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SPACE SCIENCE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY IMPERATIVES FOR THE DECADES 1995 TO 2015 LIFE SCIENCES Task Group on Life Sciences Space Science Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988

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National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W. . Washington, D. C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competency and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a priorate, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and techsclogy and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Scienc" to secure the ser~ricce of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government sold, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purpoace of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Franlc Prese and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman ant vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. _ _~# Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 3482 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 87-43334 ISBN 0-309-03880-4 Printed in the United States of America First Printing, June 1988 Second Printing, November 1988

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TASK GROUP ON [Il?l: SCIENCES Scott Swisher, Michigan State University, Co-Chairman David Usher, Cornell University, Co-Chairman Meinrat Andreae, Florida State University Stanley Awram~k, University of California, Santa Barbara Robert Berliner, Pew Scholars Program, Yale University William DeCampli, Stanford Medical Center James Ferris, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Robert Fowles, University of Utah Andrew Knoll, Harvard University Robert Kretsinger, University of Virginia Lynn Margulis, Boston University Raymond Murray, Michigan State University Quentin Myrvik, Wake Forest University John Oro, University of Houston Tobias Owen, State University of New York at Stony Brook Donald D. Trunkey, Oregon Health Services University G. Donald Whedon, International Shrine Hospital David White, Florida State University Richard J. Wurtman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Richard Young, RCA Government Services En Officio Jay M. Goldberg, University of Chicago Harold Klein, The University of Santa Clara NASA Liaisons Sherwood Chang Lawrence F. Dietlein Joyce M. Purcell, Staff Officer Judith L. Estep, Secretary .e 111

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STEERING GROUP Thomas M. Donahue, University of Michigan, Chairman Don L. Anderson, California Institute of Technology D. Barnes Baker, Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. Robert W. Berliner, Pew Scholars Program, Yale University Bernard F. Burke, Massachusetts Institute of Technology A. G. W. Cameron, Harvard College Observatory George B. Field, Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University Herbert Friedman, Naval Research Laboratory Donald M. Hunten, University of Arizona Francis S. Johnson, University of Texas at D alias Robert Kretsinger, University of Virginia Stamatios M. Krimigis, Applied Physics Laboratory Eugene H. Levy, University of Arizona Frank B. McDonald, NASA Headquarters John E. Naugle, Chevy Chase, Maryland Joseph M. Reynolds, The Louisiana State University Frederick L. Scarf, TRW Systems Park Scott N. Swisher, Michigan State University David A. Usher, Cornell University James A. Van Allen, University of Iowa Rainer Weiss, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dean P. Kastel, Study Director Ceres M. Rangos, Secretary IV

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SPACE SCIENCE BOARD Thomas M. Donahue, University of Michigan, Chairman Philip H. Abelson, American Association for the Advancement of Science Roger D. Blandford, California Institute of Technology Larry W. Esposito, University of Colorado Jonathan E. Grindiay, Center for Astrophysics Donald N. B. Hall, University of Hawaii Andrew P. Ingersoll, California Institute of Technology William M. Kaula, NOAA Harold P. Klein, The University of Santa Clara John W. Leibacher, National Solar Observatory Michael Mendillo, Boston University Robert O. Pepin, University of Minnesota Roger J. Phillips, Southern Methodist University David M. Raup, University of Chicago Christopher T. Rumell, University of California, Los Angeles Blair D. Savage, University of Wisconsin John A. Simpson, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago George 1.. Siscoe, University of California, I,os Angeles L. Dennis Smuth, Purdue University Darrell F. Strobel, Johns Hopkins University BYron D. TaoleY. University of Texas at Austin ~ A, Dean P. Kastel, Staff Director Ceres M. Rangos, Secretary v

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COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND RESOURCES Norman Hackerman, Robert A. Welch Foundation, Chairman George F. Carrier, Harvard University Dean E. Eastman, IBM Corporation Marye Anne Fox, University of Texas Gerhart Friediander, Brookhaven National Laboratory Lawrence W. Eunkhouser, Chevron Corporation (retired) Phillip A. Grifflths, Duke University J. Ross Macdonald, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Charles J. Mankin, Oklahoma Geological Survey Perry L. McCarty, Stanford University Jack E. Oliver, Cornell University Jeremiah P. Ostriker, Princeton University Observatory William D. Phillips, MaDinckro~t, Inc. Denis J. Prager, MacArthur Foundation David M. Raup, University of Chicago Richard 3. Reed, University of Washington Robert E. Sievers, University of Colorado Larry I,. Smarr, National Center for Supercomputing Applications Edward C. Stone, Jr., California Institute of Technology Karl K. Turekian, Yale University George W. Wetherill, Carnegie Institution of Washington Irving Wladawsky-Berger, IBM Corporation Raphael G. Kasper, Executive Director I,awrence E. McCray, Associate Executive Director V1

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Foreword . Early in 1984, NASA asked the Space Science Board to un- dertake a study to determine the principal scientific issues that the disciplines of space science would face during the period from about 1995 to 2015. This request was made partly because NASA expected the Space Station to become available at the beginning of this period, and partly because the missions needed to im- plement research strategies previously developed by the various committees of the board should have been launched or their de- velopment under way by that time. A two-year study was called for. To carry out the study the board put together task groups in earth sciences, planetary and lunar exploration, solar system space physics, astronomy and astrophysics, fundamental physics and chemistry (relativistic gravitation and m~crogravity sciences), and life sciences. Responsibility for the study was vested in a steering group whose members consisted of task group chairmen plus other senior representatives of the space science disciplines. To the board's good fortune, distinguished scientists from many countries other than the United States participated in this study. The findings of the study are published in seven volumes: six task group reports, of which this volume is one, and an overview report of the steering group. ~ commend this and all the task group reports to the reader for an understanding of the challenges V11

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that confront the space sciences Id the insights they promise far the next century. Abe omcia1 recommendations of the study are those to be Fund in the steering group overview. Ibom~ Hi. Donabue, Cb~rm~n Space Science Board . .. flu

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Contents 1. INTRODUCTION Overview, 1 Exobiology, 2 Global Biology/Biospheric Science, 3 Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), 4 Space Biology, 5 Human Biology and Space Medicine, 6 Implementation, 7 2. EXOBIOLOGY What is Exobiology?, 8 Planetary Exploration and the Need for Space Data, 12 Research Topics, 15 Space Missions, 39 Conclusions and Recommendations, 57 1 8 3. GLOBAL BIOLOGY/BIOSPHERIC SCIENCE 59 Background, 59 Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions, 61 Global Ecology, 65 1X

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4. CONTROLLED ECOLOGICAL LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM (CELSS) Definition, 69 Research Objectives, 70 Accomplishments, 71 5. SPACE BIOLOGY The Probe, 72 Work To Date, 74 Future Work, 75 HUMAN BIOLOGY AND SPACE MEDICINE Introduction, 77 Experimental Use of Animals, 78 Neurosensory Physiology, 79 Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 87 Muscle Metabolism, 93 Cardiovascular, Pulmonary, and Renal Systems Integrated functions, 101 Radiation Effects, 108 Behavior and Performance, 117 Health Maintenance, 123 95 7. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SPACE LIFE SCIENCES Ongoing Agreements and Memoranda of Under- standing, 131 Agreements Pending, 132 Agreements Finished, 132 8. INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNOLOGY Introduction, 134 Exobiology, 135 Global Biology, 136 Space Biology, 136 Space Medicine, 138 Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), 140 Computation, Integration, and Robotics, 142 x 69 72 77 130 134