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Index A Academic sector, see Universities Access to computing resources, 37, 49, 50, 51 compatibility/incompatibility (systems), 2, 21-22, 23, 25, 27, 36, 49-50 databases, 25-29 hardware, 2, 17 networks, 16, 49, 51 software, 11, 16-17 Administration and administrators, see Manage ment and managers Algorithms, 17 American Chemical Society (ChemAbstracts), 23, 24, 28, 30 American Psychological Association, 30 Ames Laboratory, 19 ARPANET, 20, 26 Artificial intelligence and expert systems, 3, 31, 32-33, 35, 38-39 Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), 35 Associations, see Professional associations B Baylor Medical College, 35 Behavioral factors, see Human factors BIONET, 22-23 BllDOC, 25 BITNET, 24, 26, 36 Bll7NIC, 25 Brown University, 41 Bush, Vannevar, 40 C CABIOS, 22 Califomia, 15 CALNET, 15 Canada, 25 Carnegie Mellon University, 19, 43 CELL, 22 Chemical Abstracts Service, 23, 24, 28, 30 Chips (memory), 20 City University of New York, 24-25 Committee on National Statistics, 29 Committee on Science and Technology, 7-8 Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, 7-8 COMMON LISP, 20 Communications technology, 1, 18-22, 48 electronic mail, 2, 18, 19, 20-22, 26-27 networks (computers), 2, 3, 14-27, 36-37, 40-41, 49-51, 53 telecommunications, 1, 11-12 Compatibility/incompatibility (systems), 2, 23, 25, 49-50 databases, 27, 36 networks, 21-22, 36, 49-50 see also Standards Computational sciences, high energy physics, 12-14 mathematical theory, 1~17 medical sciences, 22-23, 28-29, 35, 36 Computer graphics earthquakes, 15 interactive, 20, 34, 40 69

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70 INDEX mathematics-physical science interface, 17 satellites, 30 Computer hardware, 7 access to, 2,17 data collection and analysis, 14 historical developments in, 2,11 microprocessors, dedicated, 13-14 optical disks, 27,52 semiconductors, 20 supercomputers, 21,22,49 Computer simulation, 3,31,47 in econometrics, 31 numerical computations, 16-17 Computer software, 2,7 access to, 11,16-17 customized, 16-17,43,49 data collection and analysis, 14 evaluation, 43-44 expert systems, 3,31,32-33,35 federal government, 52 high energy physics and, 13 IBM infrastructure, 4~1- 45 institutional infrastructure, 3 instrument control, 15,48 libraries of, 4,51 molecular biology, 22-23,28-29,36 networks (computers), 2,3,14-27,36-37, 40-41,49-51,53 packages, 15,16-17,18,44-45 standards, 3 word processing, 2,18,21-22 Computer visualization, 3,21,30,31-32,47-48 Confidentiality, 3,37-38,52 Congress, 7-8 D Databases, 2-3,15,24-28 economics, 36-37 hypertext, 40-41 molecular biology, 22-23,28-29,36 searching, 2,24,27,28 see also specific databases Data collection and analysis, 2,14-17 capacities, 14 Decision making, 3,39 policymakers, 1, 9,29,55 Defense, 15,20,43 Denning, Peter J.,19,22-23 Department of Commerce, 8 Department of Defense, 20,43 Department of Energy, 8,19 Document processing, 19 EEarthquakes, 15 Econometrics, 31 Economic factors, 3,4,48,49,50 access to computers, 16 costs and cost sharing, 14-15,35-37 satellite data system, 30 study funding, 8 time sharing, 35 Education and training, 3,39-41,49 universities, 4,14,19,24-25, 35,36 EDUCOM, 25,44 Electronic mail, 2,18,19,20 case study, 26-27 incompatibility problems, 21 molecular biology, 22 Electronic publishing, 19, 21-22 EMBL, 22 Englebart, Doug, 40 Ethics, see Law and ethics European Access Research Network (EARN), 25 Expertise (human), 4,43,44,52 early computers, 11 policymakers, 1, 9,29,55 study methodology, 8,57 Expert systems and artificial intelligence, 3, 31, 32-33,35,38-39 EXPRES, 19,21,22,54 F Federal Coordinating Council on Science, Engi- neering, and Technology (FCCSET), 53,55 Federal government, 48,51-53 databases, 23,29-30 national research network, 4-5,21,52-54 panel study funding, 8 Fel-llli National Laboratory, 14 File transfer, 21 Frontiers in Science and Technology: A Selected Outlook, 7 G Gatekeepers, 43 GenBank, 22,23,29 GENPUB, 22 Genetics, 22,23,28-29 Geometry, 16 Georgetown Medical Center, 35 Graphics, see Computer graphics H HELP, 35 High Energy Physics Network, 21

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INDEX Human factors, 3,8,49 attitudinal, 40-41,50 confidentiality, 3,37-38,52 education and training, 3,3~41,49 infrastructure, 3,4-5,21,34,35,42-45,52-54 institutional factors, 3-4,41-42,49,51 law and ethics, 3,22,37-38,42,50,52 management and managers, 1, 4, g, 20, 22, 29, 41,50,51 user-machine interfaces, 4 Human Gene Mapping Library (HGML), 28 Hypertext, 40-41 I IBM, 24-25,44 45 Images and image processing, see Computer visu- alization Incompatibility (systems), see Compatibility/incom- patibility; Standards Indexes, 24,25 Information dissemination, 2,43-44 national research network, 4-5,21,52-54 Information storage and retrieval, 2-3,14,23-30 databases 2-3,15,22-23,24-28,29,36-37,40-41 networks (computers), 2,3,14-27,36-37,40--41, 49-51,53 Information technology, definition and develop- ment of, 1, 7,11-12 Infrastructure, 3,34,35,42-45 national, 4-5,21,52-54 Institute for Mathematical Statistics, 16 Institute for Scientific Infonnation, 30 Institutional factors, 3-4,41-42,49,51 Instrument control, 15,48 Integrated Academic Information Management System (LAIMS), 35 Intellectual property, 22,42,50,52 INTERMEDIA, 41 International activities gene mapping conference, 28-29 networks (computers), 14,22,24-25 standards, 19 J Jackson Laboratory Mouse Map, 28 Johns Hopkins University, 35 L LAND SAT, 30 Languages (programming), 20 Law and ethics confidentiality, 3,37-38,52 decision-making liability, 38 71 intellectual property, 22,42,50,52 laboratory notebooks, electronic, 42 security of information, 22,37-38,42,52 Library science, 19,24,28,38-39,51 LISP, 20 M Management and managers, 1, 9,20,29,41,50 of networks, 4, 22,5 Mathematics simulations, 16-17,47 software packages, 15 McKusick, Victor A., 28-29 Medical sciences, 24,35 genetics, 22,23,28-29 molecular biology, 22-23,28-29,36 MEDLARS, 24 MEDLINE, 29 MEMEX, 25,40 Mendelian Inheritance in Man, 28 METAFONT, 19 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Implementation Sys- tem, 20 Microprocessors, 13-14 Military sciences, see Defense Models, see Computer simulation Molecular biology, 22-23,28-29,36 N National Academy of Engineering, 7 National Academy of Sciences, 7 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 8, 15,23,30 National Bureau of Standards, 8 National Center for Biotechnology Information, 36 National Library of Medicine, 8,24,28-29,35,36,55 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 8,23,30 National Research Council, 29,54-55 National Science Foundation, 8, 19,21,22, 28-29, 53,54 National Space Science Data Center, 30 Nelson, Ted, 40 NetNorth, 25 Networks (computers), 2,15,18,20-21,53 access to, 16,49,51 earthquake prediction, 15 economics, 36-37 electronic mail, 2,18,19,20-22,26-27 high energy physics research and, 14 hypertext, 40-41 incompatibility problems, 21-22,36,49-50

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72 INDEX intemational, 14, 22, 24-25 molecular biology, 22-23 national, 21 reliability of transmission, 17 standards, 3 university, 14, 24-25 see also specific networks New York State Education and Research Network (NYSERNET), 15 NSFNET, 21, 22, 54 o Office of Science and Technology Policy, 4, 52, 53, 55 OMIM, 28-29 OMNET, 26 Optical disks, 27, 52 Organizational factors, see Institutional factors; Networks (computers) p Panel on Information Technology and the Conduct of Research, 8-9, 26-27 Particle physics, see Physics Patents, 42 Personal computers, 11, 19 Physics high energy, 12-15, 21 mathematics and, 16-17 Policymakers, 1, 9, 29, 55 Policy recommendations, 3-5, 50-55 Postal services, see Electronic mail POSTSCRIPT, 19 Professional associations, 4, 17, 30, 35, 50, 55 Programs and programming, see Computer soft- ware; Languages (programming) Psychological Abstracts, 30 Publishing, 19, 21-22 Q Quality control, 2 see also Standards R Real time, 13, 15 S Satellites, 30 SCRIBE, 19 Searching (databases), 2, 24, 27, 28 Security issues, 22, 37-38, 42, 52 Semiconductors, 20 Simulation, see Computer simulation Software, see Computer software Speech production (computers), 33 Standards, 3, 4, 19, 27, 37, 43, 51, 53, 55 document processing, 19, 21-22 Statistics, 15, 16 Supercomputers, 21, 22, 49 Superconducting Super Collider, 13-14 Superconductivity, 19 T Telecommunications, 1, 11-12 networks (computers), 2, 3, 14-27, 36-37, 40-41, 49-51, 53 Terabit Memory System, 30 TeX, 19 Tirne sharing, 35 TOXLINE, 24 Training, see Education and training U Universities, 4, 19, 28, 35, 36, 41, 42, 43, 50 networks (computers), 14, 24-25 see also specific universities University of California at Berkeley, 24-25 University of Michigan, 19 University of Utah, 35 UNIX, 19 V Vendors, 4, 51, 52 Very large-scale integration, 20 Visualization, see Computer visualization W William H. Welch Medical Library, 28-29 Word processing, 2, 18, 21-22 Workshop on the Use of Computers in Statistical Research, 16 Workstations, 19 WYSIWYG, 19 X XANADU, 40-41 y Yale University, 24, 28

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By' ~ p:` En ~7 Jim -- it. A 'fractal dragon" generated by the IBM Fellow Benoit B. Mandelbrot, the originator offractal geometry. This is an example of the "Julia set," which in turn is an example of a "speller set" of a dynamic system. This may seem to be an extremely complicated shape, yet it has a very simple equation based on the formula Z-AZ(1-Z). From the front cover of the book The Fractal GeometIy of Nature by Benoit B. Mandelbrot, 1982, W. H. Freeman and Company.

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The 'fractal planetrise" by IBM scientist Richard F. Voss. In spite of its startling realism, every element in this picture is artificially generated The striking resemblance between some fractal images andfamiliar landscapes illustrates the fact that fractals describe aspects of nature that have formerly eluded mathematical description. From the back cover of the book The Fractal GeometIy of Nature by Benoit B. Mandelbrot, 1982, W. H. Freeman and Company. Courtesy of the IBM Corporation. Van tier Weals surface of dibydrofolate reductase and methotextrate. Red is oxygen, blue is nitrogen, green is carbon, and yellow is phosphorus. Produced by the Computer Graphics Laboratory, University of California, San Francisco. (I) Regents, University of California.

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This realistic-looking landscape is actually only a few hundred atoms square and approximately 10 atoms high. Generated by IBM scientist Richard F. Voss, who used a computer to add color, lighting, and shading to a scanning tunneling microscope image of thermally roughened silicon. In addition to the esthetic benefits of such pictures, scientists and engineers can use such images to understand the properties of critical materials such as silicon. Color coding, for example, can emphasize and delineate specific atomic areas of interest, such as atomic trace impurities or surface defects. Courtesy of the IBM Corporation. Frame from a computer-animated film depicting clustering of matter in the early evolution of the universe. The film itself was produced by a collaborative effort between an astrophysicist and a Hollywood special-effects graphics firm. (I) Joan M. Centrella, Drivel University.

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Scherk's doubly periodic minimal surface, which has recently been proposed as a model microstructure for grain boundaries in copolymers. Nature, August 8, 1988. (a) J. T. Hoffman.