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NOTES Chapter 1 1. U.S. Department of Health ant Human Services, National Institutes of Health, Orientation Handbook for Members of Scientific Review Groups, August 1982, p. 1. 2. A Brief Review of Proposals to Change the NIH Organizational Structure, Staff paper, Office of-Associate Director for Program Planning and Evaluation, National Institutes of Health, May 1984, Attachment 1, p. 2. Legislative proposals have been made for a National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases; a National Institute of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders; and a National Institute of Nursing Research. Among institutes proposed through other channels have been a Communications Institute; Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences; Institute for Radiological Sciences; Institute for Technology Research; National Ear, Nose and Throat Institute; National Institute of Public Health; National Trauma Institute; and Population Institute. ~. Ibid., p. 3. Organizations proposed for transfer were the National Center for Health Services Research, National Center for Health Statistics, National Institute of Mental Health, and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Chapter 2 4. Appropriations data from the 1983 NIH Almanac, p. 121; and from the NIH Division of Financial Management. 5. 1983 NIH Almanac, p. 139; and the TAPS Monthly Employment Report Summary, July 1983. 6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 1983 NIH Data Book, p. 21; and U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, National Institutes of Health, 1985 Appropriations Hearings, p. 133. Stephen D. Nelson, A Brief History of the Development of the National Institutes of Health, Institute of Medicine, 1984. 8. See Appendix B.

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39 9. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 1983 NIH Almanac, pp. 122-123. Appropriations figures adjusted to exclude any program later eliminated or transferred out of NIH. 10. Inflation rates calculated from the 1983 NIH Almanac, pp. 128-129. 11. Appropriations data from the 1983 NIH Almanac, p. 123; and the NIH Division of Financial Management. Inflation rate for FY 1984 calculated from the Congressional Budget Off ice , Research and Development Funding in the Proposed Fiscal Year 1985 Budget, March 1984, p. 6. 12. A Brief Review of Proposals to Change the NIH Organizational Structure, op. cit., pp. 1-2. 13. See Nelson, A Brief History of the Development of the National Institutes of Health, op. cit., pp. 14 ff. The National Institute of Neurological Disease and Blindness became the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke in 196B, and the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke in 1975; the National Heart Institute became the National Heart and Lung Institute in 1969, and the National Heart, Lung, and 8100d Institute in 1976; the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases became the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases in 1972, and the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases in 1981. The three institutes that became bureaus were the National Cancer Institute (1972), the National Heart and Lung Institute (1912), and the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (1982~. 14. Appropriations figures from the 1983 NIH Almanac, pp. 122-123, excluding programs later eliminated or transferred, and adjusted for inflation. 15. Pamela Smith, A Summary of a Case Study of the National Eye Institute, Institute of Medicine, 1984. . Stephen D. Nelson, A Summary of a Case Study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Institute of Medicine, 1984. 17. I _ . 18. Nelson, A Brief History of the Development of the National Institutes of Health, op. cit., pp. 19-22. 19. See Appendix B.

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40 20. Henry W. Lane, Rodney G. Beddowa, and Paul R. Lawrence, Managing Large Research and Development Programs, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1981, Chapter 5.- 21. Ibid. 22. Nelson, A Brief History of the Development of the National Institutes of Health, op. cie., p. 18. 23. U.S. Department of Health, Education, ant Welfare, National Institutes of Health, Report of the NIH Program Mechanisms Committee, February 14, 1973. 24. Stephen D. Nelson, A Case Study of the National Institute of Mental Health, Institute of Medicine, 1984. . Smith, A Summary of a Case Study of the National Eye Institute, op. cit. 26. Franklin T. Williams, Director, National Institute on Aging, NIH. Interview with Michael A. Stoto. Chapter 3 27. Stephen P. Strickland, Politics, Science, and Dread Disease, Cambridge : Harvard University Press, 1972, Chapter V. See also Nelson, A Brief History of the Development of the National Institutes of Health, on. cit. 28. Strickland, op. cit., Chapter III. 29. Presitent'a Private Sector Survey on Coat Control, Task Force Report on Research and Development, December 1983, p. 46.; House Finance Office, July 1984; and Senate Disbursing Office, July 1984. 30. U.S. Department of Health ant Human Services, National Institutes of Health, NIH Data Book, 1983. Calculated from data on p. 5. Chapter~4 31. See Appendix B. 32. Nelson, A Brief History of the Development of the National Institutes of Health, op. cit. 33. Office of Science and Technology Policy, Report of the White House Science Council, Federal Laboratory Review Panel, Washington D.C., May 1983.

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41 34 Revitalizing Federal Management : Managers and their Overburdened Systems, National Academy of Public Administration, Washington, D.C., November 1983. 35. Stephen Budianaky, AIDS research: Big enough spending? Nature, August 11, 1983, p. 478. 36. U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Twenty-ninth Report of the Committee on Government Operat ions, The Federal Response to AIDS, November 30, 1983, pp. 22-27. 37. Data provided by the NIB Division of Research Grants.

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