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shake table that is 5 feet deep and movable with a retaining wall at one end. PUBLICATIONS: Independent reports, some in journals. UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON THE ACID DEPOSITION RESEARCH PROGRAM Engineering Experiment Station Engineering Research Building 1500 Johnson Drive Madison, WI 53706 608/263-1601 CONTACT: Clayton Smith, Assistant Dean MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: Related work focuses on structures design; extensive work with materials and their strength, including steel, concrete, wood, and composites; and designing solar systems for heating and cooling. Facilities include computers for modeling and facilities for structures and materials testing. The college has a staff of 200 faculty members, 1,000 graduate students, and 300 supporting staff. They work with a $26 million research budget, an increasing percentage of which is allocated to building-related research. Budget sources are 60 percent federal government, 25-30 percent industry, and the rest from foundations and internal sources. PUBLICATIONS: Journals and reports. FEDERAL ~O^TORY PROFILES U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RD 680 401 M Street, SW Washington, DC 20460 CONTACT: Barbara Levinson, Program Manager MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: The Acid Deposition Research Provision (ADRP) is part of the National Acid Rain Precipitation Assessment Program, the members of which include the National Park Service, the Bureau of Mines, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA uses both laboratory and field exposures to study the relationship between acid rain and materials damage. Special attention is focused on the degradation of paint and metals. Work is also being done on estimating how many materials are at risk from acid rain damage, and the potential costs. Research findings may include information on weathering of certain materials and the means to measure paint damage over time. EPA'S 1987 budget for this program is $2.7 million. Most of the damage function research is being done at EPA's Atmospheric Sciences Laboratory in 58

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Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The inventory of painted surfaces is being done through EPA's Environmental Monitoring Lab In Las Vegas, Nevada. ACID RAIN RESEARCH PROGRAM AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEMS LABORATORY HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY National Park Service P.O. Box 37127 Washington, DC 20013 202/343-1055 CONTACT: Susan Sherwood, Cultural Resources, Acid Rain MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: The program studies the effects of air pollution on building stone and bronze, especially in historic buildings and statues. Based on a budget of $800,000 per year for 10 years, research is contracted to federal and academic laboratories. The program is part of the National Acid Rain Precipitation Assessment Program. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 919/541-2821 W. Gene Tucker, Chief, Indoor Air Branch, Combustion and Indoor Air Division, Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: The three laboratories at Research Triangle Park work together on the EPA's Indoor Air Quality Program. Major research areas include development of methods to measure indoor air quality; testing of emissions from indoor sources such as building materials, furnishings, and combustion devices; development and testing of indoor air pollutant control methods, especially for radon; research on the health effects of indoor air pollutant mixtures; and monitoring of indoor air quality in buildings to estimate indoor air pollutant exposures. Research results are published in the research literature and in public information documents. On-site facilities are used for some research, but the majority is done through contractual arrangements with universities and R&D organizations. An annual budget of approximately $2 million 59

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is devoted to indoor air quality R&D. An additional $1.5 million is applied to the development and testing of radon reduction techniques for homes. PUBLICATIONS: Technical journals and EPA publications. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL I^BORATORY (Polymer-Concrete Development Laboratory) BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY (Test House and Space Conditioning Equipment Laboratories) U.S. Department of Energy Department of Applied Sciences Building 526 Upton, NY 11973 516/282-3036 CONTACT: Meyer Steinberg, Head of Process Sciences Division MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: Brookhaven maintains a test facility to perform basic and applied research on materials that are composites of polymer and aggregate. The lab has been responsible for the development of polymer concrete and pipe coatings ant! aggregates bound with resin. Materials are primarily used in pipes and wells to resist acids, alkalis, and chemicals. Department of Applied Sciences Building 120 Upton, NY 11973 516/282-7726 CONTACT: John Andrews, Head, Architectural and Building Systems Group MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: Broo~aven has developed a case study approach to testing and monitoring alternative building methods for energy efficiency. The lab continuously monitors test houses and conducts energy analysis using a variety of materials and methods of construction, including an international housing village to test the efficiency of building methods of other countries. Brookhaven also manages a Heat Pump Laboratory, which can be used for transient or steady-state tests of liquid-source heat pumps or of individual heat pump components, and a Combustion Equipment Technological Laboratory to measure performance and thermal efficiency of oil- and gas-fired furnaces and boilers. The staff at this facility numbers 20 with a budget of $2 million. PUBLICATIONS: Lab reports, professional journals, and conference publications. 60

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CENTER FOR BUILDING TECHNOLOGY National Institute of Standards and Technology Building 225 Gaithersburg, MD 20899 301/975-5900 CONTACT: Richard N. Wright, Director Charles Culver, Chief, Structures Division James E. Hill, Chief, Building Environment Division Geoffrey Frohnsdorff, Chief, Building Materials Division MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: The center's three divisions--Structures, Building Environment, and Building Materials--perform analytical, laboratory, and field research in areas of engineering and science pertinent to the usefulness, safety, and economy of buildings. The center also develops technology to predict, measure, and test the performance of building materials, components, and practices. Descriptions of each div~sion's facilities follow. The budget for 1987 is about $12 million. One-third of this is directly appropriated by the Congress while the remainder comes from other federal agencies. The center has a staff of about 150, of which 100 are professionals, half of whom hold doctorates. Structures Division This division seeks to increase the productivity and safety of building construction by providing the basis for improved structural and earthquake criteria. Its laboratory includes a large-scale structural testing facility with a 12-million-pound universal testing machine, capable of simulating axial and lateral loads simultaneously on large-scale components up to 60-feet tall; a computer-controlled tri-directional structural testing facility, capable of applying loads simultaneously in three directions, which can study earthquake and wind effects; and a test floor on which beams, slabs, frames, or complete structures can be submitted to static loads or cyclic loading up to 50,000 pounds. Building Environment Division This division attempts to reduce the cost of designing and operating buildings and to increase the international competitiveness of the U.S. building industry by providing modeling, measurement, and test methods needed to use advanced computation and automation effectively in construction, improve the quality of the indoor environment, and improve performance of building equipment. Computer-integrated construction is an expanding field. Facilities include a passive solar test house, solar calorimeters, six single-room environmental test houses, and solar collectors. A large environmental chamber, 14.9 x 12.8 x 9.5 meters high, is capable of testing two-story houses under simulated environmental conditions. Its earth floor can be excavated as needed for construction. A wide range of environments is possible, and the 61

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large chamber has been used to test buildings, special structures, and equipment in extreme climatic conditions. A guarded hot plate for measuring insulation performance and a calibrated hot box for studies of roof and wall sections are available. Test buildings are used and field testing is also carried out. Lighting facilities include a spectroradiometer and indoor and daylighting laboratories, as well as field instrumentation. The Plumbing Research Laboratory is a five-story facility using high-speed, preprogrammed data acquisition to study the performance of water supply and waste drainage systems. Building Matenals Division The division attempts to reduce building costs and increase building quality by providing technical bases for selecting the most cost-effective materials. They provide a technical base for selecting cost effective materials for buildings, and for standards, although the work may be years ahead of the actual standards. Research is related to the prediction of the service life of building materials. The organic materials laboratory studies paints, coatings, and roofing materials, with an emphasis on image analysis to predict the service life of building materials. The inorganic materials laboratory does advanced work in studying the chemical and physical changes that occur when cement reacts with water, using mathematical models and aiming at predictive modeling of the lifetime of concrete. Image analysis is used to study the growth of rust spots under coatings. Equipment includes an X-ray Refractometer, scanning electron microscope, spectrophotometers, thermal analysis equipment, and very precise calorimeters. The Construction Materials Reference Laboratories which are a part of this division conduct inspections at commercial test laboratories and private companies, acting as a contract advisory service. About 30 of the division's staff who provide this service are guest researchers from ASTM and AASHTO. DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES: The center is the only comprehensive building research laboratory in the United States. Several of the center's facilities are notable as either being the largest in the world, or the most precise or universal in capabilities of testing and measurement. The large-scale structural testing apparatus and the tri-directional test facility, used in earthquake testing; the large environmental chamber; and the hot box and hotplate, used to develop test standards, are examples. PUBLICATIONS: Publishes its own reports, project summaries, and lists of publications, including the Building Science ~ . series. 62

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CENTER FOR FIRE RESEARCH NAVAL CIVIL ENGINEERING I^BORATORY National Institute of Standards and Technology Room A247-Polymers Building Gaithersburg, MD 20899 301/975-6850 CONTACT: Jim Winger, Deputy Director MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: The center is engaged in the development of standard test methods to evaluate the physics and chemistry of fire, and determine the objective criteria for fire hazards using computer models. As a result of the technical work done at the center, local, state, and federal standards and codes for fire are established and reviewed regularly. The center also evaluates technologies for use in fire suppression and extinguishment, and also for lessening the effects and impacts of smoke and toxic gases. DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES: The center attempts to pull together all aspects of fire hazard assessment and studies of degradation of polymers in fire. PUBLICATIONS: Professional and trade publications, NST reports, and a variety of government reports. U.S. Navy LO3C Port Hueneme, CA 93043 805/982-4520 CONTACT: Robert Storer, Technical Director MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: NCEL conducts research on shore and offshore facilities for the Navy and Marine Corps with an annual budget of approximately $50 million. Building-related research includes work on physical security; nondestructive testing; development of alternative coatings to protect wood and metal from corrosive environments; paint, roofing, and pavement materials research; ventilation and cooling of buildings; passive solar structures; building thermal diagnostics; energy control systems; and design criteria for buildings under all types of loadings. The facilities include an advanced energy utilization test bed; an applied mechanics laboratory with simulated shock and vibration facilities, as well as a wind tunnel; an electric power laboratory; an optical metrology laboratory to conduct optical mechanics studies of stress, strain, and deflection; a soil mechanics laboratory for evaluation of soil mechanics, foundations and pavements; a materials laboratory to investigate organic coatings, plastics, metals, alloys, concrete, composite materials, and chemical problems related to environmental protection; and a pavement-loading facility that can apply loads up to 100,000 pounds to pavement in order to determine load-carrying capacities. 63

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DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES: NCEL contains one of the largest pressure chambers In the world for testing structures under high pressure. The laboratory has on staff some of the best experts in the nation on blast effects and has extensive capabilities for subjecting structures to blasts. PUBLICATIONS: Technical journals, technical reports, and Tech Data sheets. COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LABORATORY CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY (CERL) U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 72 Lyme Road Hanover, NH 03755 603/646-4100 CONTACT: Andrew Assur, Chief Scientist MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: CRREL studies the characteristics of cold regions and applies this knowledge to the improvement of the living and work environments of people ~ cold climates. The main laboratory of CRREL houses 24 room-size refrigerated laboratories, many capable of achieving temperatures of -30C. An ice engineering research facility studies problems caused by ice in waterways. A newly completed frost effects research facility studies frost action in soils and below-freezing testing of pavements, foundations, and underground utilities. DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES: One of the few laboratories with extensive facilities focused on cold regions research. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers P.O. Box 4005 Champaign, IL 61820 800/872-2375 CONTACT: D. P. Mann, Information Management Office Gilbert Williamson, Energy Systems Division Robert Quattrone, Engineering and Materials Division Ravinder Jain, Environmental Division Edward Lotz, acility Systems Division MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: CERL conducts research to support the Armies military construction mission. Major research areas include new engineering practices and materials for construction, energr conservation and management, conservation of the environment, and the use of computers for managing the building resources at Army installations. CERL works through four divisions: (1) the Facilities Systems Division, including computer-aided design and specifications work; (2) Engineering and Materials Division, 64

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including concrete mixtures and underground corrosion work; (3) Environmental Division, including noise standards; and (43 Engineering Systems Division, including computer simulations for buildings. CERL has a staff of 660 and a budget of $40 million of research; it is one of four major corps laboratories in the United States. DIRECTORATE OF ENGINEERING AND SERVICES NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND U.S. Department of the Air Force HO USAF/L-Pentagon Washington, DC 20330-5130 202/697-7366 CONTACT: Joseph A. Ahearn, Director J. B. Cole, Associate Director MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: The directorate is responsible for the planning, design, and construction of Air Force facilities worldwide, including a wide variety of facilities such as operational, administrative, religious, educational, recreational, industrial, housing, commissaries, exchanges, utility systems, etc. The directorate develops and issues broad program goals and guidance to field offices, which are responsible for the daily program development and execution. PUBLICATIONS: Air Force manuals, regulations, and pamphlets. U.S. Department of Navy Engineering and Design Criteria Management Division 200 Stovall St. Alexandria, VA 22332 703/325-0032 CONTACT: Harry Zimmerman, Assistant Commander for Engineering and Design MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: The division develops and reviews architectural and engineering policies, criteria, and practices for the economical design and construction of shore facilities and fixed ocean structures to satisfy the functional/operational requirements in the best manner possible. The division also provides standard drawings and specifications, and directs and reviews all engineering and design efforts. Design and control of new and emerging technologies from project inception are other responsibilities of the division. 65

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ENGINEERING AND SERVICES CENTER U.S. ARMY WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION U.S. Air Force Tyndall Air Force Base, FL 32403 904/283-6310 CONTACT: James R. Van Orman, Deputy Director MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: Primary research efforts are directed toward special requirements for blast and shock resistance for U.S. Air Force buildings and facilities, including novel, protective structures for durability, blast, and penetration resistance; noise and sonic boom effects; and basic security, involving building components such as windows. The security of energy sources and the provision of redundant and self-contained sources, as well as of radioluminescent lighting, are of interest. Fire protection is an additional research concern. Environmental quality that relates to special Air Force requirements is also a subject of research. The total annual budget is $30 million with $3 million allocated to structures research. DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES: Remote site generation, use of energy, and exploration of uses of radioluminescence. PUBLICATIONS: Defense Technical Information Center. Structures Laboratory U.S. Army Corps of Engineers P.O. Box 631 Vicksburg, MS 39180 601/634-3264 CONTACT: Bryant Mather, Chief, Structures Lab, CEWES-SV-Z MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: Major activities of the Structures Laboratory include: research and development concerned with the behavior of concrete materials, elements, and structures; repair of concrete structures under in-use conditions; the resistance of such structures to dynamic forces such as earthquakes; effects of nuclear and conventional weapons detonated aboveground and underwater; design of protective structures and determination of their vulnerability; use of explosive technology for countermobility and mine field clearing; behavior of earth and rock subjected to intense transient loading; development of constitutive property definitions; and mathematical models to simulate behavior of geological materials. DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES: Dynamic force testing. PUBLICATIONS: Defense Technical Information Center 66

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NAVAL EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY CENTER FOREST PRODUCTS I^BORATORY (Forest Service) LAWRENCE BERKELEY I^BORATORY, CENTER FOR BUILDING SCIENCES U.S. Navy Indian Head, MD 20640 301/743-41439 CONTACT: G. Burt Stephenson, Associate Technical Director MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: The center addresses matters relating to explosive devices, explosive effects, and countermeasures. The question of Image mitigation in relation to buildings is also addressed. DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES: The consideration of building design in relation to the potential effects of explosives. U.S. Department of Agriculture One Gifford Pinchot Drive Madison, WI 53705 608/2645600 CONTACT: Erwin L. Schaffer, Assistant Director, Wood Products Research MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: The Laboratory works to ensure the most efficient use of wood and wood resources. With regard to the use of wood products in buildings, research emphasizes using materials more effectively, improving structural integrity, increasing energy efficiency and developing more fire-safe products and structures. Research on the properties, design and performance of engineered wood structures and components is also performed. A current objective is the discovery and development of new concepts and procedures for preserving wood from biodegradation. Composite products and adhesives are studied. Future research will be shaped by the characterization of the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of adhesives during and after bonding, and of bonded structures during exposure in service. The laboratory is operated and maintained in cooperation with the University of Wisconsin, where it is housed in 10 buildings on 22 acres; employs a staff of 300, 100 of whom are scientists and technical professionals; and has an annual budget of approximately $15 million. U.S. Department of Energy University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 415/486-4834 CONTACT: Arthur H. Rosenfeld, Director 67

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MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: The center's major objective is to investigate ways of reducing energy consumption in buildings. The center coordinates 300 staff members and $12.5 million in an effort that includes research on energy analysis, indoor environments, solar energy and windows, and daylighting. Emphasis is on research that will transfer quickly into the commercial market. LBL's energy analysis program continues to improve its DOE-2 computer model for predicting energy use in buildings. Other facilities include a mobile infUtration/test unit, a mobile window thermal test facility (MoWiTT), a room-size environmental chamber for studying emissions from consumer products, a sky simulator for studying different arrangements of windows to maximize building light without decreasing thermal efficiency, and a lighting technology lab for testing output and energy use of building lamps. A complete set of portable air quality monitoring equipment is also available. DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES: The center has the ability to instrument buildings for research into many different aspects of energy performance. PUBLICATIONS: Technical journals, books, and in-house reports. OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, BUILDINGS RESEARCH PROGRAM Oak Ridge National Laboratory Building 4500N, MS-188 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 615/574-5204 CONTACT: Roger Carlsmith, Director of Conservation and Renewable Energy Programs MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: ORAL works on improving energy efficiency in new and existing buildings in five major areas: building equipment, especially in developing more efficient heat pumps and appliances; roofs, especially flat or low-slope roofs for commercial buildings, as well as analysis and development of energy, mechanics, and maintenance aspects; thermal envelopes, including the study of thermal anomalies, thermal mass considerations, and diagnostic procedures of energy efficiency; retrofit; and conservation, including responsibility for the Residential Conservation Service (RCS), which provides information on technical issues to utilities. Facilities include a roof test facility and an indoor-outdoor environmental chamber. Three test buildings at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, the Tennessee Energy Conservation in Housing (TECH), are used for the investigation of building equipment. Retrofit options are tested in three houses in the Karns community, a subdivision near Oak Ridge. The end-use efficiency studies make up about 10 percent of the Department of Energy's budget for ORNL. Much of the research work is subcontracted to industry on a cost-sharing percentage basis. 68

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DISTINCTIVE ASPECTS: Major improvements in the technology of gas-fired heat pumps have made them more promising for greatly increased residential and commercial use. PUBLICATIONS: Topical reports on which abstracts are available. BAITELLE-PACIFIC NORTHWEST LABORATORIES SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE U.S. Department of Energy P.O. Box 999 Richland, WA 99352 (509) 375-4359 CONTACT: R. William Reilly, Director, Energy Systems Department MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: Battelle's emphasis is on the evaluation of energy use in commercial and industrial buildings. Energy performance monitors that use low-cost data-logg~ng instruments are used to determine energy use and air quality. These instruments and computer analyses help determine the effects of building changes and air exchange rate reductions. Work is done on new building design for energy efficiency as well as on retrofit. Mobile homes are also monitored. The Department of Energy maintains a $100-million laboratory facility and Battelle Memorial Institute supports $45 million in laboratory work. PUBLICATIONS: Technical journals. U.S. Department of Energy 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, CO 80401 303/231-7115 CONTACT: Steve Rubin, Technical Inquiries Service Larry Flowers, Technical Program Integrator Tom Potter, Leader, Conservation Programs MISSION AND FOCUS OR RESEARCH: Serving as the national center for solar energy research, the institute maintains more than 50 specialized laboratories and test facilities for research by the private sector and universities into various components of production, storage, and uses of solar energy in a variety of applications. Laboratories aimed at building research include the thermal analysis laboratory, the cooling laboratory, the low temperature heat/mass transfer laboratory, and a materials laboratory that is involved with elements such as glass and various approaches to glazing. 69

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PUBLICATIONS: All publications are available through U.S. Government Printing Office and National Technical Information Center. WATER ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY TAIT LABORATORY U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Cincinnati, OH 45268 513/569-7509 CONTACT: Roger Wilmuth, Chief, Manufacturing and Services Industries Bureau MISSION AND FOCUS OR RESEARCH: The lab's emphasis is on the efficient and effective removal of asbestos with minimum environmental impact, which includes the evaluation of control methods. Currently there is a staff of four, with a budget of $500,000 in agency funds. DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES: The only group evaluating control technologies for asbestos. PUBLICATIONS: Available through National Technical Information Service. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 4676 Columbia Parkway Cincinnati, OH 45226 513/841-4221 CONTACT: James Gideon, Chief, Engineering Control Technology Branch MISSION AND FOCUS OF RESEARCH: Taft Laboratory evaluates control techniques and technologies used for the removal of asbestos. Agency funds supply a budget of $100,000, with an additional $25,000 from the Environmental Protection Agency. DISTINCTIVE ATTRIBUTES: Use of electron microscopy and aggressive sampling to determine clearance. PUBLICATIONS: NIOSH and NTIS technical reports are used, as well as the American Industrial Hygiene Association Joumal and the Applied Industrial Hygiene Journal. 70