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Index A Access to health care scenario general, 92-93 occupation-specific, 103, 113 114, 126-127, 132, 139, 145, 151 state regulatory restrictions, 240, 243, 246, 256-257 Accountants, 248-249 Accreditation, 18- 19, 42, 182- 183, 188 barriers to career promotion, 79-80 cardiovascular technicians, 40-41 dental hygienists, 23, 298 dietitians, 25 emergency medical technician education, 27, 117 lab technicians, 22 perfusionists, 39 physical therapists, 30 private sources, 253, 254-255 radiologists, 35, 146 respiratory therapists, 36 speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 38 statistics from accrediting bodies, 60 see also Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation; 331 Professional associations and . . socletles Administration on Aging, 277 Administrators, see Health care administrators; Medical record administrators and technicians Aging and aged persons, see Elderly AIDS, 68-70, 102, 124, 262 Allied health occupations alternative financing scenarios general, 90 - 93 by occupation, 103, 113- 114, 126-127, 131-132, 139, 145, 150-151 definitional issues general, 1-3, 15-20, 41-42 occupation-specific, 20-41, 291- 295 included in study, criteria, 2, 19 metrononmetro population, 226 multiple competencies development, 220, 223, 229, 265-266 new fields, 38-41 public awareness of, 15 study approach, 1-4, 44-45, 59, 96, 283-284 supply/demand measurement, 44- 61, 63-94 by occupation, 96-153 see also specific occupations

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332 Ambulance attendants, see Emergency medical technicians Ambulatory care, see Outpatient care American Academy of Speech Correction, 37 American Association for Respiratory Care, 36, 143, 301 American Association of Medical Record Librarians, 28 American Board of Cardiovascular Perfusion, 39 American College of Physicians, 269 270 American College Testing Program, 161 American Dental Association, 23, 243-244, 245-246 American Dental Hygienists' Association, 23, 109, 243 American Dietetic Association, 19, 25, 111, 297 American Hospital Association, 49, 99, 118, 137, 223, 225-225 personnel supply/demand data, 297, 299, 300, 301 American Hospital Radiology Administrators, 137 American Indians, 166, 167 American Medical Association definition of allied health, 16 occupational therapy and, 30 American Medical Record Association, 28, 118, 299 American Occupational Therapy Association, 30, 31, 124, 125, 189, 300 American Physical Therapy Association, 32, 33-34, 60, 79, 130, 189, 212, 300 American Society for Medical Technology, 104 American Society of Allied Health Professions, 8, 15, 160, 261 American Society of Clinical Pathologists, 298 American Society of Extra-Corporeal Technology, 39 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 37-38, 60, 147, 302 American Women's Physical Therapeutic Association, 32 INDEX Applied Management Services, Inc., 193 Area Health Education Centers, 168- 169, 277 Associate degrees, 83-84, 103, 109, 196, 211 Associations, see Professional . . . . . associations and societies Astin, A. W., 171 Audiologists, see Speech-language pathologists and audiologists Automation, 77, 119, 120, 138 B Begun, J. W., 246 Biomedical Sciences Preparation Program, 170 - 171 Blacks, 167, 170, 175, 218, 264 Blue Cross, 100 Blue Shield, 100 Boards, state regulatory, 241-242, 249-251, 255 Bureau of Health Professions, 3-4, 12, 178, 252, 256-257 dental care, 107, 297 lab technicians, 22, 300 needs projections, 53, 61 radiologists, 35 supply/demand data, 45-46, 76, 260-261 Bureau of Labor Statistics, on allied health, 4 projections methodology and data, 54-57, 59-60, 61, 70-71, 73, 96-97, 307-310, 311-318 salaries and wages, 49-50, 212-214 supply/demand and characteristics, 25, 29, 37, 46, 54, 59, 85, 296- 302 Burnout, 117, 172, 173, 218, 219-220 C California, 271 - 272 California Dental Association, 245 California Dental Association v. Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development et al., 245 Cardiovascular technology, 40-41 perfusionists, 39-40

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INDEX Career choice, 8, 163- 165, 196, 218 employer role, 208 - 209 federal vocational guidance, 304 job mobility, 47, 220-221, 229, 247 minority access, 8, 169 - 175 nursing aides, 274 rural service, 227 - 228 salaries and, 214 see also Women's career choices Carpenter, E. S., 237, 253 Census Bureau, 50, 55, 65, 66-67, 225, 308 Center for Education Statistics, 4, 60, 82, 83-84 Center for Nursing Research, 191 Certification, 18 - 19, 42, 252, 255 accountants, 248 - 248 cardiovascular technicians, 40-41 dental hygienists, 23 dietitians, 25 emergency medical technicians, 27, 298 federal guidelines, 252, 324-328 lab technicians, 22, 299 perfusionists, 39 physical therapists, 30 private sources, 252-253 radiologists, 35 respiratory therapists, 36 speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 38, 302 by states, 238, 239 supply/demand and, 11 - 12 Children, 66-67 handicapped, 125, 126, 262 hearing impairments, 150 Chronic diseases, 70, 144, 230, 276; see also Long-term care Classification of allied health instructional programs, 291-295 Clearinghouse on Licensure, Enforcement, and Regulation, 252 Clinical education, 176, 192- 194, 195 Clinical laboratory personnel, see Laboratory technologists and . . tecnnlclans College of Health Deans, 160 Commission on Dental Accreditation, 298 Committee on Allied Health 333 Education and Accreditation, 42, 176, 192 minorities, 167 occupation-specific activities, 16, 36, 39, 40 statistical data on supply/demand, 50, 60, 160, 161 women, 85 Committee on Nursing Home Regulation, 264 Committee on the Cost of Medical Care, 52 Committee to Study the Role of Allied Health Personnel study goals, methodology, themes, . . . and organization, 1-4, 44-45, 59, 96, 283-284 Community colleges, 83 - 84, 103, 109, 173, 176, 188, 198 Compensation, see Salaries and wages Competition among allied health turfs, 36, 126, 243 employer considerations, 206-207 job vacancies and, 48 other professionals and allied health personnel, 78 - 79, 113 salaries, 209-210 see also Supply/demand, general; Supply/demand, specific occupations Comprehensive Employment Training Act, 180 Comprehensive Health Manpower Act of 1973, 168 Computer-based technology, 77, 119, 120, 138 Consumerism, 113, 238, 249-250, 255 Cooperatives, 228 Cost containment, 93 dietitians, 112 physical therapists, 135 Sunrise provisions, 319 - 323 Council of State Governments, 247, 252 Court decisions, 245 Credentials, 235; see also Certification; Licensure; State licensing Cumulative Index of Nursing and

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334 Allied Health Literature, 216 Current Population Surveys, 50, 59, 61, 82, 146, 316 D Demographics, 7, 64, 65 - 68, 164, 217-218, 225, 261-262, 264 Demand, see Supply/demand, general; Supply/demand, specific occupations Dental hygienists definition and characteristics, 22-24, 291, 293, 297 education, 23, 109, 161, 196, 293 history, 23 licensure, 23-24, 297-298 research, 191 - 192 salaries, 24, 106 state regulation, 243-246 supply/demand, 106- 110, 153, 297-298 Department of Education, 60, 309, 310 Department of Energy, 309 Department of Health and Human Services, 12, 16, 26, 202, 252, 283-284 statistics, 4, 51, 53, 61, 202 Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 240, 247, 252, 256- 257 Department of Labor, 180, 310 Department of Transportation, 26, 180 Diagnostic testing, see Laboratory technologists and technicians; Radiologic technologists and . . tecnnlclans Dietitians, 254 . ~ . . a ternatlve financing scenarios, 113-114 definition of, 19-20, 24-26, 291, 297 education, 25-26, 114 history, 24-25 hospital employment, 110, 111, 297 licensure, 25 supply/demand, 6, 25, 110- 115, 153, 297 Disabilities, see Handicapped persons INDEX Disease patterns, and allied health demand general, 68-70, 261-262 occupation-specific, 108, 125, 144, 150 Drugs, 102 E Economic models, see Models Economically disadvantaged, 168, 218, 304 Educational finance clinical training, 192 - 194 federal funds, 8, 9, 87, 168, 178-180, 190, 192-193 minorities, 168 private funds, 9, 15, 169-171, 172, 182-183 state funds, 9, 87-88, 174, 180-182, 190 student investment, 197 supply/demand and, 86-88, 168, 173-174, 178-180, 189 Education, general, 2 accreditation, 253 applicant trends, 159- 175, 188 associate degrees, 83-84, 103, 109, 196, 211 . . . capacity maintenance and expansion, 176 - 202, 221-222 . ~ . ~ . . classlilcatlon ot instructional programs, 291 - 295 clinical education, 176, 192- 194, 195 college preparation, 171- 172, 173- 174 cost of education, 194- 195 employer role, 207, 208 enrollment trends, 82-84 faculty development, 188- 192, 277 handicapped, 149, 274 hospital-based, 176, 192- 194 in-service, 220, 228 labor force and, 7-9, 10 liberal education, 197- 198 linkages with employers, 175, 188, 196, 197, 198-202, 227-229, 231 long-term care and, 13, 231, 232-233, 274-277

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INDEX Medicare support for, 180, 192-194 minority recruitment and retention, 8, 166-175, -171-172, 173-174 public information on state regulation, 251, 326 recruitment, 163- 166 retraining, 220 rural areas, 227 - 228 salaries and, 211, 213-214 statistics collection, 50, 52, 60 supply/demand and, 159-202, 221- 222, 304-305 women, 81, 82 - 86; see also Women's career choices see also Accreditation Education of the Handicapped Act of 1986, 149 Education, specific occupations cardiovascular technicians, 40 classification of instructional programs, 291 - 295 dental hygiene, 23, 109, 161, 196, 293 dental schools, 108 dietitians, 25-26, 114 emergency medical technicians, 26- 27, 117-118 lab technicians, 103, 104, 105, 160, 229, 293-294 medical record personnel, z6-zY, 121, 122, 189 nursing aides, 274, 275-276 occupational therapists, 30, 127-128, 189 perfusionists, 39, 161 physical therapists, 33, 133- 135, 160, 161, 176, 189 radiologists, 34-35, 140, 141, 196 respiratory therapists, 36, 146-147, 196 social work, 162 speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 38, 148, 150, 151, 152 see also Accreditation Elderly allied health demand, 65-66, 70, 274, 278 dietitians, 112 335 labor force demography, 218 long-term care of, 12- 13, 260-261, 275, 276-278 occupational therapy, 125 physical therapy, 131 respiratory therapy, 144 women, 262, 264 see also Medicare; Nursing homes Emergency medical technicians definition, 26-27, 291, 298 education, 26-27, 117- 118 history, 26 licensure, 27 privatization of services, 115- 116 salaries, 116 supply/demand, 115- 118, 298 volunteer, 27, 115, 116 - 117 Employers, 2, 4-5, 206-233 labor supply enhancement, 208-227 labor unions, 88-89, 220 linkages with educational institutions, 175, 188, 196, 197, 198-202, 227-229, 231, 232- 233 long-term care, 230-231 productivity enhancement, 209, 214-215, 221-224 recruitment role, 166 rural facilities, 225-229 salary/staff considerations, 206-207, 209-215, 222 staff tenure increases, strategies, 216-221, 222 see also Health care administrators; Self-employment Employment burnout, 117, 172, 173 218, 219-220 macroeconomic model of, BLS, 54- 57, 90-91 see also Career choice; Labor market; Part-time employment; Salaries and wages; Self- employment; Supply/demand, general; Supply/demand, specific occupations; Tenure; Unemployment; Working . . cone ltlons Epidemiology, see Disease patterns Equipment and supplies, 143

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336 Ethnic minorities, see Minorities Extended care, see Long-term care F Facility administrators, see Health care administrators Faculty development, 188- 192, 277 Family medicine, 190 Federal government, 202 definition of allied health, 16- 17 educational finance, 8, 87, 178- 180, 190, 192-194, 304 emergency medical services start-up funding, 115 faculty development, 190 licensure and certification and, 12 long-term care, role, 13 . . . . . minority recruitment and retention, 168-169 monitoring of work force, 3-4 regulatory role, 251 - 252, 324 - 328 spending, 71, 168, 193, 304 see also Health Careers Opportunity Program (HCOP); Medicare Federal Industrial Rehabilitation Act, 30 Federal Trade Commission, 251 Fee-for-service, 91, 97 Finance, see Educational finance; Health care financing Foundations, see Private foundations Forum on Allied Health Data, 51, 61 G Genetic technologies, 77 Geriatric Education Centers, 277 Geriatrics, see Elderly G.I. Bill, 35, 307 Gilmartin, M. E., 64 Goldstein, Harold, 55 Government, see Federal Government; Licensure; Regulatory issues; State governments; State licensing Graduate Medical Education National Advisory Committee, 53, 78-79 Gross national product, and labor supply/demand, 55-56, 308 Grossman, Jerome, 210 INDEX H Handicapped persons, 125, 126, 149, 262, 274 Health care administrators, 11, 206- 233, 269 labor supply enhancement, 208- 227 long-term care and, 13, 277-278 productivity enhancement, 209, 214-215, 221-224 rural facilities, 225-229 salaries and worker supply, 206- 207, 209-215, 222 staff shortages and, 206-207, 273- 274 ,, . . stats tenure increases, strategies, 216-221 see also Medical records administrators and technicians Health care costs allied health education, 194- 195 dental, 107 hospital operating margins, 216 labor costs, 210, 214, 215 rehabilitation facilities, 271 state regulation and, 243, 246, 247, 248-249, 256-257 Sunrise provisions, 319 - 323 see also Cost containment Health care delivery systems . ~ . . a ~ternatlve financing scenarios general, 90-93 by occupation, 103, 113-114, 126-127, 131-132, 139, 145, 150-151 cooperatives, 228 productivity, 209, 214-215, 221 - 224 rural, 225-229 unnecessary procedures, 223-224 see also Access to health care; Health care facilities; Home care; Long-term care Health care facilities regulation of, 238 rural, 225-229 Veterans Administration rehabilitation facilities, 272-274 see also Hospitals; Nursing homes; Rehabilitation facilities Health care financing . . a ternatlve scenarios

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INDEX general, 90-93 by occupation, 103, 113- 114, 126-127, 131-132, 139, 145, 150-151 dentistry, 108- 109 government, 8 - 9 home-based care, 64-65 long-term care, 262-263 mandated benefits, 76 medical record services and, 28 occupational therapy, 125 physical therapy, 131 salaries of allied personnel, 209- 215 supply/demand for allied health and, 74-76 see also Cost containment; Health care costs; Insurance; Prospective payment system (PPS); Third-party payers Health Care Financing Administration, 65, 149, 180, 266 Health Careers Opportunity Program (HCOP), 8, 168, 171-172, 173- 174, 175 Health maintenance organizations (HMOs), 73, 92, 224 lab technicians and, 101 speech-language pathologists, 149, 150 Health planning agencies, statistical responsibilities, 52 Health Professions Training Act of 1985, 168 Health Programs Extension Act of 1973, 168 Health promotion, 113 Health Resources and Services Administration, 51-52, 104, 193 see also Bureau of Health Professions Health Training Improvement Act of 1970, 240 Hearing impairments, see Speech- language pathologists and audiologists Highway Safety Act of 1966, 26 Hill Burton Act of 1946, 225 Hispanics, 166, 167, 218 Home care, 91, 274 long-term, 267-270 Medicaid, 268 337 Medicare, 64, 65, 75, 111, 130, 131, 149, 268, 269 occupational therapy, 124- 125, 126 physical therapy, 131, 268 physicians, 269-270 prospective payment, 111 respiratory therapy, 63-65, 142, 143 speech-language pathologists, 149, 150 Hospitals, 5, 91 accreditation standards, 253, 254- 255 clinical education, 176, 192- 194, 195 dietitians, 110, 111, 297 lab technicians, 98- 100, 104 medical record personnel, 119, 299 multihospital systems, 73 occupational therapists, 123- 124 operating margins, 216 physical therapists, 129- 130, 131, 133 prospective payment system and, 75-76 radiology, 135-138, 139, 141, 301 respiratory therapists, 141 - 142, 143-144, 146, 301 rural, 225-226 salaries of allied workers, 210, 215 speech-language pathologists, 149, 301-302 Hudson Institute, 165, 217-218 Human resources administrators, see Health care administrators I Illinois, 181 Income, personal, effect on allied health demand, 71, 108; see also Salaries and wages Information services, see Medical record administrators and . . technicians Inhalation Therapy Association, 36 In-service training, 220, 228 Institute of Medicine (IOM), 45, 190, 231, 264, 266 Insurance, 71, 149- 150 dental, 108 malpractice, 89-90 state-mandated benefits, 76

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338 see also Medicaid; Medicare; Third- party payers Intensive care units, 144 Internships, for dietitians, 114 J Job mobility, 47, 220-221, 229, 247 Job Partnership Training Act, 180 lob placement, education-services linkage, 175, 188, 196, 197, 198- 202, 227-229, 231, 232-233 Job satisfaction, see Burnout; Working ~ . . conditions Job vacancies, as labor shortage indicator, 47-48, 49 Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations, 253, 254-255 Josiah Macy Foundation, 169- 171, 172 K Kellogg Foundation, 15, 183 King, Elizabeth, 198- 199 L Laboratory technologists and . . tecnnlclans alternative financing scenarios, 103 definition and regulation of, 20-22, 254, 291, 293-294, 298 education, 103, 104, 105, 160, 229, 293-294 history, 21 licensure, 22 salaries, 104 supply/demand, 5, 22, 98-105, 153, 271, 298-299 Labor market, 4-5 characteristics, 2, 18- 19 general trends, 80-81 regulatory actions and, 11-12 see also Competition; Salaries and wages; Supply/demand, general; Supply/demand, . ~ . specific occupations; Unemployment Labor unions, 88 - 89, 220 Language pathologists, see Speech- language pathologists and audiologists INDEX Law, see Court decisions; Statutes Librarians, see Medical record administrators and technicians Licensure, 18-19, 235-257 cardiovascular technicians, 40-41 dental hygienists, 23-24, 297-298 dietitians, 25 emergency medical technicians, 27 lab technicians, 22 occupational therapists, 30 perfusionists, 39 physical therapists, 33, 300 radiologists, 35, 139 respiratory therapists, 36 speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 38, 148- 149 supply/demand and, 11- 12 see also State licensing Local governments, 233, 310 - 311 Long-term care, 12- 13, 259-278 administrators, 13, 277-278 definition, 260 dietitians, 111 employer issues, 230-231 occupational therapists, 126 see also Nursing homes Long-Term Care Gerontology Centers, 277 M Make, B. i., 64 Malpractice, 89 - 90, 197, 238, 248 incompetence, 242 unnecessary procedures, 223-224 Mandated benefits, 76 Marital status, 261 Market forces, see Labor market; Supply/demand, general; Supply/ demand, specific occupations Medical record administrators and technicians, 254 definition, 27-29, 118, 292 education, 28-29, 121, 122, 189 history, 28 salaries, 121, 162, 163 supply/demand, 29, 118-122, 299 Medicaid, 251, 268 respiratory therapy, 64-65 Medicare, 12, 71, 251, 252, 270-270 diagnostic tests and, 101

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INDEX education, support for, 180, 192- 194 emergency medical services, 117 home care, 64, 65, 75, 111, 130, 131, 149,268,269 nursing homes, 264, 266 occupational therapy, 124, 125, 126 physical therapy, 129, 130, 131 respiratory therapy, 143, 145 speech-language pathology, 149 see also Prospective payment system (PPS) Mental health, 230, 294; see also Occupational therapists; Psychiatric services Mental retardation, 262 Minnesota, 247-249, 319-323 Minorities demographics and allied health demand, 67-68 81, 218, 264 educational recruitment and retention, 8, 169 - 175 Minority Access to Research Careers, 174 Minority Biomedical Research Support, 174 Missouri, 182 Model programs, educational, 8, 201, 229, 275-276 Models alternative financing scenarios general, 90-93 by occupation, 103, 113- 114, 126-127, 131-132, 139, 145, 150-151 educational costs, 194- 195 education-services linkage, 201- 202, 229 nursing home teams, 265 projecting labor supply/demand, 52-54, 55, 91-93 Monthly Labor Review, 310 Mundinger, M., 268 - 269 N National Academy of Sciences, 283- 284, 317 National Advisory Commission on Health Manpower, 240 National Association for Home Care, 268 339 National Association of Rehabilitation Facilities, 271 National Association of Teachers of Speech, 37 National Certification Agency for Medical Laboratory Personnel, 298-299 National Commission for Health Certifying Agencies, 252, 324- 328 National Commission on Allied Health Education, 15, 17 National Institute on Aging, 260-261 National Institutes of Health, 174, 191 National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 310 National Research Council, 26 National Society for Allied Health, 166 National Society for Promotion of Occupational Therapy, 30 National Task Force on Gerontology and Geriatric Care Education in Allied Health, 261 New England Medical Center, 210 New York State, 181 Nonprofit organizations, see Private foundations Nuclear medicine technologists, 136, 137, 300-301 Nurses and nursing, 190- 191, 193, 231, 264, 268-269, 294 competition with allied health personnel, 80 employment needs assessment, 53, 58 job satisfaction, 218-219, 220-221 linkage with allied health, 274 salaries and supply, 211, 271 Nursing aides, 19, 231, 265-267 education, 274, 275-276 Nursing Home Standards Committee, 266 Nursing homes, 73-74, 91, 230-231, 253, 260, 263-267 dietitians, 110 occupational therapists, 126 physical therapy, 130 quality control, 265-267, 274, 276 Nutrition, see Dietitians

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340 o Occupational Employment Statistics, 315-316, 317 Occupational Employment Survey, 60, -296, 311 Occupational health and safety, 131 Occupational Outlook Handbook, 307, 310, 217 Occupational therapists, 162- 163, 272 . ~ . . a.Lternatlve financing scenarios, 126-127 definition, 29-31, 292, 299 education, 30, 127- 128, 189 history, 29-30 licensure, 30 salaries, 31, 128, 271, 273 supply/demand, 31, 122- 128, 271- 272, 273, 299-300 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987, 101, 149, 275 Organizational frameworks and structures, 153 . . . . a. .ternatlve financing scenarios general, 90-93 by occupation, 103, 113- 114, 126-127, 131-132, 139, 145, 150-151 demand for services and, 72-74 home health care, 268-270 state regulation, 241 - 246, 249 - 251 Outpatient care, 101, 111; see also Home care p Part-time employment, 75, 76, 189, 230-231 dental hygienists, 107 dietitians, 297 physical therapists, 130, 230-231 Pathologists, see Laboratory technologists and technicians Perfusionists, 39-40, 161- 162 Personnel administrators, see Health care administrators Perry, Seymour, 77 Physical therapists, 162, 254, 273 . ~ . . a. ternatlve ~lnanang scenarios, 131-132 definition, 31-34, 292, 300 education, 33, 133- 135, 160, 161, 176, 189 history, 32 home care, 131, 268 INDEX licensure, 33, 300 salaries, 34, 134, 135, 212, 271, 272-273 supply/demand, 4, 33, 128- 135, 208, 271-272, 273, 300 Physicians ambulance services owned by, 115- 116 home care, 269-270 lab technicians and, 100- 101 nurses and, 219 supply of, 78-79 Poliomyelitis, 32 - 33 Political issues, educational support, 178, 181, 182 Poverty, see Economically disadvantaged Prediction, see Supply/demand, general; Supply/demand, specific occupations Private foundations, 9, 15, 183, 202 minority recruitment and retention, 169-171, 172 rural health care, 229 Private sector, see Employers; Professional associations and societies; Self-employment Privatization, emergency medical services, 116- 117 Productivity, employer role, 209, 214- 215, 221-224 Professional associations and societies, 232, 252-253 certifying agencies, federal guidelines, 252, 324-328 definition of allied health general, 17- 18 by occupation, 297-301 educational responsibilities, 8, 183, 194-195 . . . . Occupational recruitment mcentlves, 10, 166, 167 surveys and statistical data, 49, 50, 51, 60, 300, 302 see also individual associations and societies Professional qualifications, higher education and, 189, 197, 200; see also Certification; Licensure Projections, see Supply/demand, general, Supply/demand, specific occupations

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INDEX Prospective payment system (PPS), 91, 92, 268, 271 demand for allied health and, 75- 76, 97-98 dietitians, 111, 113 educational funding and, 193 emergency medical services, 117 employment patterns and, 5 lab technicians, 98-99, 100, 103 medical record occupations, 118, 120 occupational therapy, 124, 125, 126 physical therapy, 129, 132 radiology, 136-137, 139, 145 respiratory therapy, 64, 144 salary costs and, 215 speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 150- 151 Psychiatric services, 124 Public accountability, 251, 255 Public health, 112 Q Quality control, 5, 102 education and, 161, 199-202 emergency medical services, 117- 118 medical records and, 119 nursing homes, 265-267, 274, 276 rehabilitative services, 274 state regulation and, 243, 245-247, 256-257 see also Accreditation; Certification; Licensure; Professional qualifications; Regulatory issues; Standards R Racial minorities, see Minorities Radiologic technologists and . . tec :nn~c~ans 341 Regulatory issues, 2, 18, 102, 235-257 federal role, 251-252 history, 236 labor force characteristics and, 11- 12 nursing homes, 266 private sector role, 252 - 253 quality of care, 5 state-level, 236-251 see also Accreditation; Licensure; Standards; State licensing Rehabilitation facilities, 270-274, 295 Report on Allied Health Personnel, 16 Report on Licensure and Related Health Personnel Credentialing, 240 Research academic, 184, 190- 192 on career choice and development, 163 committee study goals, methodology, themes, organization, 1-4, 44-45, 59, 96, 283-284 data limitations, 3-4, 45-46, 50-52, 59-61, 296 dissemination of findings, 10, 232 on effectiveness of specific professions, 224, 232 on employee retention, 219-220 financial support of, 9 minority opportunities, 174 on nursing, 190 - 191 on personnel policies, 231, 232 on regulation, 251 on supply/demand, 305-310, 311- 314, 319-320 see also Bureau of Labor Statistics; Statistical programs and activities alternative financing scenarios, 139 Respiratory therapists, 255 definition, 34-35, 292, 300 education, 34-35, 140, 141, 196 history, 34-35 hospital employment, 135- 138, 139, 141, 301 licensure, 35, 139 salaries, 140- 141 supply/demand, 34, 35, 135-141, 271, 300-301 Recordkeeping, see Medical record administrators and technicians alternative financing scenarios, 145 definition, 35-37, 292, 301 education, 36, 146-147, 196 history, 36 home care, 63-65, 75 hospital employment, 141 - 142, 143-144, 146, 301 licensure, 36 salaries, 146 supply/demand, 6, 37, 63-65, 141- 147, 153, 208, 271, 301

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342 Retraining, 220 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 169, 229 Rural health care facilities, 225-229, 273 S Salaries and wages, 2, 10, 230-232, 274 dental hygienists, 24, 106 employer considerations, 206-207, 209-215, 222 lab technicians, 104 labor shortage indicator, 48 medical record personnel, 121, 163 nurses, 211, 271 nursing aides, 266-267 occupational therapists, 31, 128, 271, 273 perfusionists, 162 physical therapists, 34, 134, 135, 212, 271, 272-273 radiologists, 140- 141 respiratory therapists, 146 social workers, 162 speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 38, 152 Selden, 250-251 Self-employment complex medical settings and, 221 dietitians, 110- 111 physical therapists, 130- 131, 212 social work, 162 speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 150, 301 Sex discrimination, salaries, 212 Shimberg, B., 238 Social work, 162 Societies, see Professional associations and societies; and individual associations and societies Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers, 41 Southern Educational Research Board, 197 Southern Illinois University, 229 Specialization, 196, 197; see also specific allied health professions Speech-language pathologists and audiologists INDEX alternative financing scenarios, 150-151 definition, 37-38, 148, 292, 301 education, 38, 148, 150, 151, 152 hospital employment, 149, 301 -302 licensure, 38, 148 - 149 research, 192 salaries, 38, 152 supply/demand, 6, 38, 147-152, 153, 271, 301-302 Standards, 252, 266 state-level, 238-239 see also Accreditation; Licensure State governments boards, regulatory, 241-242, 249- 251, 253, 255 cost, quality, access, and regulation, 240, 243, 245-247, 248-249, 253, 255 dental hygienists, regulation, 243- 246 educational financing, 9, 87-88, 174, 180-182, 190 education-service linkages, 201- 202, 232-233 mandated insurance benefits, 76 minority recruitment and retention, 169, 174 regulatory powers, 236 - 251, 252 Sunrise procedures, 247-249, 255, 319-323 supply/demand data, 310-311 State licensing, 200, 202, 236 - 238 criticisms, 240-249, 253 definition, 237-238 dental hygienists, 23-24, 297-298 dietitians, 25 emergency medical technicians, 27 history, 236, 238 lab technicians, 22 occupational therapists, 30 physical therapists, 33, 300 radiologists, 35, 139 reforms, 247-251, 255 - 257 respiratory therapists, 36 speech-language pathologists and audiologists, 38, 148- 149 statistics, 52 Sunrise procedures, 247-249, 255, 319-323 Statistical programs and activities

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INDEX data limitations, 3-4, 45-46, 50-52, 59-61, 296 education, 4, 60, 82, 83-84, 85, 180 emergency services, 118 federal government, 3-4, 304-310; see also Bureau of Labor Statistics job vacancy data, 4 salary and wage data, 49-50 state and local efforts, 310-311 supply/demand data, 45-46, 50-52, 58-61 . . . projections purpose ancl methodology, 303-318 see also Demographics; Medical record administrators and technicians Statutes certification, 255 Comprehensive Employment Training Act, 180 Comprehensive Health Manpower Actofl973, 168 dental hygiene, 244 Education of the Handicapped Act of 1986, 149 Federal Industrial Rehabilitation Act, 30 G.I. Bill, 35, 307 Health Professions Training Act of 1985, 168 Health Programs Extension Act of 1973, 168 Health Training Improvement Act of 1970, 240 Highway Safety Act of 1966, 26 Hill Burton Act of 1946, 225 lob Partnership Training Act, 180 licensure, 11 - 12, 241 occupational therapy, 125 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987, 101, 149,275 Sunrise procedures, 247-249, 255, 319-323 Structural issues, see Organizational frameworks and structures Student aid, 174, 180 Study Commission on Dietetics, 25 Substance abuse, 102 Sunrise procedures, 247-249, 255, 319-323 343 Supply/demand, general, 44-61, 63- 94, 152- 153, 296-297 AIDS, 68 - 70, 102, 124, 262 alternative financing scenarios general, 90 - 93 by occupation, 103, 113- 114, 126-127, 131-132, 139, 145, 150-151 current situation, 46-52 data available, 45-46, 50-52, 59-61 demography and, 65-68 economic growth and, 70-72 educational sector, effect on, 7-9, 82-88, 176-202 employers' role, 9- 11, 206-233 estimation methodology, 3-5, 54- 57, 305-310, 311-314 financing of health care and, 74-76 future general, 5-6, 52-61 by occupation, 96- 153 industry structure and, 72-74 .. . ,~. . . l~censure, cert~cat~on, accreditation and, 11-12 long-term care, 230-231, 278 malpractice, 89-90 other health professionals and, 78- 80, 113 productivity issues, 209, 214-215, 221-224 projections, methodology and uses, 303-318 rural areas, 225 - 229 salary and, 209-215 shortages indicators, 47-49 strategies for remediation, 210- 211, 273-274 state and local projections, 310-311 unions, 88 - 89, 220 Supply/demand, specific occupations, 96- 153, 296-302 alternative financing scenarios, by occupation, 103, 113 - 114, 126-127, 131-132, 139, 145, 150-151 dental hygienists, 106- 110, 153, 297-298 dietitians, 6, 25, 110- 115, 153, 297 emergency medical technicians, 115-118, 298

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344 lab technicians, 5, 22, 98-105, 153, 271, 298-299 medical record personnel, 29, 118- 122, 299 occupational therapists, 31, 122- 128, 271-272, 273, 299-300 physical therapists, 4, 33, 128- 135, 271-272, 273, 300 radiologists, 34, 35, 135- 141, 271, 300-301 respiratory therapists, 6, 37, 63-65, 153, 208, 271, 301 speech-language therapists and audiologists, 6, 38, 147- 152, 153, 271, 301-302 Surveys, see Statistical programs and . . . activities T Technical assistance, 10 statistics, 51-52 Technicians, see Emergency medical technicians; Laboratory technologists and technicians; Radiologic technologists and . . tec :lnlclans Technological innovation, 6, 18, 91- 92, 108, 255 demand for allied health and, 76- 78 dietitians, 111 emergency medical services, 116- 117 lab technicians, 98, 100, 102 productivity and, 222 radiology, 135, 137-138, 139 respiratory therapy, 64, 142 Tenure, 200 INDEX see also Insurance; Medicaid; Medicare; Prospective payment system (PPS) Torts, malpractice, 89-90, 197, 238 Training, see Education, general; Education, specific occupations U Unemployment, 165, 304 factor in demand for allied health 71 as labor shortage indicator, 48-49, 50 Unions, see Labor unions University of Alabama, 227-228, 229 University of Wisconsin, 229 Unnecessary procedures, 223-224 V Vascular technicians, see Cardiovascular technology Veterans, 35, 180 Veterans Administration, 180, 272- 274, 277, 307 Volunteer emergency medical technicians, 27, 115, 116-117 W Wages, see Salaries and wages Western Interstate Commission on Higher Education, 53 Women, elderly, 262, 264 Women's career choices, in allied health labor force, 2, 160, 165, 218 American Women's Physical Therapy Association, 32 dietitians, 25 education, 81, 83-86 lab technicians, 22 medical records personnel, 29 radiologists, 35 and salaries in labor force, 212, 215 Working conditions, 218-219, 219, 222, 230-231, 267 burnout, 117, 172, 173, 218, 219- 221 employers' strategies for increasing, 216-221 supply/demand for labor and, 9, 134 Texas, 181, 182, 196, 208-209 Therapists, see Occupational therapists; Physical therapists; Respiratory therapists Third-party payers clinical education, 8 Workmen's compensation, 131 demand for allied health and, 75 occupational therapists, 30 social work, 162 state certification and eligibility, 12 X X rays, see Radiologic technologists and technicians