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Sex Ag in the Classroom program, 17-19, 20 Agricultural community, role in develop- ing agricultural literacy, 11 Agricultural education community involvement in, 20-22, 31, 52 current scope of, 2 definition, 1-2, 8-9, 32 goals, 8 history in America, 54-59 importance, 8, 53 incorporation into existing courses, 2, 10-11, 17-19 model programs, 12-13, 17-20 recommended changes in, 1-2, 5-7, 10- 11 science taught through, 5, 11-15 see also Agricultural literacy; Vocational agriculture programs Agricultural industry changes affecting career opportunities, 3, 22-23, 52 economic stresses and opportunities, 23, 53 labor force participation in, 23, 52 production share of jobs, 3; see also Farming role in enhancing agricultural literacy, 11 scientific progress affecting, 53 scope and size of, 1-2, 25 Agricultural literacy access to programs, 2 budgetary changes needed for, 5 65 community involvement in developing, 20-22 cooperation between vocational and aca- demic teachers, 16, 17 curriculum reform needed to achieve, 10 definition, 1-2, 8-9 educational efforts to develop, 9 Grange efforts to promote, 55 importance, 9 incorporation into existing courses, 2, 11-15, 17-19 instructional materials addressing, 15- 16 leadership challenges in, 6, 11 model programs, 12-13, 17-20 projects, cooperative, 16 public perceptions of need for, 18 sources of programs, 5 state role in fostering, 6 status, 9-10, 19 teacher education and training needed to achieve, 15-17 Agriculture growth in America, 51-53 public perceptions of, 22, 26 reforms needed in, 53 scientific progress in, 51 structural and policy changes in, 52-53 American Farm Bureau Federation, 17 Biology courses, incorporation of agricul- ture into, 10, 14 Biotechnology contributions to agriculture, 53

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66 incorporation of agriculture into courses on, 10, 14, 23, 24, 40 Building Our American Communities pro- gram, 21 Career opportunities in agriculture Agribusiness-Technology Studies Pro- gram, 23 counseling on, 24 programs for exploring, 5, 22-24 public perceptions of, 22 regional differences in, 24, 31 scope of, 2-3, 22-23, 32, 37, 38, 41, 47 for women and minorities, 24, 30 Carl D. Perkins Act of 1984, 59 Colleges/universities challenge grants to, 7, 35, 47 land-grant universities, 7, 35 role in teacher preparation and curricu- lum reform, 7, 35, 47 Computers/computer software importance as instructional media, 5, 23, 24, 39-40 incorporation of agriculture into courses on, 10 production orientation, 40 Cooperative extension, role in teacher edu- cation and training, 17 Cooperative Extension System, 19 Council for Agricultural Science and Tech- nology, newsletter, 19 Curriculum for agricultural literacy, 9-10 development projects, 14, 15 federal role in developing, 11, 12, 47 genetics, 10 incorporation of agriculture into exist- ing courses, 10, 12-13, 15, 17-19, 20-21 of magnet high schools, recommenda- tions, 4, 39 production focus of, 31-32 publication and dissemination of infor- mation on, 17 regional differences in, 10, 24 responsibility for reform, 7, 47 revisions needed in, 4, 6, 32, 34-35, 39 state role in developing, 12 vocational agriculture, 31-35, 55-56, 57 Disadvantaged/disabled students legislation affecting agricultural educa- tion of, 59 vocational agriculture programs for, 30, 38, 58 Education reform movement, 60-62 Elementary schools INDEX agricultural instruction in, 12-14 agricultural literacy status in, 9-10 Food for America program for, 19 Green Acres (Santa Cruz, Calif.), 12 instructional modules for, 13, 14, 17-19, 20 model science programs for, 12-13, 17-18 science instruction through agriculture in, 12-14 teacher background in science, 13-14 F. arming economic crisis in, 25-26, 52 importance in vocational agriculture programs, 6 inputs, sources, 51 profitability, 52 proportion of jobs in agricultural indus- try, 3, 52 public perceptions of, 22, 26 supervised, 57 Females career exploration programs for, 24 enrollments in vocational agriculture, 3, 29 legislation affecting agricultural educa- tion of, 59 FFA (Future Farmers of America) accessibility in high schools, 44 activities and services, 42-44, 57 adequacy of programs, 3, 42-44 Building Our American Communities program, 21 changes needed in, 4, 5, 31, 32, 43-45 development of instructional materials, 43 encouragement of female and minority students, 31, 45 Food for America program, 19 goals, 42, 43 history and growth, 57 image, obstacles associated with, 5, 43, 44 importance of projects, 18, 43 membership and enrollment in voca tional agriculture programs, 26-30, 57-58 quality differences in chapters, 42 43 teacher recognition program, 44 Food for America program, 19 4-H projects, 18, 19-20, 21, 31 High schools agricultural literacy status in, 9-10 Alvirne (Hudson, N.H.), 38 Anderson Valley (Boonville, Calif.), 16, 38-39, 45 Canby Union (Canby, Oreg.), 44

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INDEX Chicago High School for Agricultural Sciences, 37-38 current scope of agricultural education Minorities Life Lab Science Program, 12-13 in, 2, 3 curriculum for agricultural education, 4, grams, 2 36-39, 55-56 early agricultural education in, 55-56 enrollments in vocational agriculture programs, 27-29 incorporation of agricultural materials into existing courses, 18 magnet, in urban and suburban areas, 4, 35-39 model agricultural education programs for, 17-20, 35-39 Science of Food and Agriculture newslet ter for, 19 science requirements, 12 Sycamore High School (Illinois), 38 Walter Biddle Saul High School of Agri cultural Sciences (Philadelphia), 36-37, 38 Howe, F. W., 55 instructional materials, media, and modules Ag Ed Network, 40 audiovisual materials, 24, 39, 40-41 from Cooperative Extension System, 19 cost-reducing strategies, 13, 16, 39 for developing agricultural literacy, 15 16, 18 for elementary schools, 12-14, 17-19, 20 4-H projects as, 19-20 genetics modules, 10 hands-on modules, 14 high-technology, 4, 10, 17-19, 23, 24, 39 41 plant pathology modules, 10 Science of Food and Agriculture newslet ter, 19 sources, 17, 43 support needed for developing, 17, 40-41 textbooks, 13, 17 Iowa State University, study on quality of vocational agriculture programs, 32 Junior high schools Agribusiness-Technology Studies Pro gram, 22, 23-24 agricultural career exploration pro grams, 22-24 agricultural literacy status in, 9-10 Hereford Middle School (Monkton, Md.), 22, 23-24 science curriculum, 14 67 access to vocational agriculture pro career exploration programs for, 24 curriculum development programs for, 14 enrollments in vocational agriculture programs, 3, 29-31 legislation affecting agricultural educa- tion of, 59 Morrill Act, 54, 55 National Academy of Sciences, National Science Resources Center, 14 National Assessment for Educational Pro- gress, 61 National Council for Vocational and Tech- nical Education in Agriculture, role in program development, 6 National Grange, 17, 55 National Science Board, 62 National Science Foundation grant for Life Lab Science Program, 12- 13 role in developing agricultural literacy, 11 National Science Resources Center, curric- ulum development project, 14 National Science Teachers Association, role in curriculum development, 15 School administrators and school boards perceptions of need for agricultural liter- acy, 18 role in agricultural education, 11, 15, 35 Science education through agricultural education, 5, 10, 11-15 deficiencies in, 11-12, 61-62 elective courses on agricultural topics, 15 hands-on elementary school instruc- tional modules, 14 Life Lab Program, 12-13 strategies for improving, 15 units suitable for teaching agriculture, 14-15 Science of Food and Agriculture newslet- ter, 19 Secondary schools, see High schools Smith Agricultural School (Northhamp- ton, Mass.), 57 Smith-Hughes Act, 56, 57 Smithsonian Institution, National Science Resources Center, 14

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68 Snedden, David, 58 State departments of education, role in achieving agricultural literacy, 11, 15, 17, 20 Stimson, Rufus W., 57 Supervised occupational experiences high-quality, characteristics of, 41 need for participation in, 41, 42, 45 new opportunities for, 41, 42 on-site laboratory facilities for, 42 profit factor in evaluating, 42 recommended emphasis of, 5, 42 revisions needed in, 4, 42 scope of, 3, 41, 58-59 summer programs, 42 Teacher education and training college/university programs, 46 courses on agricultural literacy, 16 efforts, current, 15 federal funding for, 55 graduate programs, 61 in-service programs, 6-7, 12, 14, 15-18, 47 recommendations, 6-7,16-17, 47 reforms in, 60-61 in science for elementary schools, 13-14 summer programs, 17 in vocational agriculture, 16, 45-47 Teachers cooperation between vocational and aca- demic teachers, 16, 17 curriculum development by, 15 educational reforms affecting, 61 "master teacher" and "career ladder" plans, 61 positions available in vocational agricul- ture programs, 28, 46-47 resource and support needs, 11, 17 testing and certification of, 61 Universities, see Colleges/universities Urban students, career counseling for, 24 INDEX U.S. Department of Agriculture Ag in the Classroom program, 17-19, 20 challenge grants, 7, 47 role in developing agricultural literacy, 6, 11, 17, 19 U.S. Department of Education, role in de- veloping agricultural literacy, 6, 11, 17 U.S. Office of Experiment Stations, 55 Vocational agriculture programs adequacy, 3 availability, 2, 4, 28-29, 33 budgetary changes needed in, 5 components, 2, 25, 56; see also Super vised occupational experiences costs, 33 definition, 8, 32 economic crisis in farming and, 25-26 enrollments, 2, 3, 26-31, 46-47, 57 federal funding, 4, 58 focus and content, current, 3, 31-32, 34, 56-57 high-technology applications in, 39-41 history, 2, 25, 54-59 leadership challenges in, 4, 6, 35 model programs, 33, 35-39 number nationwide, 26 obstacles associated with "vocational" label, 35 positive effects, 3 production focus of, 31-32, 40, 43, 46 quality, 3, 32, 33-35 redirection of funding from, 5, 6 reforms needed within, 1, 2-3, 4, 5, 43 regional differences in, 28-29, 30-31 remedial strategies, 33-35, 38-39 science incorporated into, 62 state role in fostering, 6 success, measures of, 37-38, 39, 58, 59 teacher education and training for, 45 47 teaching positions in, 28, 46-47 Vocational education organizations, role in developing agricultural literacy, 11