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37 Table 1 Fe a ~ u r e s o f St u d i e s Study Feature Cate gori es T r e a t me n t ~ Type o ~ P ra ct i ce Task Types Type of Dependent 24easure Time of Pos~test Sub ject Age Groups Sub je ct Expe rience Sub ject Imagery Ability Control Me nt a 1 P ra c t i ce Physical Practice M e n t a 1/ Phy s i c a 1 P ra c t i c e M ot 0 r Cognit ive St rength Endurance A c cu r a cy Speed St rength Power Form Di s tance Time on Target Time in Balance En du ran ce Imme di ate ly Delayed Elementary High School College .\dult Novice E xp e r i e n c e d Low Bigh after practice

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38 Table 1 Features of S~udies ~ Cont inued ~ S tu d y F e a tu r e Ef f e ct Siz e Comput ati on S tu dy Dat e Numbe r of Pra ct ice Ses s ions Length of Practice (Trials or Secs. Numbe r of Tes t Tri als . Cate gories Pretes t SD used Pos ttes t SD used Gain Score Sl) used t tes t used MS wi'chin used

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42 . U] ~ o o ~ V C) In · C) o Ha U: · so Cal C} X o ~ Z en - U. u sol Cal Ha: C) en Cal en Ct - - o _ ~ o to v sly Ed sly Ct :^ ~ ~ ~ ~ o 0 _ CO A, C) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 en ~ ~ ~ sol ~ V o o ~ o S~ ~ In U~ _ C-) ~ C~ 0` ~Z; ~ 1^ ~ _ _ _ U. oo ~ a, ~D _ O O O X O O Z Z ~ ~ Z; Z - ~5 ~ tS, O _ ~_ O O X O O O Z Z `:; Z Z Z S" ~ O N _~ _d _~ ~ 4 _d _t _f 0 0 u: 0 ~ 0 ~ ~ 0 0 ~ cn C~ U: ~ C~ = x: ~ ~ ~ ^ p~ ~ ~ X z: C4 ~ C4 ~ ~ ~ P~ ~; ~ ~: ~ :£ ~ & ;~ ~ ~ £ ~ Ci ~ C~ ~ C~ ~ C; ~ £ ~ ~ C-) — ~ co ~ a: %0 ~D cr~ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~C o U) s~ - - ~5 a) ~ 0 _ C: _ E E~ u: C cc a' s" 3C Ct C; cn ~C U] o~ C ~r.i ~ ~ _ U: C~ ~ oo s" ~ ~ 3 ~ UJ ~n S" ~ _ ~1 3 U: C3 U: 3 C~ ~ ~ oo U~ ~0 ~ 1— o~ ~ ~ C~ _ _ _ _ 3C . 3 U~ - - -

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43 0 ~ o o ~ v Go V so U. · ~ Cal o U' U' Cal · ~ 5~ C) X o Z 0 - An C: Ct x G _ ~ o - Go. Cal C} C ;- E~ so o U: C,} ~ CO Cal - o C ~ _, ~ ~ l: ~ O O Go Cal _ Go 0 Cal ~ ~ \0 or - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ? O X o O X O Z ;;3 Z Z ~ Z: U) :~: a' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o o ~ ~ o o ' c~ ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ ~o ~ o u~ a: ~ ~ ~ 0 a~ ~ ~ ~ o~ ~ ~ - - - - 'c - - v - 3 · · C~ ~ . - _ s" ~ O ~ ~ — 3 3 u~. ~ C ~ _1 ~ ~ ~ ~ O _ ~ ~ ~ O ~ 3 3 3 3

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44 A: U. Ct a :~ TIC 0 ~ N U: V Cal 0 3 U. Cal Ct SO C3 C) SO o C) U: A_ SO 3 C) ~ S" ;~ - o Cal ~ E ~ 3 En u: 0 Cal En · - en En 1 ~ O L. N ~ 0 00 .,1 c: 0 U' in: SO o - JJ C V ~ ~ -5 {15 C} O :^ :- :^ ~ :^ ~ ~ ~ :- ~ :- C~ C) C) C~ C) ~ ~ ~ C) C~ ~ Ct ~ Ct ~ t0 ^ Ct ~ C~ S" ~ ~ S" ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ =' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 3 3 3 ~ 3 C) ~ ~ ~ {~ C) F ~ 3 ~ {J ~) tU ~ CJ O O ~ C~ ~ ~ C., Ct5 Ct C~ 0 Ct5 ~ ~ U: ~ ~ ~ C ee ~ t~ U. S~ o o ~ _ o o - 3 o 5" · ~ oo 0 CO t0 S~ S~ )~ ~ 1 Ll ki ~ 1 L pe p. ~ cn ~o s" V ~ U) ~D o C~ O _ O _ CO - v Ct cn C U: 3 o v - o o _ c) S" 3 o S" LJ C~ C~ 1 o S" 3 U o CiO ~ ~ 1 0 : S~ , C~ O O ~ 0 3 ~ o o ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ o ~ s" C~ _ £ u' ~ ~ ~ o ~ _ _ ~ _ v v ^~ a: ~n 0 ~ s" t0 ~ — t0 ~ ~ O C: ~ ~ ~ ~ J C O 3 ~ ~ 3 E 3 ~ C) ~ ~ o ~— o CC s~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo s 3 V ~ ~ C: ~ _ ~ ~ ~ -r, ~O 0 Ct ~ ~ ~ C) U ^ 1 =: O c: S:: ~ _i 1 ~ ~ ~ t~ C, ~ Tt O ~ ~ 03 0 ~ , C3 S" S" O C;l 3 ~ ~ ~ ~ C— ~ ~ =: C O C ~ ~ ~ o ~ o a ? C~ ~ C oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ ': ~ V V ~ V V ~ V V co u: 0 0 0 0 0 cn 0 cn 0 0 u~- Z Z Z Z Z Z ~ ~ Z Z Z Z Z Z O ~ ~ ~ ~ C c~ , ~ a~ ? Ct CO t0 oo oc V ~ V ~ ~ o o O o o o Z Z >4 ~ Z ~ ~ Z ~ Z Z ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 _ (~: — ~ 1 ~ 3 ~ ;c ~ ~ o :, ~ ~ 1 ~i o o U' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o -^ O oc ~ CO C: ~ .. = ;: tC V Cf: ~ C~ ~ o ~ ~, . - — _j o Li ~ 1 ¢ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ V V ~ ' ~ ~ ;) _

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45 Go X * o ~ N · Ct As C) Ct C; U. U] U C: ~4 Ct U) U) A_ SO ~ S" ~ _ O Cal _' ~ C EM u: U] EM · ~ Ct ~ ~ a so EM P4 1 ~ ~ 0 so so Cal N (V O ~ go lo: ~ ' to So · :- :^ ~ ~ ~ :^ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ C) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ U ~ ~ ~ ~ V ~ ~ ~ t~ C;5 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O S~ S~ S~ S~ ~ ~ V S~ ~ S" ~ O tO ~ ~ ~ ~ — ~ O _ U ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ c~ v ~ ~ c~ c~ ~t ~ o' C; ~ e~o ~ c~ V E C) C~ V ~ C) CJ ~ ~ ~ Cd Ct ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o~ ~ ~ ~ ~ cn V o~ U C\5 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ,~ S~ 1 ~ ~ S4 S~ 1 1 ~ to ~ S~ O 1 ~ CJ: 1 ~ 1 ~ o ~ ~ s. 3 ~ 0 3 o O ~ ~ o s" O o ~ O ~ E ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o s" ~ o ~ ~ o — ~ ~ o o ~ o ~ _ o ~ ~ ' E O ~ ~ ~ o ~ o u u ~ 3 ^ ~ o o o ~ — — t0 o 5" o U ~ ~ o C, c: ~ ~ s" o ~ o — — C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ V _ ~ _ ~ ~ s~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 — ~ ~ C 1 u' ~ — ~ 3 o V _ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ _ — 5-4 ·~ ~ CL _ S-~ ~ k' k~ a~ ~ ~ u~ ;4 u G ~D ~ k~ o eD ex5 ~) ~ I ~1 ~ _ ~ v ~t ~ 1 a, ~ ~ ~ u: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ U) =5 o ~ ~ V ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ U ~ ~ C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O _ _ — ~ X U, ~— S O ~ E~ ~ ~ E~ cn O ~ ~ e ~ ~o l ~ u ~ 1 u~ u: ~n u~ co cn v~ tn 0 0 u~ 0 co u: r~ I z z z z ~ z z z z z z z z z z ~ ~ l ~ ~ 1 .,1 ~ 1 cc e~ 1 v o o z C | c} a 3 ~ ~ I ~ i _ ~ 1 o ~ C) ~ ~ ~ ~ :^ ~ 0 >` ~ (~! ~ ~ ~ a) c c _ ~ ~ j _ D c~ ~ ~ t3 ~t _ 3 o 3 - ~i ~ ~ ~ X ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ G o ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ G X C _ _ _: ~ ~ ,_: ~ ,~ , ~ ;~; Z ~

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I" ~ 0 :~ Ad cn to a) en En · e ~ ~ ~ ~ JO C) ~ Cal ~ ~ So ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a, CJ tJ V CJ C) S" ~ ~ ~ ~ So ~ Cal c5 cat tat 3 ct cell ~ ct ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ .= C) : - ~ _ C) O O ~ lo ~ _ ~5 0 cat c~ E ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ E ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ V C} _I ~ ~ (V ~ =. ~ =. ~. u: eq u~ u~ 0 Ct c~ ~ ~ u~ v ~ u: ~ a: u: Ct 00 S" S" ~ S" ~ U. ~ S" S" ~ u: ~ ~ ~: cn ~ u, ~ ~ c S~ O ^ O —~ ~ E O ~ . O _ o O O s" ~ ~ ~ s" O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . - o v o ~ 0 oo ~ ~ E ~ ~ — o ~ o — ~ o ~ ~ ~ o ~ o ~ o 4, ·~ t~ ~ ~ ~ _ — `: e ~o ~ o ~ — ~ — oo ~ 0 ~ C) _ O _ V _ ~o ~ ~ e s~ ~ ~ v ~ t~ O ~ ~ ~ — 1 0 C ~ ~ — s" O — ~ t~ ~ 3 3 O O ~ ~ ~ v ~ o S" ~1 0 0 S~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ co ~ ~ ~ E O ~ ~ _ — ~ ~ ~ ~ o £ o ~ ~ ce t~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c: ~ ~ ~ v ° ° ° ~ ~ 3 E ~ ~ ~ _1 1 u: D ~ ~ ~ ~ Ql oO Cn o ~ ~ o ~ ~ : s" ° l l N I C ~ l 0 e ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ _ Cd cn ~ 0 ~ 0 0 ~ 1 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ z z ~ z ~ ~ ~ ~ z a, ~ ~ ~ . 1 C5 ~ a3C dC * ~: c: U] cn O C~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ c c _ ~ ~; ~ E E E O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : cn cn u: c~ u: c~: CI: c oc o~ cD 3 ~ ` ~ ~ ~ C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ O ~ , - ~ . - ~ ~ .,.. _ _ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ . 3 ~ 3 3 3 ~ ~ >~ >~ ~ CC <: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ '~'

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47 ' Be, 0 Ct a ~ U] ;n Cal ~3 Ct so CC Hi: U: U: 5~ V 5- 0 C: a; _' Cal - s" - C~. _ ~ V so V ~ U ~ ~ to so ~ ~ ~ ~ Cal ~ ~ ~ 0 so ~ ~ U ~ ~ C ~ is {t S · to ~ C LIZ ~ ~ t) ~ ~ Ll ~ 3 C;, C) ~ ~ V V 0 ~ Ct ~ ~ ~ V C: U Ct ~ a, Ct5 to * O ~ N · ~ : ct ~ v c~ ~ a ~n ra ~n ~ ~ ~ u, I s~ ~ 0 0 ~ s" ~ I CO u: v ~ cn ~ ~ ~ s" S" ~ ~ Ct ~ 0 0 ~ 2 ~ 3 ~ > ~ o E o C.' 5- ~ L' V ~ 3 ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~o ~ ~ ~ 0 0 &4 ~ Ct ~ 0 _ _ ~ o ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ o ~ 5- ~ o o ~ * ~ i ~ ;: ~ co o o ~ ~ — u: ,_, - ~ o 3 ~) o ~ E U' ts o _ ~ ~ 0,, ~ ~ o s" ~ ~ ~, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ° I ^ _ ~ ~ o E ° O 3 ~ o C I E 3 C E Y C — — o ~ _ Ct ~ ~ ~ > > > ~o ~ ~ ~ c0 ~o o ~ ~ ~ ~ V 1 o ~ 0 0 ~ 0 0 cn 0 0 ~ v: cn U ~L o ~ ~ N ~ O ~ ~ C} ~rl ~ ~ ~ >' .- ~ ~ ~ ~; C O z z z ¢~~ ~ ¢,. z ~ ~ Z Z Z C - - ~; ~C o S" ~ ;: ~ :3 _ C~ ~ -lC lC ~ V td ~ ~ ~ ~ 0~) ~ ~ O ~ ~rl ~ ~ ~ C) ~ _ ~ -3 'L', ~ _ _ :: ~ CO ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ '~' ~ ^ ;n ~ _ ~ 4, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 3 ~ ~ 3 _ _ c~ cr: ;r. ;r~ u: u: co ~ ~ ~ 3 !

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48 SO C} U] a' :; TIC O ~ N · U. Ct C) U] a) V U. Cal Cal 5~ U: C) U: C-) SO Ct O C: _' o Cal Cal E U: en Ct EM · ~ Cal So EM 1 ~ ~ O PA '= N O E o C: 0 C - C V ~ SO 1 ~ so O ~ :- ~ ~ ~ :^ ~ C) U C) ~ ~ ~ C} ~ cat too ~ ~ ~ 1 so ~ ~ Cal ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :, C) C) S~ C) O F: C) ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 Ct S~ S~ S~ ~ L~ ~ S~ Ct ^ ~ ~ O O ~ S" ~ O O CJ dJ O O ~ ~ ~ C~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ _ _ ~ Z ~ _ ,, ~s _ ~ C: cn ~ ~ 0 O ~ Ct m~ O _l ~_ ~ ~ O =: ~ 0 1 00 0 Ct ~ c: t0 ~ U' O O ~ O cn ~ o ~ E c,n— _ ~ E~ — ~, o z z Z Z Z Z _~ · - 3 cn u, cn c~ v, ~n Z Z Z Z Z Z ~o o z ~c . - ~ ct ~ o c ~ e ~i ~ o ~ c 3 3 ,..

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~l=II~1 rraCClCe 49 Table 3 Treatment Group Differences Among Effect Sizes Test of Mean eff ect-size Source df Homogeneity ~ estimate (s.e. ~ To t a 1 2 2 1 7 8 8 . 3 2 . 00 1 ~ . 4 3 ( 0 . 0 2 ) $ Between groups 3 119 .6 3 .001 Within groups 218 668.69 .001 Control 47 116.71 .001 0.22 (0.03~* Mental 68 236.54 .001 0.47 (0.03~* p ra c t i ce Physical 53 148.28 .001 0.79 ~ 0.05 ~ * practice Combined 50 167.17 .001 0.62 ~ 0.05~* practice

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50 Table 4 Analysis of Change in Type of Task by Treatment Group Test of Mean effect-size Source df Homogeneity ~ estimate (s.e. ) MOTOR 156 681.69 eOO1 0 e 47 ( 0 a02)* Between groups 3 133.96 .001 Within groups 155 5 47.74 .001 Control 32 96.57 .001 0.24 ~ 0.03~* Mental 53 208.93 .001 0.49 (0.03~* pra at ice Physical 38 112.13 .001 0.88 ~ 0.06~* practice Combined 32 130.10 .001 0.81 (0.071* p ra c t i ce COGNITIVE 2 13 . 7 2 .01 0 . 9 5 ~ O . 20 ) * Between groups 2 13.72 .01 Within groups O O .00 Control O 0.00 O. 47 (O. 24) Mental O 0.00 2.09 ~ 0.49) practice Physical O 0.00 2.08 (0.49) practice Combined - - - practic" STRENGTH 59 54.47 ns 0.21 ~ 0.04) Between groups 3 5.33 ns Within groups 56 49.15 ns Control 13 16.26 ns O .11 ~ O .07 Mental 13 9.31 ns 0.27 ~ 0.08 pract~ ce Physical 13 14.36 ns O .38 ~ 0.11 ) practice Combined 17 9.22 ns 0.18 (0.10) practice

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Penman rracclce 51 Tab le 5 Analysis of Change in Type of Measure by Treatment Group for Motor Type Tasks Tes t of Mean ef f e ct -s ize Source df lIomageneity p estimate (s.e. ACCURACY MEASURE 112 4 38 . 5 5 .001 0 . 4 3 ~ O .0 2 ~ * ~- Between groups 3 74.94 .001 Within groups '09 363.61 .001 Control 26 76.57 .001 0.24 (0.031* Mental 43 154.08 .001 0.46 ~ 0.03~* practice Physical 22 74.68 .001 0.84 ~ 0.07~* practice Combined 18 58.27 .001 0.61 ~ 0-08~$ p ra c t i ce SPEED MEASURE 8 27.48 .001 0.62 (0.11~* Between groups 2 14.72 .001 Within groups 6 12.7 6 .05 Control - - Mental 2 1.67 ns 0.31 (0.14) practice Physical 2 10.67 .01 O. 70 ~ 0.22) practice Combined 2 0.42 ns 1.40 ~ 0.23) practice FORM MEASURE 2 1. 5 5 ns O . 4 1 ~ O . ~ 1 Between groups 2 1.55 ns Within groups O 0.00 ns Control - - - ~Mental O 0.00 0.25 (0.27) practice Physical O 0.00 0.94 ~ 0~48) practice Combi ned O 0.00 0.40 ~ 0.42) practice .

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52 Tab le 5 Analsis of Change in Type of Measure by Treatment Group for Motor (Continued Type Tasks Test of Mean effect -s ize Source df Homogeneity ~ estimate (s.e. ) DISTANCE MEASURE 3 11.25 .02 0.56 ( 0.13) . Between group s 3 11 ~ 25 Within groups O O ~ 00 ns Control 0 0.00 0. 17 ~ 0. 18 ) Mental 0 0.00 1.06 ( 0.26) practice Physical 0 0.00 0.68 ~ 0.30 p ra ct i ce Combined 0 0.00 1.32 ~ 0.47) practice TIME TARGET/ ~ , IN BALANCE 29 163.91 .001 0.89 ( 0.07) ~ , Between groups 3 6 7 .7 7 .00 1 Within groups 26 9 6.14 .001 Control 4 19.44 .001 0.16 (0.11) Mental 4 19.69 .001 1.34 (0.17) practice Physical 10 20.21 .05 1.21 ~ 0.14 practice Combined ~ 36.81 .001 1.57 ~ 0.17) practice

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Ta b le 6 Summary of Regres sion Analyses for Continuous Predictors Predictor Variable Chi Squa re df Model df Chi Squa re Er r o r No. of Practice Sessions _ ~ Cont rol Mental Practice Phy s ice 1 Pra ct ice Me ntal/Phys i cal No. of Practice Trials Cont rol Mental Practice Phy s ice 1 Pra ct ice M e nt a 1/ P hy s i ca 1 4 2.13 23 47.79* 4 20.59* 36 84.72* 4 18.74* 36 98.32* 4 15. 12* 39 146. 39* 4 17.75* 23 32.17 4 37 .86* 36 67. 45* 4 29.82* 36 87.23* 4 3.62 39 157. 89* * p<.05