, 65, 84-85, 95-100 Chinese statistics on, 77-81, 101; sec also Statistics on Chinese students contracts/agreements with work units, 30, 73, 129 demands of, 2, 32 effect of student demonstrations on, 4-5, 13-14, 120 estimation of numbers of, 109-113 family/spouse visits to, 96, 133-135 funding of, 11, 27, 29, 31, 37, 46, 85-86, 90-91, 94-95, 97-98, 115, 121, 125 graduates, 24, 27, 30, 41 language proficiency, 24-25, 28-29, 43, 128 limiting to PhD candidates and postdoctoral students, 37; ecu also Regulation of foreign study national qualifying examinations, 25 origins of, 11, 92-93 oversight by Chinese embassy/consular officials, 8, 50, 126 perspectives on returning or emigrating, 42-49 preference for U.S., 119-120 preferential treatment by U.S. universities, 24-25 qualifications of, 23, 25, 127-129 researchers/scholars, Cc Research/visiting scholars selection process in China, 26, 27-28, 30, 38, 49, 49-50, 118-119, 126-131, 132 sensitivity to rumors, 33 undergraduates, 24, 27, 40 8CC also Emigration/delayed returns of students/scholars; Returning D Deng Xiaoping, 4, 36 Dissidents, Cc Intellectual dissent/dissidents Domestic graduates/scholars complaints of, 65-68 tension between foreign-trained graduates/scholars, 58 wages, 66 Cc also PhDs, Chinese EEmigration/delayed returns of students/scholars benefits to China of, 52, 56, 121-122 control of, 8, 13, 14, 55, 120 effect on U.S.-China relations, 114 of F-1 visa holders, 4, 9, 39, 40, 112-113 facilitating factors, 46, 49, 119 fears of Chinese officials, 4 host country encouragement of, 70-71 impediments to, 44-45, 96 loss-of-face issue, 116 of privately sponsored students, 4, 9, 39, 40, 112-113 quality of students, 115 reasons for, 44-45, 48-49, 54-56, 116 U.S. attitudes and responsibility, 8-9, 117-118 sec also Brain drain F Fang Lizhi, 2 Fields of study Chinese developmental requirements/priorities, 15, 30, 33, 50, 71, 100, 120, 124, 131 choice in, 100

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INDEX gender differences in, 96 languages, 21 preferences, 11, 103-104 by type of visa, 11-13, 100-104 G Gao Yi, 26 Graduate Record Examination, 25 Great Leap Forward, 20 H He Dongchang, 8, 37, 71 Hu Yaobang, 1, 2 Huang Xinbai, 32-33 I Intellectual dissent/dissidents dismissals of intellectuals for, 1, 5 income and living conditions, 45-46 official reaction to, 3-4, 116,120 student demands, 2,32 J Job assignments/opportunities back door tactics for enticing graduates in China, 59-60 n basic research, 117 basis for, 50 choice in, 59,68-69 complaints of returning students/scholars about, 14-15, 62-63 regulation of, 126 for returning privately sponsored students, 41 by work units, 60 Job mobility facilitation of, 60-61, 69 of returning graduates, 15 work unit opposition to, 60 i] Li Peng, 30, 32, 38,118 Liu Zhongde, 29-30,31 Lu Jiaxi, 60 141 M Ministry of Education, 24,25-27; JCC ~80 State Education Commission Modernization of China through academic exchanges, 22-23,115 employment problems, 58-59, 61-65 housing problems, 65 incentives for productivity increases, 48 normalization of relations with u.s.,21 obstacles to, 19-20,60 N National Conference on Study Abroad, 29 National Defense Science, Technology, and Industry Commission, 62 o Officially sponsored students/scholars contracts/agreements with work units, 30, 73,129 definition, 6-7 detail required in visa applications, 85 fellowship limits, 31 financing by host universities, 31 number, 9-10, 119 passport source, 78 preparation and training, 130 return of, 4,13 selection criteria, 129 state program personnel, 127 statistics on, 78,80 unit program personnel, 127 women, 96 p PhDs, Chinese distribution by field, 102-103 foreign-trained, 115

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142 funding for exchanges with foreign experts, 31 home-trained, 13, 37 temporary workplaces for, 69-70 wages of, 64 Policy of opening to outside world channels of knowledge created by, 22-23 Confucian traditions and, 20 emigration of students and, 120 evolution of, 19-35 historical background, 19-22 sec also Modernization of China Privately sponsored students/scholars characteristics of, 42,98-100 discrimination against returning students, 41 emigration/delayed returns, 4, 14, 36-37,113 fields of study, 11 number, 9, 88,112 passport source, 78 policy on foreign study by, 31, 40, 135-137 sponsorship by U.S. relatives, 40, 92 tracking of, 81 arc ale o Self-supporting students; Visas/visa holders, F-1 Production-related research, shortages of, 72 Regulation of foreign study administrative requirements, 125-126 age limits, 106,128 agreements/contracts with work units, 30, 73 Embassy/Consular oversight of students, 8,50,126 expense management, 130-132 fields of study, 124-125,131 financing by work unit, 29,125 foreign language requirements, 128 home leave, 133-134 implementation problems, 14,27, 33-35,50,120-121 lob arrangements for returnees, 126 jl INDEX joint Chinese/U.S. degree programs, 51-52 liberalization of, 27-28 limits on length of study, 50,118, 127 political qualifications of students, 127-128 postdoctoral research/practical training, 131-133 for privately sponsored students, 40,41,135-137 quotas by field of study, 73 rumors about, 32-33 selection process, 26,27-28, 30, 38, 49-50,118-119,126-131,132 seniority of returnees, 130 spouse visitation, 134-135 state sponsored versus privately sponsored students, 34 State Education Commission provisions on study abroad, 123-137 U.S. changes to facilitate, 120-121 visiting scholars, 106 vocational qualifications of students/scholars, 128 wages, 130,132 work requirement before going abroad, 30-31,34,40,50,133 Research facilities and equipment complaints of domestic graduates about, 66 complaints of foreign-trained scholars about, 63-64,65 66-67,102,116 misuse of funds for, 64 open research laboratories, 69-70 proposed improvements in, 69 temporary holding centers and research opportunities, 69-70 Research/visiting scholars age limit, 106 attitudes about production research, 116 definition, 7 expense management, 133 funding of, 108 J-1 visa holders, statistics on, 106-109 number, 24 regulation of, 131-133

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INDEX selection process, 132 specializations, 108-109,132-133 women, 106-107 work requirement for, 133 Returning students/scholars administrative duties, 68 basic research opportunities, 117 characteristics of, 8,62,64,65,96 choice of employment, 59 complaints of, 14-15,41,58,59, 62-68,102,116 discrimination against, 41,63,66 estimation of, 111 expectations by, 62,64 expectations of, 67-68 historical role of, 19 inducements for, 5,9, 14,29,31, 41,43-44,49-52,54-55,68-73, 96,117 information availability on, 81 job mobility, 15 legitimacy of complaints, 65-68 linkages with foreign counterparts, 68 misuse/misassignment of, 14-15, 59,62-63,65,66 number of, 13,27, 43,113 preferential treatment of, 28-29, 61-62 research fellowships for, 69 solutions to problems of, 68-73 tension between domestic graduates and, 58 tracking problems, 83-84, 85 utilization of, 27,57-73 wages, 64-65, 67, 68,116 work requirements before returning abroad, 30-31 working conditions, 63 S Scholastic Aptitude Tests, 25 Scientific and Technological Associ- ation of Hunan Province, 65 Self-supporting students/scholars; definition, 7; Cc Ado Privately sponsored students/scholars Sino-Soviet academic exchanges, 20 State Education Commission, 24, 29, 32,37,38,51-52,58, 71, 73, 78, 81,119,123-137 143 Statistics on Chinese students Chinese statistics, 77-81,101 F-1 visa holders, 39,88-105 fields of study, 100-104 financial support sources, 94-95 J-1 visa holders, 39, 88-109 personal characteristics, 95-100 problems with, 77-86 students and scholars, 88-93 students only, 94-106 U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 39, 82-84 from U.S. Information Agency data tapes, 85-86, 94,100 from visa applications, 84-85,94, 100, 110 visiting scholars, 106-109 Student demonstrations academic exchanges, effect on, 1-2, 31-32,120 official reaction to, 3,47 reactions of students abroad to, 4-5,13-14,120 Cc also Intellectual dissent Students, Cc Chinese students abroad T Taiwanese students complaints of, 66 statistics on number in U.S., 82,83 Talent Exchange and Consultation Service Centers, 60 Technology transfer through acquisition of plant and equipment packages, 72 in practical training of scholars, 51 Test of English as a Foreign Language, 24-25,28-29 U Understanding of Educational Exchanges, 23 United Nations Institute for Training and Research, studies of brain drain issue, 53-54 Universities, Chinese enrollments of graduate students, 37

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144 fields of study, 71 foreign students in, 81 improvements in, 13, 37 Jisotung, 62 joint degree programs with U.S. universities, 51-52 limitations on slots, 40-41,93,104 Qinghua, 62 University of Science and Technology, 62 women in, 96 Universities, U.S. funding of Chinese students/ scholars, 31,90-91, 108, 115 preferences of Chinese students, 104-106 value of Chinese students to, 117-118 waiver of standardized tests for Chinese students, 24-25 U.S. Dept. of State, Visa Office, statistics on Chinese students in U.S., 82-83, 100, 110 U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service policy on deportation, 5,8-9,49, 84,117 statistics of Chinese students, 39, 82-84 U.S. Information Agency, information on Chinese students in U.S., 84-86,94-95,100 V Visas/visa holders, F-1 characteristics of students/scholars, 84,96 Consulate-issued versus Embassy-issued, 88-90 definition, 6 educational background, 98-100 emigration/delayed returns of, 4, 9, 39,40,112-113 estimation of, 112-113 fields of study, 11, 13,96,100-101 financial support sources, 86 gender differences in, 96 geographic distribution in U.S., 104-106 geographic origins of, 92-93 I-20 form, 6 INDEX marital status, 96 number issued, 9-10, 40,88, 94, 110 tracking problems, 83,112 women, 11 Visas/visa holders, F-2 definition, 6 number issued, 96 Visas/visa holders, J-1 characteristics of students/scholars, 14,38,84-85 computerization of data on, 80-81 Consulate-issued versus Embassy-issued, 88-90 definition, 6 emigration of, 39 extension for practical training, 51 fields of study, 11-13,96,100-102 financial support sources, 11 , 31, 85,90-91,94-95 gender differences in, 96 geographic distribution in U.S., 104-106 geographic origins of, 92-93 IAP-66 form, 6,38,84-86,110 limits on length of stay, 13 marital status, 96 number issued, 9-10, 81,88, 110-112 occupations of, 98-99 professional standing of, 98-99 returns to China, 4,38-39,111 statistics on, 81,85 tracking problems, 83 two-year rule, 7,39 visiting scholars, 106-109 women, 11, 107 Visas/,risa holders, J-2 number issued, 96 y Yang Wei, 120 Yang Xinguan, 2 z Zhang Jingfu, 27, 63-64,69 Zhao Fusan, 45-46 Zhao Ziyang, 3,4,45