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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please REFERENCES 38 Bliznitchemko, L. 1968 Hypnopaedia and its practice in the USSR. Pp. 202-209 in F. Rubin, ed., Current Research in Hypnopaedia . New York: American Elsevier. Breger, L., Hunter, I., and Lane, R. W. 1971 The Effect of Stress on Dreams . New York: International Universities Press. Bruce, D. J., Evans, C. R., Fenwick, P. B. C., and Spencer, V. 1970 Effects of presenting novel verbal material during slow-wave sleep. Nature 225: 873-874. Dement, W. C., and Kleitman, N. 1957 The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity: An objective method for the study of dreaming. Journal of Experimental Psychology 53: 339-346. Eich, E. 1977 State-dependent retrieval of information in human episodic memory. Pp. 141-157 in I. M. Birnbaum and E. S. Parker, eds., Alcohol and human memory . Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum. 1980 The cue-dependent nature of state-dependent retrieval. Memory & Cognition 8: 157-173. 1984 Memory for unattended events: Remembering with and without awareness. Memory & Cognition 12: 105-111. 1985 Context, memory, and integrated item/context imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning , Memory , and Cognition 11: 764-770. 1986 Epilepsy and state specific memory. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 74: 15-21. Elliott, C. R. 1968 Extracts from an experimental study of the retention of auditory material presented during sleep. Pp. 6-27 in F. Rubin, ed., Current Research in Hypnopaedia . New York: American Elsevier. (Unpublished MA thesis dated 1947.) use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please REFERENCES 39 Emmons, W. H., and Simon, C. W. 1956 The non-recall of material presented during sleep. American Journal of Psychology 69: 76-81. Evans, F. J. 1972 Hypnosis and sleep: Techniques for exploring cognitive activity during sleep. Pp. 43-83 in E. Fromm and R. E. Shor, eds., Hypnosis : Research Developments and Perspectives . Chicago: Aldine/Atherton. Evans, F. J., Gustafson, L. A., O’Connell, D. N., Orne, M. T., and Shor, R. E. 1966 Response during sleep with intervening amnesia. Science 152: 666-667, 1969 Sleep-induced behavioral response: Relationship to susceptibility to hypnosis and laboratory sleep patterns. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 148: 467-476. 1970 Verbally induced behavioral responses during sleep. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 150: 171-187. Firth, H. 1973 Habituation during sleep. Psychophysiology 10: 43-51. Foulkes, D. 1966 The Psychology of Sleep . New York: Scribers and Sons. Fox, B. H., and Robbins, J. S. 1952 The retention of material presented during sleep. Journal of Experimental Psychology 43: 75-79. Freud, S. 1953 The Interpretation of Dreams. Vols. 4-5 in J. Strachey, ed., The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud . London: Hogarth Press. (Originally published in 1900.) use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please REFERENCES 40 Goodenough, D. R. 1978 Dream recall: History and current status of the field. Pp. 113-140 in A. M. Arkin, J. S. Antrobus, and S. J. Ellman, eds., The Mind in Sleep : Psychology and Psychophysiology . Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum. Goodwin, D. W., Powell, B., Bremer, D., Hoine, H., and Stern, J. 1969 Alcohol and recall: State dependent effects in man. Science 163: 1358-1360. Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M., and Ball, D. W. 1974 Developmental treands in recall of central and incidental auditory material. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 17: 409-421. Hebb, D. O. 1949 The Organization of Behavior : A Neuropsychological Theory . New York: Wiley. Hilgard, E. R. 1979 Divided consciousness in hypnosis: The implications of the hidden observer. In E. Fromm and R. Shor, eds., Hypnosis : Developments in Research and New Perspectives . New York: Aldine. Hoskovec, J. 1966 Hypnopaedia in the Soviet Union: A critical review of recent major experiments. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 14: 308-315. Hutt, S. J., Hutt, C., Lenard, H. G., Bernuth, H., and Muntjewerff, W. J. 1968 Auditory responsivity in the human neonate. Nature 218: 888-890. Itil, T. M., Menon, G. N., Bozak, M., and Sangor, A. 1982 The effects of oxiracetam (ISF 2522) in patients with organic brain syndrome. Drug Development Research 2: 447-461. use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please REFERENCES 41 Jacobson, A., Kales, A., Lehmann, D., and Zweizig, J. 1965 Somnambulism: All night electroencephalographic studies. Science 148: 975-977. Jacoby, L. L. 1982 Knowing and remembering: Some parallels in the behavior of Korsakoff patients and controls. In L. S. Cermak, ed., Memory and Amnesia . Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum. Jacoby, L. L., and Dallas, M. 1981 On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General 110: 306-340. Jacoby, L. L., and Witherspoon, D. 1982 Remembering with and without awareness. Canadian Journal of Psychology 36: 300-324. Johns, M. W., Gay, T. J. A., Goodyear, M. D. E., and Masterton, J. P. 1971 Sleep habits of health young adults: Use of sleep questionnaire. British Journal of Preventitive and Social Medicine 25: 236-241. Johnson, M. K., Kahan, T. L., and Raye, C. L. 1984 Dreams and reality monitoring. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General 113: 329-344. Jus, K., and Jus, A. 1972 Experimental studies on memory disturbances in pathological and physiological conditions. International Journal of Psychobiology 2: 205-208. Kintsch, W. 1970 Models of free recall and recognition. Pp. 331-373 in D. A. Norman, ed., Models of Human Memory . New York: Academic Press. use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please REFERENCES 42 Koukkou, M., and Lehmann, D. 1968 EEG and memory storage in sleep experiments with humans. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 25: 455-462. 1983 Dreaming: The functional state-shift hypothesis. British Journal of Psychiatry 142: 221-231. Koulack, D., and Goodenough, D. R. 1976 Dream recall and dream recall failure: An arousal-retrieval model. Psychological Bulletin 83: 975-984. Kulikov, V. N. 1968 The question of hypnopaedia. Pp. 132-144 in F. Rubin, ed., Current Research in Hypnopaedia . New York: International Universities Press. (Originally published in 1964.) Lehmann, D., and Koukkou, M. 1974 Computer analysis of EEG wakefulness-sleep patterns during learning of novel and familiar sentences. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 37: 73-84. Leuba, C., and Bateman, D. 1952 Learning during sleep. American Journal of Psychology 65: 301-302. Levy, C. M., Collidge, F. L., and Stabb, L. V. 1972 Paired associate learning during EEG-defined sleep: A preliminary study. Australian Journal of Psychology 24: 219-225. Minard, J., Loiselle, R., Ingledue, E., and Duatlich, D. 1968 Discriminative electro-oculogram deflections (EGDs) and heart rate (HR) pauses elicited during maintained sleep by stimulus significance. Psychophysiology 5: 232. use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please REFERENCES 43 Moscovitch, M. 1982 Multiple dissociations of function in amnesia. In L. S. Cermak, ed., Memory and Amnesia . Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum. Okuma, T., Nakamura, K., Hayashi, A., & Fujimori, M. 1966 Psycho-physiological study on the depth of sleep in normal human subjects. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 21: 140-147. Oltman, P. K., Goodenough, D. R., Koulack, D., Maclin, E., Schroeder, H. R., and Flanagan, M. J. 1977 Short-term memory during Stage-2 sleep. Psychophysiology 14: 439-444. Oswald, I., Taylor, A. M., and Treisman, M. 1960 Discriminative responses to stimulation during human sleep. Brain 83: 440-453. Overton, D. A. 1973 State dependent retention of learned responses produced by drugs. In W. P. Koella and P. Levin, eds., Sleep . Basel: Karger. 1982 Memory retrieval failures produced by changes in drug state. Pp. 113-139 in R. L. Isaacson & N. E. Spear, eds., The Expression of Knowledge . New York: Plenum Press. Peters, R., and McGee, R. 1982 Cigarette smoking and state-dependent memory. Psychopharmacology 76: 232-235. Prince, M. 1910 The mechanism and interpretation of dreams. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 19: 137-195. Rubin, F. 1968 Current Research in Hypnopaedia . New York: American Elsevier. 1970 Learning and sleep. Nature 226: 477. 1971 Learning and Sleep . Bristol: John Wright and Sons. use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please REFERENCES 44 Schacter, D. L., and Tulving, E. 1982 Memory, amnesia, and the episodic/semantic distinction. In R. L. Isaacson and N. E. Spear, eds., The Expression of Knowledge . New York: Plenum Press. Sheldrake, P., and Cormack, M. 1974 Dream recall and the menstrual cycle. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 18: 347-350. Simon, C. W., and Emmons, W. H. 1955 Learning during sleep? Psychological Bulletin 52: 328-342. 1956 Responses to material presented during various levels of sleep. Journal of Experimental Psychology 51: 89-97. Svyadoshch, A. M. 1968 The assimilation and memorisation of speech during natural sleep. Pp. 91-117 in F. Rubin, ed., Current Research in Hypnopaedia . New York: American Elsevier. >(Originally published in 1962.) Tilley, A. J. 1979 Sleep learning during Stage 2 and REM sleep. Biological Psychology 9: 155-161. Tulving, E., Schacter, D. L., and Stark, H. A. 1982 Priming effects in word-fragment completion are independent of recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning , Memory , and Cognition 8: 336-342. Watkins, M. J. 1979 Engrams as cuegrams and forgetting as cue overload: A cueing approach to the structure of memory. In C. R. Puff, ed., Memory Organization and Structure . New York: Academic Press. use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. REFERENCES ed., Current Research in Hypnopaedia . New York: American Elsevier. (Originally published in 1965.) ed., Current Research in Hypnopaedia . New York: American Elsevier. (Originally published in 1964.) Zukhar’, V. P., Kaplan, Y. Y., Maksimov, Y. A., and Pushkina, I. P. 1968 A collective experiment on hypnopaedia. Pp. 152-159 in F. Rubin, 45 Zavalova, N. D., Zukhar’, V. P., and Petrov, Y. A. 1968 The question of hypnopaedia (preliminary communication). Pp. 145-151 in F. Rubin,

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please ACCELERATED LEARNING 72 Peer Tutoring Long ago, educators realized that students could help one another learn. For example, the Lancastrian System of the nineteenth century solved the problem of a shortage of teachers for children of the poor by having older students teach younger, less advanced students. Peer tutoring usually involves older student tutoring younger ones (called “cross-age tutoring). One reason for this is that students often resent being tutored by a classmate. Research on cross-age tutoring has found consistent positive effects on the achievement of the student receiving tutoring (the “tutee”), and equally strong effects in many cases on the achievement of the tutor, who apparently learns a great deal from the tutoring experience (Devin-Sheehan, Feldman, & Allen, 1976; Cloward, 1967). Schools sometimes take advantage of this latter finding by using as tutors older students who are having difficulties with basic skills themselves. By having them tutor younger students, they must review the basic skills they failed to master earlier in a setting that gives them high status. Effects of peer tutoring are particularly strong when tutors are trained in highly structured “programmed tutoring” methods (Ellson, 1976) which give tutors step-by-step procedures to follow in instructing and praising their tutees. As in the case of CAI and mastery learning, effects of peer tutoring are particularly strong when tutoring is done in addition to, not instead of, regular classroom instruction. However, peer tutoring does still appear to be quite effective when instructional time is held constant. Peer tutoring is often used as part of other methods. For example, it is a routine component of the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI), or use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please ACCELERATED LEARNING 73 Keller Plan, and is often used to provide corrective instruction in group-based mastery learning. Informal peer tutoring is central to cooperative learning, discussed in the following section. In terms of the QAIT model, peer tutoring works because it impacts on three (and usually four) of the QAIT elements. It solves the problem of providing appropriate levels of instruction by totally individualizing instruction for each tutee. It increases incentive because students receive the undivided attention of a high-status individual whom they usually want to please, because their learning efforts are closely monitored, and because they receive frequent, immediate feedback on their work. Quality of instruction is increased, particularly when tutors are trained in programmed tutoring models, but also because the tutor can easily adjust the pace and content of instruction to the tutee’s needs and the tutee can ask questions when he or she does not understand. Finally, when tutoring is done in addition to regular classroom instruction, allocated time for instruction is increased. Even when this is not the case, time-on-task is likely to be higher in tutoring than in whole-class instruction. Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small, heterogeneous learning groups. It differs from peer tutoring in several ways. First, students in cooperative learning are generally all of the same age, and are learning the material together. There are high, average, and low achievers in each group, but the high achievers are not formally designated as tutors for the low achievers. Instruction in cooperative learning initially comes from the teacher. The learning group’s task use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please ACCELERATED LEARNING 74 is usually to master what the teacher has initially presented. There are many forms of cooperative learning, but they can be grouped in two major categories. In group study methods, all students are working together to learn the same content. In task specialization methods, each group member is responsible for a different part of the group’s task. Research on group study methods indicates that this form of cooperative learning can be highly effective if two conditions are satisfied. First, the groups must be working toward a valued group goal, such as a group reward. Second, success in achieving this goal must depend only on the individual learning of every member of the group (Slavin, 1983 a, b). For example, in Student Teams-Achievement Divisions or STAD, students are assigned to four-member, heterogeneous teams. The teacher presents a lesson, and then students study worksheets relating to the lesson, attempting to ensure that all team members have mastered the concepts. Finally, the students are individually quizzed, and teams are rewarded with certificates or other recognition or rewards if their average scores exceed a pre-established criterion. In this way, the only way for teams to succeed is to make certain that their members have learned. Of thirty-five methodologically adequate studies of group study methods which (like STAD) used group rewards based on group members’ individual learning, twenty- eight found significantly higher achievement for cooperative than for control treatments (Slavin, 1986c). In contrast, evaluations of group study methods which did not use group rewards or based group rewards on the quality of a single team product have not been more successful than traditional methods (Slavin, 1983 a, b). One study done in a military training setting made exactly this comparison. use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please ACCELERATED LEARNING 75 Hagman and Hayes (1985) conducted two experiments on teaching U.S. Army Equipment Records and Parts Specialists supply-related tasks as part of their Advanced Individual Training. In both experiments they found that trainees who worked in four-member groups and were rewarded (with free time) based on their group’s average quiz scores performed significantly better than did trainees who received free time based on their individual scores only, regardless of whether or not they studied in groups. That is, in this as in many elementary and secondary school studies, simply working in groups was not enough; the group had to be rewarded based on the individual learning of its members. Achievement effects of cooperative learning models using task specialization are less clear cut. Consistent positive effects in social studies have been found for one complex model of this kind, called Group Investigation (Sharan, Hertz-Lazarowitz, & Ackerman, 1980), but other methods, using task specialization such as Jigsaw Teaching (Aronson et al., 1978) have been less successful. Cooperative learning impacts primarily on incentive to learn. By rewarding groups on the basis of their members’ learning, students encourage their groupmates to exert maximum learning efforts. This incentive system also motivates students to engage in effective peer tutoring, translating the teacher’s instruction into learners’ language, thereby increasing quality of instruction. However, the most effective of all cooperative learning methods are Team Assisted Individualization in mathematics (Slavin, 1985) and Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition in reading and writing (Madden, Stevens, & Slavin, 1986). In addition to the incentive provided by group rewards, these methods also impact on appropriate levels of instruc use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please ACCELERATED LEARNING 76 tion, as both combine individualization (or subgrouping) with cooperative learning. Both methods have produced gains on standardized tests twice as large as those produced by traditional methods of instruction. Suggestive Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Suggestive Accelerative Learning Techniques, or SALT, is an instructional model derived from the work of Georgii Lozanov (1978), a Bulgarian psychologist. This approach is based primarily on the idea that by involving students in relaxation exercises, teaching mental concentration, and presenting information in a dynamic way, their capacity for learning will dramatically increase. The method uses what is in essence a mild form of hypnotism to increase receptivity to new information, and then uses methods similar to those used in advertising to get across the instructional “message.” A SALT lesson begins with inducing relaxation, playing classical music, and then presenting material in a dramatic, forceful way. Later the material is reviewed and practiced independently or in small groups. Students may participate in a play or psychodrama to act out the new information, and quizzes are given frequently as self-assessments of learning. While there is a good deal of research on SALT, this research is of mixed quality and is difficult to evaluate. Virtually all of it is published in the Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching , and therefore has not been subjected to the rigorous peer review typical of the journals published by the American Educational Research Association or other scientific organizations. The largest number of studies of SALT by far were authored or co-authored by the editor of the Journal, Donald Schuster. Some of the studies of SALT (e.g., Peterson, 1977; Schuster, 1976) compared SALT use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

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About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please ACCELERATED LEARNING 77 to control methods, where the SALT students received half of the instructional time received by control students. When the achievement results were not significantly different, the the authors claimed that this showed SALT to be twice as efficient as the control method. In fact, use of small samples and measures of unknown reliability ensure that any observed differences will be non-significant. Other SALT studies (e.g., Schuster & Ginn, 1978) fail to hold content constant, comparing gains in SALT on a test designed for the SALT teachers to gains in “similar” control classes which may have been teaching different objectives. Most SALT studies are either very brief or use very small samples, or both, and some had no control groups. With all of these reservations in mind, the sheer volume of testimonial as well as scientific (though flawed) evidence supporting the use of SALT indicates that the method is at least worthy of independent evaluation. A few studies of SALT did attend to problems of making experimental and control groups comparable and holding both to the same objectives, and did find small but statistically significant advantages for the method (Prichard, Schuster, & Gensch, 1980; Schuster & Prichard, 1978). However, even if the effects of the method are taken at face value, it is by no means clear which elements of SALT account for its effects. use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

OCR for page 35
About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please ACCELERATED LEARNING 78 APPLICATIONS TO MILITARY TRAINING The theories and research presented in this paper are derived primarily from studies done in elementary and secondary schools. The settings in which military training takes place differ in many ways from typical school settings. Military trainees are not only older, but they may be more motivated to learn, as there is likely to be a direct relationship between their success in training and their success in the military. The objectives of military training are often quite different from those typical of elementary and secondary schools; for example, many military tasks require hands-on, one-to-one training rather than classroom instruction. However, much of military training does involve instruction in classroom settings, and it is to this setting that the research discussed in this paper applies most directly. The applicability of the specific methods discussed in the previous section to military training depends on the training objectives and the situation in which training takes place. For example, if a training program had clearly specified, easily measured objectives, then some form of mastery learning might be appropriate. If resources were available to provide corrective instruction outside of class to students who failed to achieve mastery on a formative test, then group-based mastery could be a very effective strategy. If trainees had considerable leeway in how they used their time outside of class, then the Personalized System of Instruction (Keller Plan) might be used. If it is appropriate to allow all trainees to take as long as necessary to master a set of information or skills, then some form of individualizized instruction might be effective. use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

OCR for page 35
About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please ACCELERATED LEARNING 79 One program that has actually been evaluated and found to be effective in military training is cooperative learning (Hagman & Hayes, 1985). Cooperative learning lends itself well to the military envirornment, which already emphasizes squad organization, cohesiveness building, and mutual interdependence. Cooperative learning has been combined with individualized instruction (Slavin, 1985) and with mastery learning (Mevarech, 1985), and the results have been more positive than for either method alone, so it may be that some form of cooperative learning could be incorporated with other instructional formats in military training. The usefulness of peer tutoring in military training would depend once again on practical considerations. If more experienced or higher-ranking individuals are available to provide one-to-one instruction to trainees, this can be very effective. In particular, peer tutoring may be effectively used as corrective instruction in mastery learning programs. The applicability of SALT to military training is uncertain. One study (Peterson, 1977) did evaluate SALT in Navy ROTC naval science classes and found results that were somewhat supportive of the method. However, the author notes that “many (students) would make fun of the (SALT) exercise before the lesson and distract those who were trying to concentrate. Some of the students thought the method was a hoax and generally were the troublemakers” (page 6). It is unclear that military trainees would take deep breathing and Baroque music seriously, although it would be worth experimenting with. Beyond the particular methods, the principles outlined in this paper do apply just as well to military as to other instructional settings. Military training must emphasize well-organized, cognitively sensible instruction, it use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.

OCR for page 35
About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please ACCELERATED LEARNING 80 must take into account students’ levels of prior knowledge and skills, it must provide incentives for learning, and it must provide adequate learning time. There is no magic in instruction. Producing effective, transportable instructional models is a matter of analyzing instructional objectives and mobilizing training resources to provide high levels of instructional quality, appropriate levels of instruction, strong incentives to learn, and adequate time for learning. These are the raw materials of effective instruction, and instructional design to meet any particular objective and setting is a question of engineering available resources to provide them. use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution.