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CHAPTER 5 RECOMMENDATIONS There currently are no uniformly accepted criteria for procedures to establish the precise color vision requirements for various types of jobs. However, the expense of such an undertaking is great, and Working Group 41 is reluctant to recommend such an expensive project. Working Group 41 has noted that many jobs may be broadly characterized according to whether the task involves normal or good color vision (i.e., exclusion of people with major color defects); representative color vision; or excellent chromatic discrimination. . . Clinical tests exist to evaluate these characteristics in standardized illuminations. For applications in which color matching is made under varying environmental conditions, field tests may be more appropriate. Working Group 41 therefore recommends that color vision requirements for various jobs be established individually within industry and the military as needed (and as funds for the projects arise). Working Group 41 has indicated a broad range of color vision tasks and the clinical tests that may be used to evaluate each. For tasks from which people with major color vision defects must be excluded, any of the validated screening plate tests should be used. For tasks that require representative color vision (color matching in printing and textile industries), a color-matching task must be used, and anomaloscope examination is recommended. For tasks involving fine chromatic discrimination, the FM 100-hue test is recommended. From our survey of existing plate tests, it is clear that the quantification of chromatic discriminative ability within a single test is not very successful. Multiple cutoff scoring standards are inappropriate for a single plate test. A test battery, however, may prove suitable to establish a graduation of chromatic discriminative ability among people with color vision defects. 95 - However, the test

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96 results will not necessarily predict chromatic discriminative ability of color-defective observers for specific tasks. A major gap in our knowledge is prediction of color recognition or identification under the widely varying contexts and illuminants encountered in the field. This is of particular importance in jobs that involve diverse duties rather than one easily identified color task. The ability to identify or recognize colors is strongly dependent on field and environmental factors. No standard clinical test can predict color identification/recognition ability, especially in the color-defective population. Furthermore, limited field tests for color recognition/identification may not be valid, since these tests themselves will not necessarily encompass the full environmental range to be found in practice. It therefore would seem beneficial to aim further research at the prediction of color recognition/ identification in various field conditions. , e