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SPACE SCIENCE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY IMPERATIVES FOR THE DECADES 1995 TO 2015 FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY Task Group on E`undamental Physics and Chemistry Space Science Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988

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National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. . Washington, D. C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by 8 group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Prens is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering wax established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also spou~ore engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encouragce education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an ad~riscr to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Prank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 3482 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 87-43331 ISBN 0-309-03841-3 Printed in the United States of America First Printing, June 198 8 Second Printing, November 1988

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TASK GROUP ON FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY Rainer Weiss, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Co-Chairman Joseph M. Reynolds, The Louisiana State University, C+Cha~rman Peter Bender, University of Colorado A. L. Beriad, University of California RusseD Donnelly, University of Oregon Freeman Dyson, The Institute of Advanced Study William M. Fairbank, Stanford University Robert Hofetadter, Stanford University George Homsy, Stanford University James Langer, University of California John E. Naugle, Consultant, Chevy Chase, Maryland Rene PeDat, ONES Remo Ruffini, Universita di Roma Dudley Saville, Princeton University John Robert Schrieffer, University of California Dean P. Kastel, Staff Director Ceres M. Rangos, Secretary - 111

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STEERING GROUP Thomas M. Donahue, University of Michigan, Chairman Don L. Anderson, California Institute of Technology D. James Baker, Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. Robert W. Berliner, Pew Scholars Program, Yale University Bernard F. Burke, Massachusetts Institute of Technology A. G. W. Cameron, Harvard College Observatory George B. Field, Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University Herbert Friedman, Naval Research Laboratory Donald M. Hunten, University of Arizona Francis S. Johnson, University of Texas at Dallas Robert Kretsinger, University of Virginia Stamatios M. Krimigis, Applied Physics Laboratory Eugene H. Levy, University of Arizona Frank B. McDonald, NASA Headquarters John E. Naugle, Chevy Chase, Maryland Joseph M. Reynolds, The Louisiana State University Frederick L. Scarf, TRW Systems Park Scott N. Swisher, Michigan State University David A. Usher, Cornell University James A. Van Allen, University of Iowa Rainer Weiss, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dean P. Kastel, Study Director Ceres M. Rangos, Secretary 1V

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SPACE SCIENCE: BOARD Thomas M. Donahue, University of Michigan, Chairman Philip H. Abelson, American Association for the Advancement of Science Roger D. Blandford, California Institute of Technology Larry W. Esposito, University of Colorado Jonathan E. GrindIay, Center for Astrophysics Donald N. B. Hall, University of Hawaii Andrew P. Ingersoll, California Institute of Technology William M. Kaula, NOAA Harold P. Klein, The University of Santa Clara John W. Leibacher, National Solar Observatory Michael Mendillo, Boston University Robert 0. Pepin, University of Minnesota Roger J. Phillips, Southern Methodist University David M. Raup, University of Chicago Christopher T. Russell, University of California, Los Angeles Blair D. Savage, University of Wisconsin John A. Simpson, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago George I:. Siscoe, University of California, Los Angeles L. Dennis Smith, Purdue University Darrell F. Strobel, Johns Hopkins University Byron D. Tapley, University of Texas at Austin Dean P. Kastel, Staff Director Ceres M. Rangos, Secretary v

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COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MA:FEEMATICS, AND RESOURCES Norman Hackerman, Robert A. Welch Foundation, Chairman George F. Carrier, Harvard University Dean E. Eastman, IBM Corporation Marye Anne Fox, University of Texas Gerhart FriedIander, Brookhaven National Laboratory Lawrence W. FunEhouser, Chevron Corporation (retired) Phillip A. Griffith, Duke University J. Ross Macdonald, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Charles J. Mankin, Oklahoma Geological Survey Perry L. McCarty, Stanford University Jack E. Oliver, Cornell University Jeremiah P. Ostriker, Princeton University Observatory William D. Phildips, Mallinckro~t, Inc. Denis 3. Prager, MacArthur Foundation David M. Raup, University of Chicago Richard J. Reed, University of Washington Robert E. Sievers, University of Colorado I,arry L. Smarr, National Center for Supercomputing Applications Edward C. Stone, Jr., California Institute of Technology Karl K. Turekian, Yale University George W. Wetherill, Carnegie Institution of Washington Irving Wladawsky-Berger, IBM Corporation Raphael G. Kasper, Executive Director Lawrence E. McCray, Associate Executive Director V1

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Foreword Early in 1984, NASAL asked the Space Science Board to un- dertake a study to determine the principal scientific issues that the disciplines of space science would face during the period from about 1995 to 2015. This request was made partly because NASA expected the Space Station to become available at the beginning of this period, and partly because the missions needed to im- plement research strategies previously developed by the various committees of the board should have been launched or their de- velopment under way by that time. A two-year study was called for. To carry out the study the board put together task groups in earth sciences, planetary and lunar exploration, solar system space physics, astronomy and astrophysics, fundamental physics and chemistry (relativistic gravitation and m~crogravity sciences), and life sciences. Responsibility for the study was vested in a steer- ing group whose members consisted of the task group chairmen plus other senior representatives of the space science disciplines. To the board's good fortune, distinguished scientists from many countries other than the United States participated in this study. The findings of the study are published in seven volumes: six task group reports, of which this volume is one, and an overview report of the steering group. ~ commend this and aD the other task group reports to the reader for an understanding of the challenges . V11

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that confront the space sciences Id the lDslgbts they promise far the next century. The oracle reco~endatlons of the study are those to be Fund in the steering graphs ~ervlew. Oboe Hi. Don^e, Cb~rm~ Space Science Board vlu

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Preface The efforts of the Task Group on Fundamental Physics and Chemistry have been directed toward an understanding of the role of the space program in furthering our knowledge of the fundamental interactions in nature. All of scientific inquiry, of course, has some bearing on this. However, this task group's emphasis has been on direct experiments designee! to enhance this fundamental knowledge. The focus of the group has been on research in two principal areas: (1) relativistic gravitation, which involves tests of the general theory of relativity, and (2) microgravity science, which encompasses experiments in the low- acceleration and low-gravity gradient environments of space. Early on, a subgroup for each area was formed to identify opportunities in these two fields. The findings of these subgroups make up the two parts of this report. It should be noted that the task group decided at the outset not to study applied microgravity science and the utility of space for manufacturing and industrial processes. This study of the status of and prospects for gravitational physics ~ the space program has benefited from prior studies made by committees of both NASA and the National Research Council. Many elements of the proposed program have been rec- ommended in the following: Report of the Su~paneT on Relativ- ~c

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ity and Gravitation MOWG in Shuttle Astronomy, NASA, 1976; Strategy for Space Research in Gravitational Physics in the 1980s, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1981; and Survey of Gravitation, Cosmology, and Cosmic Ray Physics, Physics Survey Committee, National Academy Pre", Washington, D.C., 1986. x

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r Contents A. GRAVITATIONAL PHYSICS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. BASIC ISSUES IN GRAVITATION Tests of E`undamental Principles, 8 Weak Field, 9 Strong Field, 11 Nonstatic Fields, 13 Cosmology, 15 3. GRAVITATIONAL WAVE ASTRONOMY 4. CURRENT SPACE RESEARCH IN GRAVITATION Lunar Ranging, 26 Analysis of Planetary and Lunar Motion, 27 5. EXPECTED RESEARCH PRIOR TO 1995 Shuttle Test and Flight of Gravity Probe B (GPB), 30 Shuttle Flight of a Cryogenic Principle of Equivalence Experiment, 31 Microwave Ranging to the Mars Observer Spacecraft, 33 X-ray Tinning Experiment and a Medium-Area Fast X-ray Detector on the Shuttle, 34 X1 3 8 21 26 30

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Spacecraft Observations of Long-Period Gravitational Waves, 36 6. PROGRAMS AFTER 1995 Baseline Program, 38 LAGOS: Laser Gravitational Wave Observations in Space, 38 POINTS: Small Astrometric Interferometer in Space, 44 Mercury Relativity Satellite, 45 STARPROBE: Second-Order Gravitational Red Shift Experiment, 49 High-Precision Principle of Equivalence Experiment, 50 X-ray Large Array/Fast-tirn~ng Experiments and Correlation with Gravitational Radiation, 51 Enhanced Program, 51 Laser Gravitational Wave Observatory, 51 Reflight of GPB, 53 7. TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS Improved Disturbance Compensation Systems (DISCOS), 55 Moderate-Power Frequency-Stabilized Lasers, 55 Cryogenic Capability to Transfer Helium in Orbit, 56 Development of Clocks, 56 B. SCIENCE I:N A MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT 1. INTRODUCTION 38 55 59 2. GRAVITY-SENSITIVE SYSTEMS AT EQUILIBRIUM 66 Critical Phenomena, 66 Mechanics of Granular Media, 69 3. GRAVITATIONAL DESTABILIZATION OF STATIONARY STATES Mechanics of Suspensions, 71 Sheared Suspensions of Granular Materials, 72 Growth of Condensates in Supersaturated Systems, 74 Fractal Aggregates, 75 4. SYSTEMS FAR FROM EQUILIBRIUM Solidification Patterns, 77 X11 71 77

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Surface Tension and Convection Effects, 79 Minimizing Buoyancy-driven Effects, 79 Minimizing Free Surface Deflections, 80 Minimizing the Effect of Gravity on Free Surface Shapes, 80 Electrokinetics, 81 Combustible Media, 83 SCALING AND ACCEPTABLE ACCELERATION LEVEL 6. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS - ~ X111 86 90

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