Cover Image

PAPERBACK
$32.95



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 382


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 381
Index A Abortion, spontaneous, 1, 8, 10, 15, 30, 123, 127, 171, 173, 201 - 202, 208, 219, 221-222 amniocentesis and, 315, 316 DBCP and, 109 fetoscopy and, 245 genetic damage and, 123, 126, 127, 139, 159 immunology and, 218 - 219, 222 trophoblast antigens and, 219 - 220 Abstinence period, sperm and, 90 - 92, 94 Accessory sex organs, male, 64, 70, 72, 77 - 81, fig. 78, 143 Acetylcholine, 67, 277, 290 Acid phosphatase, 80, 103 Acromegaly, 305 Acrosin, 103 Acrosome reaction, 101 - 103 Ac~ylamide, 107, 124, 287, ACPH, see Adrenocorticotropin Actins, testicular, 61 Activin, 182 Adenine, 132 Adenohypophysis, 52 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 103, 307 Adipose tissue, 181, 183, 251, 266, 267, 270 Adluminal compartment, seminiferous epithelium, 52, 53 Adrenal glands, 154 - 155, 207, 208, 211 - 212, 270 Adrenarche, 154 - 155, 170 Adrenocorticotropin (ACI~H), fetal, 208, 260 Adriamycin, 98 AFT, see Alpha-fetoprotein Agarose gel electrophoresis, 132 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2, 16, 202 Agglutination, sperm, 97 381 Aging, female, markers of, 8, 159 - 161,169 - 177,199 - 200, 202 AHH, see Arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase AIDS virus, 306 Albumin, 68, 70, 267 Alcohol, 15, 16, 43, 51, 283 and male reproductive function, 43, 51 neurodevelopmental effects, 293, 294 and pregnancy, 213, 242 Aldosterone, 74 ALkaline elusion, sperm-DNA, 137 - 138, 145 Alkaline phosphatase, 257 Allergic reactions, sperm and, 94 Allogeneic recognition reactions, 216, 220 Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), 5, 10, 17, 26, 241, 244, 254, 255, 257, 260, 311-313, 315-316 Alveolar macrophages, 305 Alzheimer's disease, 174, 176, 177, 307 Amino acids, 53, 128, 235, 273, 278 - 279, 305 Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD), 21, 300, 301 Amniocentesis, 24, 206, 258, 260 in detecting genetic damage, 211, 244, 262 and fetal death, 315, 316 Amniochorion, 215, 220 Amnion, 256 Amniotic antigen-3 (AA3), 220, 261 Amniotic cavity, 244, 274 Amniotic fluid, 244, 248, 250, 251, 262 AFT in, 17, 241, 311, 312, 315, 316 EARL in, 230 Ampullae, vas deferens, 77, 79 AMSA therapy, 48, fig. 49, 86 Androgen-binding protein (ABP),53 - 54,65, 71,73, 74, 143 Androgens and epididymal function, 64, 70, 72 - 74, 75, 76 in female reproductive system, 154, 175, 181, 186

OCR for page 381
382 and male reproductive system, 47, 77, 81, 101 Androstenedione, 154, 182 Anencephaly, 243, 311 - 313, 315 Anesthesia, 127, 181 Aneuploidy, 8, 114, 117, 135, 139, 167, 198 Animal studies, extrapolation to human exposure, 3 - 4, 24, 27 - 28, 3900, 41-42, 8~87, 107-118, 141-142,167, 202, 223-224, 237, 289-296 Anionic charge, spermatozoa!, 66 Anorexia nervosa, 153 Antibiotics, 80 Antibodies gene expression and, 103 in hCG assays, 188 - 189, 192 trmphocytotoxic, 218 - 219, 220, 221 monoclonal, 101 - 102, 104, 128, 138, 144, 192, 212, 215 polyclonal, 188 sperm, 97, 101 - 104 trophoblast, 215 - 217, 261 Anticonvulsant therapy, 251 Antigens histocompatibility, 215, 218, 219 leukocyte, 215, 221 sperm, 66, 101 - 103 trophoblast, 215 - 220, 254, 259 Antihistamines, 270 Antihypertensive medications, 44 Antineoplastic drugs, 158, 166 Anti-RHO, 261 Anti-TA1, 220 Antit~ypsin, 227 Apgar test, 292 Aragose gel electrophoresis, fig. 130, fig. 131, 132, 133 Arcuate nucleus, 152 Arginine vasopressin (AVP), 51 - 52 Aromatase activity, ovarian, 157 - 158 Arsenic, 289 Artificial insemination, 195 Arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 250, 262, 268, 269, 271, 272 Aspartate, 278 Aspartyl amidase, 103 Aspermia, 89 Asthenospermia, 85, 95 Atherosclerosis, 27 Atomic bomb survivors, 120, 126, 128, 129, 167, 168 ATP, see Adenosine triphosphate Atresia follicular, 157 oocyte, 164 physiologic, 150 Attention, 287 Auditory discrimination, 286 - 287, 294, 295 Autism, 284 Autoanti-idiotypic antibodies, 216, 217, 218 INDEX Autoimmunity, 219 Axons, 273, 274 Azaguan~ne, 168 Azathioprine, 242 Azoospermia, 45, 90 A-Z pregnancy test, 187 B Bacteria, amniotic fluid, 253 Basal body temperature, 18G, 184 Basal cells, epididymal, 71 Basal compartment, seminiferous epithelium, 52 Basal plate, 215, 220 Basket cells, microneuronal, 282 Basophilic stippling, 301 Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 287, 292 B cells, 305, 306 Behavioral teratology, 266, 281 - 288, 291 - 295 Bender-Gestalt test, 287 Benzoapyrene, 160, 252, 271 Benzodiazepine, 280 Beta-adrener~c, 257 Beta-chorionic gonadotrophin, 85 Beta-glucuronidase, 103 Beta-microglobulin, 21 Beta-thalassemia, 212 Bilirubin, 244, 270 Binucleation, trophoblast, 232, 235 Biologically effective dose, 18 - 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 34 "Biophysical profile," fetal, 246 Biopsy, 112 bone, 298, 306 chorionic, 22, 211, 244, 248, 269 endometrial, 184, 185 epididymal, 71 fetal, 245, 250, 251, 253, 262 placental, 271, 272 prostate, 79 skin, 220 testicular, 83, 89 Biparietal diameter, 243 Birthdaj~ Trust (U.K.), 13 Birthweight, 1, 15, 165, 167, 213, 270 BisacIylamide, 107 Blastocoelation, 231 - 232 Blastocoele, 206, 233 Blastocyst, 206 implantation, 218 - 221,224 - 225,228, 233 - 235,259 steroidogenesis, 234 uterus and, 228, 229 Blastulation, 159 Blood brain barrier, 270, 290, 292, 300 chemical concentrations in, 25, 27, 30, 52, 85 - 86, 248-249, 251, 279, 297-298, 299, 305 clotting, 217

OCR for page 381
INDEX cohort studies with, 85 - 86 and epididymis, 64, 72 fetal, 30, 206, 208, 245, 250, 261, 262, 290 follicle barrier, 164 hormone levels in, 50 - 51,57, 173, 180, 184, 187, 188 in neurochemical studies, 284 - 287 in pregnancy, 206, 207, 208, 209, 267 testosterone in, 51 umbilical, 244, 251, 256, 260, 270 uterine, 256, 260 Bloom's syndrome, 166 Body burden, chemical, 20, 21 Body fat, 251 Body fluids, use in measuring markers, 179, 180 Body water, 267, 270 Bombesin, 305 Bone, lead content, 298, 299 Bone marrow, 168, 215 - 216 Bradycardia, 246 Brain, 173, 270, 275, 280, 283, 285, 286, 287, 290, 294, 295, 297, 300; see also Central nervous system Breast development. See Thelarche Breast milk, 24, 253, 271 Breathing rate, fetal and neonatal, 243, 244, 261, 258, 260, 292 B spermatogonia, 48, 55 Bu lb ou rethral (C owper' s) glands, 77, 78, 79 , 80 C Cadmium, 249, 251, 305 Caffeine metabolism, 271, 272 Cajal-Retzius cells, 277 Calcium, 75 Calcium-binding proteins, 279 Cancer chemotherapy and genetic damage, 107, 109,120127, 128, 129 chemotherapy and reproductive function, 48, 49, 50, 51, 120, 164, 253 DES and, 169 lung, 268 prostatic, 77 - 78 risk of, 26 - 27 Cannabis, see Marijuana Capacitation, sperm, 100 - 101, 101, 103 Cap spermatids, 57 Caput epididymis, 63, 67, 68, 70, 75, 76 Carbohydrate, 98 Carbon 3, 251, 253, 260, 272 Carbon monoxide, 21, 286 Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), 21 Carboxymethylase, 101 Carcinogens, 17, 21, 80, 109, 169, 214 - 215 Cardiovascular disease, 27, 198 Cardiovascular function, fetal, fig. 208,, 243, 245 - 246, 258, 260, 262 383 Carnitine, 68, 70, 73 Cauda epididymis, 57, 63, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 75, 76 cDNA, 59 - 62, 81, 103, 143, 244 Cell-culture systems, 25, 28 - 29 Cell death by irradiation, 283 by MOP, 285 - 286 neuron, 275 - 276, 277 Cell types, 71, 74, 76, fig. 122 Centers for Disease Control, 25 Central nervous system (CNS), behavioral effects, 266, 281 - 288, 291 - 295 cytogenesis in, 274 - 276 damage to, 43, 173 - 176, 281 - 286, 291, 301 development of, 4 - 6,11 - 12,32, 249, 260, 265, 270, 271, 273 - 279, 296, 303 - 307 and epididymis, 64 - 67 female aging and, 173 - 176 fetal, 207, 251, 260 morphogenesis in, 273 - 274 nuerochemistry of, 276 - 279, 284 - 28,6, 306 - 307 neurotransmitters, 180, 182, 278, 293 nonmitotic neurons, 273 Cerebellum, 274, 276, 282 - 283 Cerebral cortex, 274, 275 Cerebral palsy, 295 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 180, 285 - 286 Cervioplasmin, 53 Ce~vLx, 181, 259 in early pregnancy, 230 - 231 embryologic development of, 150, 151 mucus of, 96, 97, 103, 180, 182, 183, 184, 185, 259 sperm and, 94, %, 100, 103 Chelatable lead, 298 Chemicals. See Toxicants Chemotherapy and genetic damage, 107, 109, 126 - 127, 128, 129 and reproductive system function, 48, 49, 50, 51, 120, 164, 253 Children, markers in, 271 - 272 Chloracne, 267, 268, 271 Chloramphenicol, 244 Chloride, 70 Choice of biologic markers, characteristics that influence, 18 Cholecystokinin, 305 Choline, 279, 281, 307 Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, 230 Chorda-mesoderm, 274 Chorionic gonadotropin. See Human Chorionic gonadotropin Chorionic somatomammotropins, human (hCS), 209, 235 Chorionicvillus sampling (CVS), 24, 206, 211, 213, 244, 248, 254, 256, 258, 260, 262, 269 Chromatin, nuclear, 66, 97 Chromatography, thin layer, 165 Chromosomes

OCR for page 381
384 amniocentesis and, 244 breakage, 113, 114, 116 damage and mutations in, A, 41, 43, 10~118, 122124, 128, 135 - 136, 145, 159, 166, 167 in oogenesis, 150, 164 rearrangement of, 116, 117, 136 sister-chromatic exchange, 109 - 110, 166, 213 sperm, 90, 92 - 93, 98, 124, 136 - 140,pg. 138 trisomy and triploidy, 124, 125, 246 Cigarette smoking, 128, 274 and menopause, 160, 164 and pregnancy, 85, 165, 215, 244, 251, 252, 253, 268, 269, 270 Ciliary action, 67 - 68, 94 Classes of biologic markers, flow chart of, {g. 17 Clear cells, epididymal, 73, 76 Clinical medicine, 17 Clomiphene citrate, 157 Clonidine, 290, 292 Cloning, DNA, 57 - 62, 81, 130, fig. 131 Cobalt, 161 Cocaine, 242 Cognitive functions, 293 - 295 Cohort studies of reproductive health, 85 - 86 Collaborative Perinatal Project, 13 Compaction, embryo, 231, 232 Computed axial tomography (CAT), 49, 306 Computer techniques, 69, 95, 126 Concanavalin A, 306 Conception, 7, 223, 225, 239 Cone cells, ectoplacental, 225, 235, 236 - 237 Conjunctivitis, 270 Continuous Performance Test, 287 Contraception, 39 Contraceptives after sexual assault, 158, 186 male, 39 oral, 158, 171, 181 reproductive effects of, 190 - 191, 195 Contractions, uterine, 247 - 248 Cordocentesis, 246, 247 Corona-penetrating enzyme (CPE), 103 Corpus epididymis, 63, 66, 67, 70 Corpus luteum, 193, 194 in ovarian function, 157 - 158, 183 - 184, 187 in pregnancy, 158, 234, 237 Cortical neurons, 283 Cortisol, 173, 208 Cotinine, 269 Coulter counter, 89 Cowper's glands, 77 Cows, 237 Crohn's disease, 44 Cry reflex, 292 Cumulus cells, 94, 96, 100, 120 Cyclases, 279 Cycle Detector Program, 171 Cyclophosphamide, 71, 76, 80 INDEX Cystic fibrosis, 211 Cytochrome c, 57, 59 Cytochrome P-450, 252, 268, 269, 271, 272 Cytogenesis, central nervous system, 273, 274 - 276 Cytogenetic damage, 109 - 110, 113, 115, 135 - 140 Cytokeratin, 224, 231, 236 Cytometry, 101, 128, 138 Cytoplasmic droplets, 65, 71 Cytoplasmic receptor, epididymal, 73 Cytosine, 132 Cytoskeletal proteins, 236, 240 Cytosolic receptors, 268 Cytotoxicity, 109 Cytotrophoblast, 211, 215, 217, 220, 231, 233, 235, 237, 238, 239, 240, 259, 261 see also Trophoblast D Dag effect, 93 Data base, national, 204 DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane), 42, 76, 85 - 86, 90, 98, 107, 109, 127 DDT, 153 - 154, 158, 164, 169, 171, Decidualization, 229 - 231 Decidual luteotropin, 229, fig. 238 Decondensation, sperm nuclei, 97 Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 154, 160, 170, 173, 208 Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD), 19,300, 301 Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 133 - 135 Dendrites, 273, 274, 277 Dentate gyrus, 276, 282, 283 Dentin, lead in, 298 DES, see Diethylstilbestrol "Designer drugs," 285 Desmin, 229 DHEA. see Dehydroepiandrosterone DHT (5~-dihydrotestosterone), 72, 73 - 74, 75 Diabetes mellitus, 44 Diazepam, 242, 257, 290 Dibenzofurans, 266 Dibromochloropropane (DBCP), 15, 16, 42, 76, 78, 85 86, 90, 98, 107, 109, 127 Diencephalon, 275 Diet, 153, 170, 267, 268, 278 Diethylstilbestrol (DES), 9, 151, 154, 158, 169, 198, 207 Differentiation endometrial cell, 229, 230 sexual, 198 - 201 trophectoderm, 231 - 234, 235 trophoblast, 230, 237 - 238, 240 Dihydrotestosterone (DHI~), 70, 72, 73, 74, 75 Dimethyformamide, 23 Disease, see specific diseases Disulfide bonds, spermatozoa!, 66

OCR for page 381
INDEX Diuretics, 44 DNA adducts, 21, 23!, 26, 28, 109, 116, 139, 145, 163, 165 - 166, 244, 246, 253, 254, 257, 259, 262 cloning, 57 - 62, 81, 130, fig. 131 damage and mutation, 29, 41, 42, 107, 108, 110, 116, 117-118, 119, 125-127, 129 - 136, 139, 143, 161, 164, 165-166, 211-213 metabolism in pregnancy, 220 in germ cells, 47, 55, 58 - 61, 110, 143, 145 in oogenesis, 150, 165 - 166 in prenatal diagnoses, 211 - 213 probes, 58 - 62, 106~107, 124, 139 recombinant, 41 sequencing, 129 sperm nucleus, 97, 139 - 140 synthesis end repair,fig. 58,110,115,116,166,274 - 275, 282 trophoblast cell, 231, 236, 237, 240 see also cDNA; recombinant-DNA technology Dogs, 54, 55, 74, 78 - 81 Dominant lethal mutations, 111, 112 - 113, 115, 167 Dopamine, 173 - 174, 182, 305, 306 transport of, 277, 284, 285 - 286, 291 Double F bodies, 98 Down's syndrome, 139, 159 Drinking water study, NRC, 4 Drosophila, 108, 116, 253 Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy, 119, 123, 211 Duct cells, seminal, 88 - 89 E E. cold multitest system, 164 Early pregnancy factor (EPF), 193, 221, 232, 233, [g. 238, 2397 257, 259, 260 trophoblast, 233 EBL, see Epidermolysis bullosa letalis ECOD (ethoxycoumarinV-deethylase), 269 Ecologic markers, 26 Ectoplacental cone cells, 225, 234, 235, 236 - 237 Edathamil calcium disodium (CaNa2EDTA), 300 BEG abnormalities, lead and, 301 Effect, markers of defined, 2, 3, 18, 2021 of lead exposure, 301, 300 - 301 pert-implantation, 255 - 261 pharmacodynamic, 265 - 266, 267 - 272 Efferent ducts, 63, 65, 67, 69, 70, 71, 73, 92, 94 EGF. See Epidermal growth factor Ejaculation motility physical characteristics of, 88, 95 retrograde, 44, 45 see also Semen; Sperm Electronic cell-counting, 67 Electronic fetal heart-rate monitonng, 247 - 248 Electrophilic tomcants, 269 - 270 385 Electrophoresis, 66, 70, 112, 117, 124 - 126, 129 - 130, 132-135 Embryo CNS development, 274 early development of, 206, 207 - 209, 223, 224 - 225, 231 - 234 markers of, 9 - 11, 254, 256, 257, 259 toxic effects on, 207 - 209, 215 - 218 see also Fetus Endocrine function, 169, 185 DDT and, 153 - 154 fetal, 209, 236 markers of CNS development, 304 - 306 Endometrium, uterine, 181, 183, 259 in early pregnancy, 209, 225 - 231, 256 and menstrual cycle, 184 - 185, 186 Endoreduplication, 229, 233, 235, 236 - 237 Endothelial cells, brain, 283 Enkephalins, 277, 285 Entactin, 229, 259 Enyme-linked ~mmunosorbent assay (ELISA), 101, 103, 192 Enzymes induction of, 266, 268, 269 - 270, 271 lysosomal, 65 and mutations, 112, 117, 128, 129, 132 neuronal, 276 - 279 in pregnancy, 80, 208, 227, 233, 235, 268 - 270 proteolytic, 235 uterine, 227 see also specif c enzymes Eosinophils, 221 Ependymal zone, neural, 275, 276 EPF, see Early pregnancy factor Epidemiology, 17, 27, 84 - 88, 126 - 127, 187 - 195, 197 Epidermal growth factor (EGF), 51, 257, 258 Epidermolysis bullosa letalis (EBL), 220 Epididymis cell types in, 71 hormone receptors and, 72 - 76 luminal fluid, 63, 69 - 71 markers of, 64 - 65, 143 sperm in, 55, 63 - 76, 79, 89, 92, 102, 143 structure and function, 63 - 65, 71 - 76 Epithelial function of, 64, 70, 71 - 76 Epithelium endometrial, 225 epididymal, 64, 70, 71 - 76 germinal, 47, 52 - 53, 54, 56, 57 neural, 274 - 275, 282 prostate, 79 seminiferous, 56, 87, 89, 93, 94 uterine, 225, 226, 228, 229, 231, 233, 259 Equivalent gestation day (EGD), 234 Erectile dysfunction, 44 Erythrocyte protoporphyrin, 21, 298, 300, 301, 305 Esterase, 307 Estradiol (E2), 257

OCR for page 381
386 in females, 152, 155, 159, 160, 173 - 174, 182, 184, 202 in males, 50, 55, 57, 64, 72, 74 and trophoblast, 234 Estriol, 208, 241, 257 Estrogens, 161, 175 as a contraceptive, 186 in early pregnancy, 224, 227 - 228, 230 and epididymal function, 74 in ovarian function, 155, 157, 169 Estrous cycle, 169, 171, fig. 172, 174, 202 Estrus, 153 - 154, 171 Ethanol, 242, 283, 293, 294, 295 Ethylene dibromide, 85 Ethylene oxide, 28, 107, 166 Eunuchoidal skeletal measurements, 44 Evoked potentials, 286 Exencephaly, 281 Exo<;ytosis, 280 Exons, 129 Exposure, markers of defined, 2 - 3, 18, 19 - 20 effect, JO Z3, 87 88, kg. 91, 145 - 146, 255 - 261,267 - 272 genotoxic, 164, 165 - 166 to lead, 16, 25, 50, 85 - 86,177,249,253,283,285,287, 293-295, 297-302, 305 pharmacodynamic, 266~272 pharmacokinetic, 247 - 251, 260267 in pregnancy, 212 - 213, 255 - 259, 262 public health and, 255 Extragonadal reserves, sperm, 92 Eye, neural development, 275 F Factor V, 217 Fallopian tubes, 150, 151, 180, 181, 182, 183, 206 Fat, 266 267, 270 Febrile diseases, 94 Femur length, 243 Ferrochelatase, 298, 300 Fertility, 1, 7, 15, 23, 55, 195 epidemiologic studies of, 84 - 85 female, 84 - 85, 9097, 150, 159, fig. 160, 164, 171, 218 - 219, 221 male, 6, 30, 39, 40,42,43 - 46,84 - 88,92, 98, 104, 135 sperm markers of, 6, 89 - 95, 144 status, 40, 84 - 85, 144 Fertilization, 8 - 9, 68 - 69, 101 - 103, 159, 193, 200, 206 Fetal alcohol syndrome, 43, 289 Fetal death, see Abortion, spontaneous Fetal hydantoin syndrome, 289 Fetoscopy, 245, 258, 262 Fetus blood and tissue sampling, 245, 248 cardiovascular function, 208, 243, 245 - 246,258, 260 development of, 166, 207 - 209, 234 - 235, 261 - 262 INDEX effects of drugs on, 242 markers of, 9 - 11, 187 - 195, 197 - 198, 219221, 241 - 246, 256, 257-258, 267 measurement of, 245 neural tube defects in, 311 - 312,pg. 313, 315 - 317 toxic effects on, 207 - 209, 213, 281 - 282, 287, 289, 290 see also Embryo Fibronectin, 104, 229, 259 5~-reductase, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78 Flavoproteins, 80 Flow cytometry, 128, 138 Fluorescence-act*ated cell sorting (FACS), 221 Fluorescence hybridization, 123 Fluorometric immunoassay, 193 Follicles, ovarian, 155 - 158,pg. 156, 164, 165, 179, 180, 198 Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 52, 53, 54, 86, 182, 304-305 in early pregnancy detection, 194 germinal epithelium and, 54, 57 in ovarian cycle, 152, 157, 159, 160, 173 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 4, 25 Formaldehyde, 22, 29 Formamide, 23 Frank anemia, 301 Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEE), 21, 298, 300, 301, 305 Fructose, 80, 227 FSH. See Follicle-stimulating hormone G GABA. See Gamma-aminobutyric acid Gadolinium glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, 249 Galactorrhea, 305 Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 277, 280, 285, 290, 291 Ganglion cells, 275 Gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS), 164 Gastrulation, 159, 206 Gel electrophoresis, 66, 70, 124 - 126,129 - 130,pg. 130, 132-135 Genetic damage and heritable mutations in behavioral-teratology, 295 - 296 detection of, 122 - 127,129 - 135,144 - 145,166 - 168, 245 DNA in detection of, 29, 41, 42, 107, 108, 110, 116, 117 - 118, 119, 125 - 127, 129 - 136, 139, 143, 161, 165-166, 211-213 dominant lethal, 111, 112 - 113, 115, 167 epidemiology, 126 - 127 female, markers of, 163 - 168, 197 - 198, 199 in fertilization, 144, 161 male, markers of, 7, 40 - 41, 42, 93 - 94, 120, 121, 135-140, 141-146

OCR for page 381
INDEX in mice, 107 - 118 in people, 119 - 140 recessive lethal 112 research needed on, 115 - 118 risk assessment, 107 - 109 somatic cell 127 - 129, 145 tests for, 110 - 115, 145 - 146 Genitalia, bipotentiality of, 198 - 200 Genital tubercle, 150151 Geographic Environmental Monitoring system, 16 Germ cells aneuploidy in, 167 animal, differences from human, 42, 109 aplasia, 42 differentiation of, 55 - 56, 58, 97, 108, 198 - 201 DNA and, 47, 55, 58 - 61, 110, 143, 145, 165 - 166 FSH and, 57 genetic damage and heritable mutations in, 40 - 41, 42, 107 - 118, 119 - 140, 144 - 145, 163, 198 killing of, 90 molecular binding in, 110 markers of, 54 - 62, 109, 119 - 140, 143, 144 - 145 oogenesis and, 149 - 1So,tg. 150,pg. 151 RNA and, 136 - 140 semen and, 13~140 testicular function and, 135 - 136, 145 types of, 47 - 48,fig. 48 Germinal epithelium, 47, 52, 53, 56, 57 Germline, 109, 121,fig. 122,tg. 136 Glia, 273, 277 Globulins, 181, 256 estradiol-binding, 50 - 51, 54 testosterone-estradiol binding (BERG), 54 Glomemlar filtration rate, 249, 267 Glucocorticoids, 257, 283 Glucose, 75 - 76, 227 Glucose~phosphate dehydrogenase (G4PD), 300 Glucuronyl transferase, 271 Glutamate, 280 Glutathione, 73, 76 Glutethimide, 287 Glycerol, 70, 72 Glycerylphosphorylcholine, 70 Glycine, 280, 291 Glycogen, 229, 245 Glycolysis, 75 - 76 Glycophorin, 128, 138, 168 Glycoproteins, 53, 54, 66, 68, 69, 71, 73, 98, 101, 104, 187, 188, 227, 228, 231 Glycosidase, 227 Glycosylated proteins, 239 GnRH, see Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Golgi cells, 276 Golgi spermatids, 55 Gonadal dysgenesis, 152, 155 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 49, 50, 51 - 52, 151-152, 180, 182, 185 Gonadotropins, 51, 74, 85, 151, 155 - 159, 173, 180, 387 181, 183, 185, 186, 193, 194, 304 305; see also Human chorionic gonadotropin Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), 25 Gos~pol, 72, 76 Granule cells, 276, 282, 283 Granulosa cells, 157 - 158, 165, 179, 183, 185 Granulosa-luteal cells, 179, 181 Growth factors, trophoblast, 233 Growth hormone (GH:), 230, 235, 239 Guanine, 132 Guanethidine, 44 Guinea pig, 202 H Hair, 44, 251, 284, 298, 305 Halo cells, epididymal, 71 Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, 260272 Haloperidol, 173 Hamsters, 54, 55, 96 - 97, 9099, 109, fig. 138, 202 , , _ _, Harri~Shorr technique, 89 hCG. See Human chorionic gonadotropin Hearing defects, 286 287, 294 Heart rate, 292 fetal, 208, 243, 245 - 246, 260, 262 Heavy metals, 249 - 251; see also specific heavy metal Hemacytometric sperm count, 67 Hematopoietic system, 274 Heme production, 298, 301 Hemocytometer, 89 Hemoglobin, 124, 165, 212 Hemolytic disease, 244 Hemophilia, 119, 123 Heparin sulfate proteoglycan, 230 Heritable mutations, see Genetic damage and heritable mutations Heritable-translocation mutation test, 108, 113, 167 Heroin, 242 synthetic, 170 Hexachlorobenzene, 164 Hexane, 286, 287 High-speed videomicrography, 67 Hippocampus, 276, 283 Histidine, 164 Histocompatibility antigens, 215, 217, 218 - 219 Histogenesis, 296 Histology, epididymal, 71 - 72 Histones, 59 - 60, 97 hLA, see Human leukocyte antigens HMW-SV protein, 104 Homovanillic acid (HVA), 12, 285 Hormones, see specific honnones Hot flushes, 160, 169 hPL, see Placental lactogens hPRL, see Human prolactin HPRT, see Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), 7, 25, 85, 155, 209, 223, 230, 257, 261

OCR for page 381
388 as marker of implantation and early pregnancy, 9 - 10, 158, 187 - 195,230, 231, 233, 235, 240, 259, 260 and testosterone, 50, 51 as trophoblast development marker, 231, 237 - 239 see also Gonadotropins Human leukocyte antigens (hLA), 215, 217, 218, 219, 260 Human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), 155 Human prolactin (hPRL), 173, 235, 305 in epididymal function, 74 - 75 and thelarche, 155 uterine, 182, 185, 230, 256, 260 Human tissues, use in measuring markers, 179, 181 Huntington's chores, 174, 213, 214 Hutterites, l59,pg. 160 Hyaluronidase, 103 Hybridization, subtractive, 132 Hydrostatic pressure, epididymal, 67 - 68 Hydroxyl radicals, 285 Hyperactivity, 12, 282, 284, 288, 290 Hyperplasia, 159 adrenal, 212 prostatic, 77 Hypertension, 27, 44 Hypertrophy, 66 Hypervitaminosis A, 283 Hypogonadism, 51 Hypogonadotropic eunuchoidism, 43 Hypo-osmotic shock, 96 Hypoplasia, microneuronal, 282, 283 Hypothalamus, 175, 182, 304 - 305 development of, 151 - 155, 201, 202 female reproductive function markers, 170, 181 male reproductive function markers, 52, 53, 54 Hypothyroidism, 244 Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT), 128 Hypoxanthinephosphoribosyltransferase(HPRl), 129, 168 Hypoxia, fetal, 248 I Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, 287 Illness, sperm and, 90, 94 Imipramine, 292 Immuneassays, 164, 165, 187 - 188, 191, 192 - 193 Immunoglobulin, 22, 72 Immunology, reproductive, 101 - 104,215 - 222,pg. 217, 274, 306 307 Immunopharmacology, 222 Immunoradiometric assays, 189 - 190. fQ. 19O Immunoreact~ve hPRL, 230 Immunotherapy, 221 - 222, 261 Implantation, 7, 8 - 10,218 - 219,221,223,224 - 225,226, ~!7, Z8, 230, 233-234, 237-239,Jig. 238, 256 261 INDEX Infertility, see Fertility Inhibin, 53 - 54, 57, 184 Inhibitors, antigen-antibody reaction, 210217 Inositol, 70, 73 Insulin growth factor (IGF), 233, 236, 239, 257, 258 Interferon, 257 Interleukin, 257 Internal dose, 17, 18, 19 - 20, 21, 25, 30 International Agency for Research on Cancer, 13 International Commission for Protection Against Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens, 129 Interstitium, 47, 143, 220 Intrauterine device, 191 Introns, 129 Inversion tests, 112, 113 - 114 In vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET), 179, 219, 221, 223, [g. 224, 230 Ionizing radiation, see Radiation IQ, 12, 284, 287, 294, 298, 300, 301 Iron, 298 Isoniazid, 287 Isotretinoin, 75, 207 Isozymes, testicular, 57 - 58 J Japan, 266, 267 K Kalldcreins, 81 Karyotyping, 22, 211, 257, 260 Keratin, 224, 236, 298 Kernicterus, 270 Kidney function, 21, 74, 249, 267, 270, 271 Klinefelter's syndrome, 43 L Labioscrotal folds, 151 Labor, MBP and, 221 Laboratory analyses, 40, 83 Lactase deficiency, 177 Lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDHC4), 57, 59, 138 Lactation, 267 Lactoferrin, 106 Lactogens. See Placental lactogens Laminin, 229, 259 Lanthanide chelates, 195 LDHC4, see Lactate dehydrogenase C4 Lead and abnormal reproduct~ve outcome, 129 blood, 285, 297, 305 bone, 298, 299, 305

OCR for page 381
INDEX hair, 298, 305 markers of exposure to, 16, 25, 50, 85 - 86,177, 249, 253, 283, 285, 287, 293-295, 297-302, 303, 305 and neurodevelopment, 5, 11 - 12, 21, 43, 44, 285, 283, 286 - 288, 293, 294, 295, 297 - 302 and sperm abnormalities, 87 - 88, 99 tooth, 298, 305 Lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio, 244 Lectins, 306 Leptotene, 56 Leukocyte antigens, human (hLA), 215, 217, 218, 219, 260 Leydig cells, 44, 47, 49 - 52, 59, 61, 104, 143 LH, see Luteinizing hormone Limbs, development of, 274 Limiting membrane, neural tube, 274 Lipids, 66 - 67, 68 - 70, 98, 229, 249, 273 Lipophilic compounds, 267 Lipoproteins, 257 Lithium, 242 "Litogens," 242 Littre's glands, 77 Liver function, 54, 181, 245, 268, 270, 271, 312 Lumen, prostate, 79 Lumen, uterine, 185 Luminal fluid epididymal, 63, 64, 67 - 68, 69 - 71, 72, 73, 74 uterine, 180, 185 Lung cancer, 268 Lung maturity, fetal, 241, 244, 261, 262 Lupus, 261 Luteal phase, ovarian, 155 - 157, 177 - 184, 185, 202 Luteinization, 157 - 158 Luteinizing hormone (LH), 52, 182, 202, 304 - 305 as age-related marker, 173, 177 in early pregnancy detection, 194 and hCG assays, 188 and Leydig cell function, 49, 50 in ovarian cycle, 21, 152,pg. 153, 157 - 158,159, 160 Luteolysis, 158, 183, 186 Luteotropin, 229, 230, 238, 259 Lymph, epididymal, 64 Lymphocytes, 168, 221, 223, 230 in pregnancy, 215 - 218 tests for mutations in, 128 Lymphocytotoxic antibodies, 218 - 219, 220, 261 Lysosomal enzymes, 65 McCarthy Scales, 287 McClintock, Barbara, 116 Macroneurons, 275 - 276 Magnetic resonance imaging MINI), 49, 79, 246, 247, 253, 258, 260, 261, 262, 306, 307 Major basic protein BEEP), 220, 221, Major histocompatibility complex (MHC), 219 Mammalian germline WIGS test systems, 107, 109 Manganese, 251 Marijuana, see Cannabis Maternal-fetal interactions, 219 - 221, 267 - 269 389 Matrix cell layer, neural, 275 MBP, see Major basic protein Meiosis cytogenetic analysis of, 139 - 140 in oogenesis, 149 - 150, 167 in spermatogenesis, 58 - 61, 97, 135, 139 Membrane, sperm cell, 94 - 95, 96, 98 Menarche, 152 - 154 Menopausal gonadotropin, human (hMG), 155 Menopause, 159 - 161, 169, 172, 202 Menstrual function, 30, 9~6, 152 - 155,171,177,179 - 186, 200, 201, 202 Mental retardation, 123, 126, 294 Meperidine, 285 Mercury, 222, 242, 243, 244, 249 and cyclic ovarian function, 158 neuromotor effects, 207, 286, 287, 293, 294, 295, 305 in pharmacokinetics, 249 - 250, 251 Mesencephalon, 277 Mesonephric duct, 151 Mesoneurons, 275 - 276 Metabolism, 16, 19, 22, 28, 258, 267, 269, 270, 271, 272, 300 Metalloproteins, 80 Metals, see specific metals Metencephalon, 275 Methadone, 80, 88 neuromotor effects, 293, 294, 295 Methotrexate, 240 Methyl # chloride, 76 Methylbutylketone, 287 MethylmercuIy, 207, 242 Methylnitrosourea, 76 Met;~yl~phenyl~tetlabydropyridine (MPIP), 12, 169 - 170, 177, 285 - 286, 307 Mice DNA in, 59, 60, 62, 167, 233 epididymis in, 74, 75 estrous cycles in, 169, 171, fig. 172 fertilization and pregnancy in, 86, 103 - 104, 219, 227-228, 235, 236, 237 mutagen~posed, 42, 90, 107 - 118, 127, 139, 145, 166, 167 neural development, 274, 275, 276, 278 oopyte loss, tog. 161 oogenesis in, 8, 204 ovulatory cycle length, fig. 154 procedures for detecting transmitted mutations in, 111 sperm in, 52,54,55,56,57, 59,86, 89,90,92, 93 - 94, 97, 101 - 103, 140 Microneurons, 275 - 276, 303 - 304 radiation and, 282 - 283 Micronuclei, 109 - 110, 140, 167 - 168 Micropuncture, 69, 70 Microtubules, TGC, 238 Minor physical anomalies (MPA), 12, 284

OCR for page 381
390 Mitogens, 51 Mitosis in neural development, 275 - 277 oogonial, 149 - 150 spermatogonial, 135 trophoblast, 232 Mixed-~mphopyte-culture (MLC) reactions, 216, 218, 219, 220, 222 Molecular binding, 110 Molecular target sites, mutagen, 115 - 116 Monkeys, 54, 55, 177, 202, 294 Monocytes, 305 Mononucleosis, 44 Monoxygenases, 250 Morphogenesis, central nervous system, 273 - 274 "Morphogenetic cell death," 273 Morphometry, 257 Motor function, 287 Motor neurons, 275 - 276 MP1T, see Magnetic resonance imaging ., ~ mRNA, 6061, 224, 237 Mucoproteins, 80 Mullerian duct, 54, 150, 200201 Milllerian-inhibiting substance (MuIS), 53 - 54, 201 Mumps, 44, 172 Murine leukemia virus (MuLV), 116 Muscle tone, in neurobehavioral evaluation, 292 Muscular contractions, 67, 94 Muscular dystrophy, Duchenne-type, 119, 12, 211 Mutant proteins, 124 - 126 Mutations, see Genetic damage and heritable mutations Myelencephalon, 275 Myelin development, 286 Myometrium, uterine, 180, 181, 183, 228 National Bureau of Standards, 25 National Center for Health Statistics, 195, 202 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 13 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2, 17 National Institute of Health, 242 Neonatal abstinence syndrome, 293 Nephrosis, 244 Netherlands, 177 Neural epithelium, 274 - 275, 284 Neural tube defects (NTD), 5, 17, 244, 311 - 312,pg. 313, 315-316 Neuroblasts, 273, 275 - 276, 282 Neurochemistry, 276 - 279, 284 - 286, 300307 Neurodevelopment, see Brain; Central nervous system Neuroendocr~ne function, 15~154, 169 - 170, 185, 304 306 Neuroimmunologic markers, 304 - 306 Neuroleukins, 306 Neuromodulators, 276 Neurons, nonmitotic, 273 Neurotransmitters, 180, 276, 277, 278, 290 Newborns, markers in, 270 - 272, 290, 292 n-hexane, 286, 287 Nitrogen, 44 INDEX Nondisjunction, 111, 114 - 115,117, 150 Nonmammalian germline (NMG) test systems, 107, 108 Nonradioactive hCG detection, 192 - 193 Norepinephrine, 67, 117, 279, 290, 291 Nuclear chromatin, 97 - 98 Nucleic acid, 229 Nucleotides, 59, 60, 130132, 133, {g. 135, 165, 212 Nueropathy, 44 o O6-guanine adduct, 165, 166 Olfacto~y bulb, 276 Oligonucleotides, 59, 212 Oligospermia, 45, 85, 89, 90 One-dimensional denaturing gel electrophoresis, 133, [g. 134 Oocytes,pg. 151 aneuploidy in, 8, 167, 198 fertilization of, 96 - 97,159, 179, 206 genetic damage in, 8, 107 - 119, 121, 144 145, 197 - 198 and menopause, 160, [g. 161 in ovarian pycle, 155 - 157 ovarian stock of, {g. 150, 172 toxicants and, 120, 144 - 145,160, 164 - 165,170 see also Ovaries Opiates, 260, 305 Optic newe development, 275 Oral cavity development, 151, 274 Organ chemiluminescence, 49 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 25 Organogenesis, 9 - 10, 241 - 244, 261 Ornithine carbamoyltransferase, 117 Orthogonal radiographs, 78 Osteoporosis, 160, 198 Ovaries cyclic function of, 8, 21, 155 - 159,177, 179 - 186,200, 201, 202 hormonal changes in, 151 - 152,pig. 152 maturation of, 151 - 155,170 oogenesis, 149 - 150,197 steroid hormone production, 152, 155 storage, 29 toxicity markers of, 181, 182, 183 see also Oocytes Oviduct, 221 Oxygen, 287 Oxygenation, fetal, 207, 208 O'ytocin, 51, 246 p Pachytene spermatocytes, 59, 60 Palate development, 274 Pap smear, 89, 181

OCR for page 381
INDEX Paramagnetic ions, 246, 249, 251, 262 Parathyroid hormones, 70 Parkinson's disease, 169 - 170, 174, 285, 306 Pathogens, 89 PBB, see Polybrominated biphenyls PCB, see Polychlorinated biphenyls Penile size, 44 Peptides, 128, 305 fetal, 206, 208 neuroactive, 277 ovarian regulatory, 180, 182 teste~produced, 51 - 52, 98 trophoblast, 233, 235 see also Placental loctogens Peripheral neuropathies, 270 Peripheral serum, 184 Peritoneal fluid, 180, 181 Pesticides, 24, 98, 158 Pharmacodynamic markers, 265 - 274 Pharmacokinetic markers, 247 - 251, 265, 266 - 267 Phenobarbital, 242, 268, 270, 271 Phenylalanine, 117 Phenylketonuria, 16, 117; 212 Phenytoin, 249, 252, 253, 289 neuromotor effects, 293, 294, 295 Pheromones, 170 Phosphatase, 80, 257 Phosphocholine, 70 Phosphodiesterases, 277 Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), 57, 59 Phospholipids, 241, 244 Phosphorus, 70, 75 Phosphorylation, 280 Photomicrography, 99 Physiologic atresia, 150 Physiologic damage markers, 6 - 7,39 - 40, 46, 83 - 105, 142-144 Phytoestrogen, 163, 178 Pigs, 223, 237 Pituitary gland, 181, 207, 304 female, development of, 151 - 152 fetal, 208 hormones, 155, 182, 193, 277 Placenta establishment of, 206, 229, 230, 233 and fetus, 209, 243, 256, 262 hCG production, 187 hormones, 209, 234 236 pharmacodynamics of, 269 - 270 pharmacokinetics of, 248, 251 - 252, 256 xenobiotic metabolization, 247, 249, 250, 251 Placental lactogens (PL), 234 - 235, 237, 239 human (hPL), 209, 239, 257, 259, 260, 261 Plasma growth factors, 258 Platelets, 307 pol~racrylamide gel electrophoresis, 66, 126, 262 Poh~rbrominated biphenyls (PBB), 268, 287 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), 15, 16, 24, 166, 266, 391 268~270 and estrogen, 158 neuromotor effects, 293, 294, 295 Polycystic ovary syndrome, 185 Polydysplastic epidermolysis bullosa, 220 Polypeptide hormones, 206, 208, 233 POMC. See Pro-opiomelanocortin Population studies, implementation of biologic markers in, 28~29 Porphyria, 268 Positron emission tomography (PE1), 306 Post-coital test, 96 Potassium, 70, 227 Predictive value of markers, 17, 22 - 24, 313 - 316 Pregnancy cell biology of, 223 - 240 drug exposure during, 242, 290 hCG as marker of, 7, 158, 187 - 195, 223, 240, 257, 259, 260, 261 hormone production and, 158 immunology of, 215 - 222 loss, tests to determine markers of, 218 - 219 maIkers of, 9 - 11,3~31, kg. 33,85, 187 - 195, 205 - 262 normal development of, 20~209, 215 - 218 pharmacodynamics, 267 - 270 pharmacokinetics, 247 - 251 proteins, 208, 239 - 240, 256 - 257, 259, 261, 262 See also Conception; Fertili~tion; Fetus; Implantation Pregnancy-associated factors (PAF), 238, 239 - 240 Premature sexual maturity, 16 Premenstrual molimina, 180 Preputial glands, 77 Primary inductive stimulus, 274 Principal cells, epididymal, 71 Progesterone, 177, 182, 257 as age-related marker, 173 in decidualization, 229 in earl~r pregnancy, 224 - 225,227 - 228,229, 230, 234 in ovarian cycle, 157 - 158, 159, 160, 183 - 184 regulation, 259 Progestin-associated endometrial protein (PEP), 182, 185 Progestins, 186, 187 Prolactin, human (hPRL), 64, 173, 182, 237, 305 in epididymal function, 74 - 75 and thelarche, 155 uterine, 182, 185, 230, 256, 260 Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), 51 - 52, 208 Propranolol, 44, 242 Prostaglandins, 68, 76, 180, 182 Prostate gland, 44, 77 - 81 Protamines, 59, 60, 97, 110, 116, 138, 139 Proteins cytoskeletal, 236 in decidualization, 229 - 230 endometrial, 185 in epidi~mis, 66, 68, 70 - 71 major basic (MBP), 22~221

OCR for page 381
392 mutant, 124 - 126 in neurotransmission, 277 pregnancy, 208, 212, 239 - 240,256 - 257,259,261,262 seminal, 8081, 101, 104 sperm, 57 - 58, 61, 66, 72, 99, 104, 120, 121, 138 synthesis, fig. 58 testicular, 50, 53, 57, 59 - 62, 103 uterine-secreted, 182, 185, 226 228 see also specific proteins Protoporphynn, 25 Psychologic disorders, 43, 44 Psychometric intelligence, 287 Psychosexual orientation, 151 Puberty female, 150, 153 - 157, 170 - 171, 201 male, 43, 44 and metabolism, 271 Puerto Rico, 16, 155 Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 132 - 133 Purkinje cells, 276, 282 Pyruvate kinase, 117 Q Quality and quantity of data, 27 - 28, 248 R Rabbits, 54, 55, 57, 74, 80, 109, 188, 202 Radiation, 84, 85, 88 cell damage and mutation, 41, 44, 108, 126, 135, 140, 166 early menopause and, 172 markers to detect, fig. 91, 281 - 283 neurochemical effects of, 11 - 12, 281 - 283 sperm and, 90, 93 - 94, 135 Radiographs, 78, 128 Radioimmunoassays (RIA), 101, 188, 189, 212, 238 Radiotherapy, 142 Rapid-eye-movement sleep, 290 Rats conception and pregnancy, fib. 231, 233, 237 female reproductive function, 153, 159, 169, 171, 202, 227-228, 235 male reproductive function, 51, 53, 54 - 55,65,67,75, 80 81 mutagen exposed, 42, 109, 153 - 154,281 - 283,290 296 neural development, 274, 276 neurotoxicant exposed, 173 - 174, 175 steroidogenesis, 234 testosterone in, 201 Recessive lethal mutations, 112 Recombinant-DNA technology, 88, 101, 104 - 105,237, 240, 259, 260 Red blood cells, 127, 128 - 129, 168, 307 Research INDEX causal inferences in, 301 - 302 female reproductive function, 198 - 202, 253 - 262 on genetic toxicity, 115 - 118, 144 146 on germ cell markers, 57 - 62 male reproductive function, 49, 51 - 54,8~8,98 - 104, 142 - 144 on neurodevelopmental markers, 303 - 307 validation of markers, 23 - 26, 147 Reserpine, 173, 242, 290 Restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP), 129-130,pg. 131, 145, 212 Retina, 275 Retinoblastoma, 211 Retinoic acid, 75 Retinoids, 207 Retinol, 75, 257 Retrograde ejaculation, 44, 45 Ribonuclease cleavage, 130 - 132 Rice oil, PC~contaminated, 266, 267, 269 Risk assessment, 2027 RNA, 22, 29, 47, {g. 58, 60 61, 62, 104, 132, 143, 145, 212, see also in RNA in mutation detection, 130 - 132, 133 in neurotransmission, 277 synthesis of, {g. 58 trophoblast, 233 Rosette-inhibition assay, 193 Rubella, 242 S Salicylates, 242 Saliva, as marker, 51, 180, 184, 193 Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test, 164 Sandwich assays, hCG, 189 - 190 Schizophrenics, 284, 306 Schwann cells, 286 Scrotal temperature, 85, 90, 94 Seashore Rhythm Test, 287 Sebaceous glands, 270 Selection of markers, principles of batteries of biologic markers, 2 biologic considerations, 22 ethical issues, 23 practical limitations, 2223 Selenium, 161 Semen analysis, 69, 83, 85 - 87, 139 - 140 cohort studies with, 85 - 86 composition of, 74, 79 - 81, 84, 88 - 89, 98, 102 - 104 frozen, 195 immunologic reagents for studies of, 101 - 104 in infertility evaluation, 45 - 46 nonsperm cells in, 88 - 89 reproductive health markers, 6, 80, 83 - 105, 98, 136 - 140, 143-145 research on, 98 - 105, 145 - 146

OCR for page 381
INDEX see also Sperm Semenogelin, 104 Seminal vesicles, 77, 78, 79, 80 Seminiferous epithelium, 56, 87, 89, 93, 94 Seminiferous tubules, 47, 52 - 62 Sensitivity of markers, 2:}24, 25, 300 301, 313, 314, 315, 316 Sensorimotor development, 291, 292 Sensory dysfunctions, prenatal dog exposure and, 290295 Sentinel phenotypes, 122, 123, 124, 126 Serotonin, 117, 279, 290, 291 Sertoli cells, 47, 52, 53 - 54, 56, 65, 73, 74, 104, 143 Sex-chromosome loss, 111, 114 Sexual behavior, 175, 180, 293 S=ualdifferentiation, recommenced research on, 198 - 201 Sheep, 161, 235, 237, 245 Short-term memory, 287 Sialic acid, 70, 194 Sickle-cell anemia, 212 Sister-chromatid exchange (SCE), 109 - 110, 166, 213 Skeletal defects, 116 Skeletal measurements, 44, 243 Skin fetal, 245 neonatal, 270 - 271, 292 in pregnancy, 268 Smoking. See Cigarette smoking Social behavior, 287 - 288 Sodium, 70 Somatic cells, 52, 59, 107, 108 - 109,127 - 129,140, 145, 165, 167 - 168 Somatomammotropin, human chorionic (hCS), 209, 235 Somatomedins, 51, 53, 257 Somatosenso~y evoked potentials, 286 Specificity of markers, 23 24, 25 26, 300 301, 313314, 315, 316 Specific-locus mutations, 11~112, 138, 166, 167, 168 Spectroscopy, 253 Speech and language function, 287 Sperm agglutination, 97 androgens and, 73 - 74 aneuploidy detection in, 139 antibodies, 97, 101~104, 138 aplasia, 42 automated measurements of, 98 - 100 concentration, 45, 48, [g. 49, 50, 86, 88, 90, 92, 94 cytogenetics of, 137 Recondensation of, fig. 138 double F bodies in, 98 epididymis and, 55, 63 - 76, 79, 89, 92, 102 function and structure, 30, 65 - 69,86 - 105,110, 206 genetic damage, 41, 107 - 118, 120, 121, 124, 127, 135-140, 143-145 motility, 45, 48,pg. 49,6069,84,85, 86, 94 - 96, 9~99 nuclei of, 97 - 98 number, 89 - 92 production, 6, 49, 54 - 62, 67, 89 - 94, 100, 101, 103 393 proteins in, 57 - 58, 61, 66, 72, 99, 120, 121, 138 quantitative structure analysis, 99 - 100 reserves, 64, 67, 69, 76 and semen constituents, 80, 85 - 86, 88, 89 and Sertoli cells, 53 storage, 29 unejaculated, 72 see also Semen; and entries immediately following Spermatids, 5057, 58, 59, 60, 140 Spermatogenesis, 44, 47, fig. 48, 53, tg. ss, 57, 58 cytogenetic analysis in, 135, 139 - 140 immunologic reagents for studies of, 101 - 104 recombinant-DNA study of, 104 105 semen-based markers of, 86 - 88, 143 - 144 species differences in, 55 synapsis in, 117 toxicants and, 52, 54 - 55, 62 See also Germ cells; Stem cells Spermatogonia, 47, 48, 52, 54 - 55, 59, 61 - 62, 89, 135 Spermine, 80 Spermiogenesis, 47, 59 - 61 Spermiopha~y, epididymal, 72 Sphingomyelin, 241, 244 Spina bifida, 10, 311 - 312, 315 - 316 Spinal cord, 275 - 276, 278, 291 Spiral arteries, 220, 261 Spironolactone, 181 - 182 Spleen, 168 Stage specificity, in irradiation studies, 281 - 282 Standardized fertility ratio (SFR), 85 Startle reflex, 290291 Stellate cells, microneuronal, 282 Stem cells, 87, 89 DNA probes, 61 - 62 mutagen-exposed, 108 - 109, 127, 136, 145 renewal of, 47, 54, 56, 93 Stereologic imaging, 50, 53, 56, 79 Steroid hormones biosynthesis and metabolism of, 75, 271 in conception and pregnancy, 206, 208 209, 220225, 229 - 230, 234 - 236,fig. 234, 256, 259, 260 female reproductive, lS1 - 152, 155 - 160, 169, 170, 173, 180, 182, 184 male reproductive, 5052, 64, 70, 72, 75 - 77, 83 trophic, 277 trophoblast, 234, 237, 261 see also specific hone ones Steroidogenesis, 51 - 52, 180, 183, 185, 234, 237 Stress, 153, 170, 181, 201 Stromal cells, 79, 181 uterine, 224, 225, 227, 228~230, 235, 301 Subcutaneous fat, 267 Substance P. 305 Subtractive hybridization, 132, 145 Suicide survivors, 127 Sulfhyd~yls, 76 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Acts, 16 Susceptibility, markers of, 2, 3, 18, 22, 300

OCR for page 381
394 Synapses, 273, 270277 Synapsis, spermatogenic, 117 Syncytiotrophoblast, 209, 220, 231, 237, 259 and pregnancy hormones, 187, 2375 238, 239, 240 Syngamy, 232 T Tachycardia, 245 Tarwan, 266, 267, 269 T4 antigen, 306 TCDD (tetrachlorod~enzo~dia'an), 257, 268, 269, 270, 271. T cells, 305, 306 Teeth, 298, 305 Tel en ceph al o n , 275 Teratospermia, 85 Testis blood barrier, 72 lead content, 297 marked of, 43, 44, 45 46, 47~2, 67, 135 - 136, 142 - 143 recommended research on, 142 - 143 size, 44, 4049 temperature and, 85, 90, 94 weight, 4049, 55 Testi~specif~c proteins (IP), 6061 Testosterone, 57, 182, 202, 257 and epididymal function, 64, 70, 73 - 74, 75 fetal production, 187 and hypothalamus development, 201, 202 production, 43, 44, 49 - 52 testicular, 47 and trophoblast, 234 Testosterone-estradiol binding globulin (I~BG), 54 Tetracycline, 45, 267 Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), 117 Thalidomide, 9, 80, 207, 242 Theca, 157, 181, 183 Thelarche, 155, 17~171 I hiazides, 242 Thiocyanate, 269 Thioguanine, 168 Thynune, 132 Thymus, 215, 220 Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, 51 TLX antigens, 210220, 222, 224, 256, 260 Token Test, 287 Tonometer readings, testicular, 48 Totipotency, 232 Toxicants age-related effects, 8, 169 - 177, 199 - 200, 201, 202 animal-to-human extrapolation, see Animal studies and cognitive function, 293 - 295 DNA as marker of, see DNA environmental and occupational, 19, 26, 40 - 42, 85-86,90,94,97,104,107,127,149,158,162,179, 183, 186, 266 267, 297 exposure and effect markers, 2,3, 18, 19 - 23,87 - 88, fig. 91, 145 - 146, 212-213, 247-251, 255 - 262, 266~267, 297 - 299, 300 301 female reproductive, 30, fig. 32, 149 - 202 and fetal development, see Embryo; Fetus and genetic damage, 97 - 98,107 - 118,140, 211 - 212, see Genetic damage and heritable mutations long-term tissue and cell storage in analysis of, 29 male accessory sex organs and, 64, 70, 72, 77 - 81,143 male reproductive, 29 - 30,pg. 31, 39 - 146 neurodevelopmental, 30,{& 34,173 - 176,177,2~307 national data base for, proposed, 202 and nonconcept*e menstrual cycles, 179 - 186 and ovarian function, 150159, 160162, 164, 179, 182 - 183, 185 - 186, 198 pregnancy, 9 - 11, 3031,pg. 33, 85, 181, 187 - 195, and puberty, 43, 153 - 154 in semen, 6, 80, 83 - 105, 136 - 140 sperm and, 52, 54 - 55,56,63,90,93 - 94,95,10~104 and testicular function, 49, 50, 51, 53 transgenerational effects, 170 Toxicokinetics, 22, 29, 249 Toxicology, reproductive, 4 - 6, 19, 31 - 32, 88, [g. 91, 198-202, 253-262 Transcobalamin, 257 Transferrin, 53 - 54, 71, 257 Trichloroethylene, 286 Tnmethyl phosphate, 107 Triploidy, 244 TRIS, 45 Trisomy, 124, 125, 246 Trophectoderm, 225, 231 - 234, 235, 236, 257, 259 Trophoblast, 209, 226, 248 antigens, 215 - 222, 224, 258, 259 early development of, 206, 229, 230 endocnne function, 236 giant cells (TGC), 225, 231, 233 234 - 236, 259 hormone production and synthesis, 237, 261 immunology in pregnancy, 217 - 220 implantation, 225, 237 - 240, 256, 259 - 261 markers of, 231 - 237 Trophoblast-lymphocyte-cros~reactive(lI"X)antigens, 218-219, 220, 222, 256, 260 TIgptophan, 277 - 278 Tubular obstruction, post-testicular, 89 Tubulin, 236 Turner's syndrome, 152, 169 Twins, 17~177, 270, 312, 315 Two-dimensional denaturing gel electrophoresis, 126, 133-135, 262 Tyrosine, 117, 277 - 278 U Ulcerative colitis, 44 Ultrasonography, 10, 22, 49, 79, 142, 213, 241 fetal diagnostic uses, 206, 243 - 244, 245 - 246, 260,

OCR for page 381
INDEX 261-262, 315 prostate measurement with, 78 Umbilical blood, 244, 249, 256, 260, 271 U.K Collaborative Study, 316 U.S. Congress, 16 U.S. Department of Energy, 129 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2, 2S, 27, 29, 255 U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 255 Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS), 110, 166 Urethra, 63 Urethral (Littre's) glands, 77, 79, 80 Urine male hormone measurements in, 51 as neurochemical marker, 2~285, 298, 305 as pregnancy and ovulation maker, 180,184,187 - 195, fig. 19o,pg. 191 progesterone concentration in, 184 Urogenital ridge, 150 Uterotubular junction, 94, 100 Uterus development of, 150, 151, 170 in early pregnancy, 224 - 231 epithelial cells, 225,pg. 226, 228, 229, 231, 233, 259 interstitial tissues, 222 luminal fluid, 180, 185 stromal cells, 224, 225, fig. 227, 228 - 230, 231, 235 V Vagina, 255, 256 in early pregnancy, 230 - 231 embryologic development of, 150, 151 as menstrual cycle marker, 180, 181, 182, 184 tumors of, 207 Validation of markers animal models, 24 criteria for, 40, 145, 185 - 186, 311 - 316 markers of specific exposures, 25 - 26 quality assurance, 2~25 sensitivity and specificity, 23 - 24 uses, 24 Valproate, 10 Vancocele, 72 395 Vas deferens, 63, 65, 72, 77, 79, 92 Vasectomy, 72 Vasography, 89 Vasopressin, 67 Ventral wall defects, 312, 315 Viability, sperm, 96 Vibration sense, 287 Vi de omi orography, 69 , 99 vimentin, 229 Vincrist in e, 28 7 Viral infections, 44, 90, 169 Viscosity, semen, 88 Visual impairments, 283 - 284, 286, 287, 294 Vitamin A, 75, 283 Vitamin D, 64, 70, 75 Von Economo's disease, 169 W Warfarin, 242 Wastewater treatment chemicals, 127 Wechsler Intelligence Scales, 287 Weight loss, in pregnancy, 268 White blood cells, 88, 127 - 128 WISC-R test, 287 World Health Organization, 13 World War II, 177 X Xenobiotics, see Tomcants X-ray fluorescence of bone, 298, 299, 305 Xylene, 286 A y Y-chromosomal aneuploidy, 98 YFF' test, 98, 139 z Zinc, 80 Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), 298 Zona pellucida, 94, 9~97, 100, 103, 198 Zygotes, cytogenetic analysis of, 111, 115

OCR for page 381