U

Ultrafine structures, 129

Ultrapure materials, 126–27, 220–21

Ultrasound, 81

Undergraduate education. See Manpower and education

United Kingdom

competitive position, 199–202

instrumentation, 265

materials science regime, 186, 191–92

Universities

funding, international comparisons, 191–92

industry-university cooperative research centers, 171, 187

instrumentation needs, 135, 153

instrument development, 137–38, 256–61

See also Manpower and education

University Materials Council, 152

University of Chicago, 265

University of Illinois, 263

University of Minnesota, 157

University of Pennsylvania, 263

University Research Initiative program, DOD, 137, 178, 260

Uranium chalcogenides, 96

U.S. Scientists and Engineers: 1986 (NSF), 142, 173

V

Vacuum arc melting, 127

Vacuum evaporation, 125, 237

Vacuum induction melting, 127

Vacuum melting equipment, 184

Vapor deposition, 80, 81, 123, 129–30

Vapor processing, 80, 129

Varian Corporation, 264

Very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits, 64, 197

VG Instruments (U.K.), 265

Viscoelastic behavior, 84

Visiting scientist program, 179

W

Waveguides, 98

Wear mechanisms, 250

West Germany

collaborative centers, 72, 183, 188

competitive position, 9, 199–202, 205

instrument development, 258, 263–68

materials science regime, 186, 189–190

Wigner, E., 272

Wilson, 265

XYZ

Xerox laboratories, 261

X-Ray Optics Center, 258

X-ray spectroscopy, 182

X-ray tomography, 81, 182

Yagi, 265

Young, R., 262

Zinc industry, 78, 237–38

Zirconia, 81, 213, 236

Zone refining, 127, 228



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