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54 References Arnold, E.L. 1965 The relationship between physical and mental practice and initial ability in learning a simple motor skill. . , , Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University. Bagg, E.J.K. 1966 Effect of mental and physical practice on baseball batting. Unpublished master's thesis, University of California at Los Angeles. Beckow, P.A. 1967 A comparison of the effectiveness of mental practice . upon the learning of two gross motor skills. ~ . Unpublished master's thesis, University of Oregon. Birge, R.T. 1932 The calculation of errors by the method of least squares. Physical Review, 40, 207-227. , . . ~ Bissonette, R. 1965 The relative effects of mental practice upon the . . , learning of two gross motor skills. Unpublished masterls thesis' Springfield College. Burns, P.L. 1962 The effect of physical practice, mental practice, and mental-physical practice on the development of a motor skill. Unpublished master's thesis, The Pennsylvania State University. Campbell, D .T. and Stanley, ~ . C . 1963 Experimental and Quasi-experimental Designs for . _ Re s e a r c h . C h i c a g 0: ~ a n d - M c N a 1 1 y .

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Clark, L .V. 1960 Effect of mental practice on the development of a certain motor skill. Research Quarterly, 31, 560-569. Cooper ~ lI.M. 1 9 79 19 82 Statistically combining independent studies: A meta- analysis of sex differences in conformity research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 131- 146 . Scientific guidelines for conducting integrative research reviews. Review of Educational Research, 2 29 1-302. 19 84 The Intergrative Review , Beve rly Rills: Sage . Corbin, C .B . 1967 The effect of covert rehearsal on development of a complex motor skill. Journal of General Psychology, 76, 143-150. 1972 Mental practice. In W.P. Morgan (Ed.), Ergogenic Aids and Muscular Performance. New York: Academic Press. Cronk, J.M. 1967 The effect of physical practice, mental practice, and physical-mental practice on the development of arm strength. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida State University. Dunbar, D. W. 1970 T effect of four designs of physical-mental practice_ upon the learning of the f rant crawl . Unpublished master's thesis, University of Maryland.

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56 Egs from, G . H. 1964 Effect of an emphasis on conceptualizing techniques during early learning of a gross motor skill. Research Qua r Tic e r 1 y ~ 3 5 ~ 4 7 2- 48 1 e Eideness, C.L. 1965 The effect of physical, mental-physical. and mental practice on the learning of a motor skil 1. Unpublished master's thesis, South Dakota State University. Epstein, M.L. 1980 The relationship of mental imagery and mental rehearsal to performance of a motor task. Journal of Sport Psychology ~ 2 ~ 211-220 ~ 1978 An exercise in mega-silliness . American Psychologist, 33 ~ ~ 17 ~ Feltz, [).L. and Landers, D.M. 1983 The effects of mental practice on motor skill learning and performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport P s y c ~ o l o g y , 5 ~ 2 55 7 e Fishe r, R . A . 1932 Statistical Methods for Research Workers ~ 4th ed. ). London: Oliver & Boyd. Glass ~ G.V. 19 76 Primary, secondary, and Educational Researche r, Glass, G.V., McGaw, B. ~ and Smith, 1981 Meta-analysis _ Social Sage . meta-analysis of research. 5, 3-8. ~ . L . Research. Beverly Hills, CA: .

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Gondola, J.C. 1966 A comparison of the effectiveness of programs of physical practice, mental practice, and a combined physical and mental practice on the performance of a ~ ~ ~ ~ _ selected test of balance. Unpublished master's thesis, ~ , Purdue University. Ball, E.G. 1981 The ef feet of positive visual imagery on free throw _ ~ - ~ accuracy of intercollegiate women basketball player s . Unpublished manuscript. (Available f ram E .G. Ball, School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803) . Harby, S . F . 1952 Comparisons of mental and physical practice in the learning of a physical skill. U.S.N. Spec. Dev. Cen. Tech. Rep. S.D.C., 269, 7-25. _ Hedges, L.V. 1981 Distribution theory for G1ass's estimator of effect size and related estimators. Journal of Educational S t a t i s t i c s , 6 ~ 1 0 7 - 1 2 8 . 1982a Estimation of effect size from a series of independent experiments. Psycho, Apical Bulletin, 92, 490-499. 1982b Fitting categorical models to effect sizes f rom a series of experiments. Journal of Educational Statistics, 7, 119-137. 1982c Fitting continuous models to effect size data. Journal _ Educational Statistics, 7, 245-270.

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58 1983 1984 A random effects model for effect sizes. Psychological Bulletin, 93, 388-395. Advances in statistical methods for meta-analysis. In W.H. Yeaton and P.M. Wortman (Eds. ). Issues In Data Synthesis . New Directions f or Program Evaluation, no. 24. son Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Hedges, L.V. and Olkin, T. 19 85 Statistical Methods for Meta-analysis . New York: . Academic Press. Howe, D.P. 1967 1980 The influence of five schedules of mental practice upon the physical performance of a novel gross motor skill _ . after a criterion measure of skill has been attained. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Woman's University. Jackson, G.B. Methods for integrative reviews. Research, 50, 438-460. Johnson, B.L. 19 67 Review of Education An examination of some f actors which might be rel ated . , , to effective utilization of mental practice in learning a gross motor skill . Unpublished mas ter 's tines is, Uni ve rs i ty 0 f 0 re gon . Kelsey, T.B. 1961 Effects of mental practice and physical practice upon mu s c u 1 a r e n du ra n c e . Kovar, S .V. Research Quarterly, 32, 47-S4. 1969 The relative effects of physical, mental, and combined _ .

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mental -physical practice in the acquisition of a moto r ~ ~ ~ _ skill. Unpublished master's thesis, University of I 1 li n o i s . LaLance' R.C., Jr. ~ 9 7 4 Luebke, L.L. 1967 Maxwell, J.M. 1968 A comparison of traditional instructs on, mental practice, and combined physical-men~al practice upon the learning of selected selected motor skills. ~ Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Middle Tennessee State University. A comparison of the ef fects of varying schedules of mental and physical practice trials on the performanc . . Of the overarm softball throw. Unpublished mas ter 's ~ Em. . th es i s . Uni ve rs i ty of W is cons i n-Ma dis on . The ef feet of mental practice on the learning of the ~ . ~ __ ~ ~ overhand volleyball serve. Unpublished master 's thesis, Central Missouri State College. McKeown, B .C. 1967 The effect of physical, mental-physical, and mental practice on the learning of the modified triple jump. Unpublished master's thesis, South Dakota State Uni ve rs ity . ~ Uno bt al nab le ~ FIendoza, D., ~ Wickman, H. 1978 ~ Inner" darts: Effects of mental practice on perf ormance of dart throw~n=. Perceptual and Moto r Ski' Is, 4 7, 1 19 5- 1 199 . e

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60 Murphy, T .J. 19 77 Noel, R.C. The effects of mental warm-up on jump shooting accuracy _ . . among selected boys' high school basketball players Unpublished master's thesis, South Dakota State University. 1980 The effect of vi-quo-motor behavior rehearsal on tennis performance. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 221-226. ~ , _ Oxendine, B. 1969 Effect of mental and physical practice on the learning of three motor skills. Research Quarterly, 40, 755- 763. Perry, H.~. 1939 The relative efficiency of actual and imaginary practice in five selected tasks. Archives of Ps ychology, 3 4, 5- 7 5 . Powell, G.E. 19 73 Pruner, S.W. 19 71 Negative and positive mental practice in motor skill acquisition. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 37. 312. The effects of three methods of practice on improving , the performance of a modified free-throw by sixth grade girls. Unpublished master's thesis. North Texas State University. Raudenbush, S.W. and Bryk, A.S. 1985 Empirical Bayes meta-analysis. Statistic s, 10, 7 S-98 . Journal of Educational

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Rawlings, E.I., & Rawlings ~ I.L. 1974 Rotary pursuit tracking following mental rehearsal as a function of voluntary control of visual imagery. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38, 302. _ . ~ Rawlings, E.I., Rawlings, I.L., Chen, S.S., and Donis Yilk, M. 1972 The facilitating effects of mental rehearsal in the acquisition of rotary pursuit tracking. Psychonomic Science, 2 6, 71- 73. _ Richardson, A. 1967a Mental practice: A review and discussion. Part I. Research Quarterly, 38 ~ 95-107. 1967b Mental practice: A review and discussion. Part II. Research Quartlery, 38, 264-273. Rodriguez, G.J. 19 67 A comparison of the ef feet s of mental and physical practice upon abdominal strength in high school girl s . Unpublished master's thesis, University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Ros enthal, R . and Rubi n ~ . B . 1982 Comparing effect sizes of independent studs es. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 500-504. Ryan, D.E. ~ and Simons ~ J. 1981 Cognitive demand' imagery, and frequency of mental rehearsal as factors ~nf luencing acquisition of motor skills . Journal of Sport Psychology ~ 3, 35-45 . Efficacy of mental imagery in enhancing mental rehears al of mot or skills . Journal or Sport Ps y c h o 1 o g y , 4 ~ 4 1 - 5 1 . 1982

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62 1983 Sackett, R.S 1935 - ~ What is learned in mental practice of motor skills: A test of the cognitive-motor hypothesis. Journal of Spo r t Ps ye ho 1 0 g y ~ 51 ~ 4 1 9- 4 26 e one re~ac~onsn~p between amount of symbolic rehearsal and retention of a maze habit. Journal of General Psychology, 13, 113-128. Seiderman, A. and Schneider, S. 19 83 The Athletic Eye . New York: Sheldon, M.F. 1963 An investigation of the relative effects of mental practice and physical practice in improving the efficiency of the breast stroke. Unpublished master'` ~ . thesis, University of Oregon. Sloven ~ R .:. 1984 Meta-analysis in education: Bow has it been used? Educational Researcher, 13, 6-15. Smith, L.E. ~ ~ Harrison' J.S. 1962 Comparison of the effects of visual, motor, mental and guided practice upon speed and accuracy of performance of a simple eye-hand coordination task. Research Quarterly, 33 ~ 299-307. Smyth ~ M.M. 1975 The role of mental practice in skill acquisition. Journal of Motor Behavior' 7, 199-206. Spea rs ~ Ale xa nde r ), C . L . 1966 The effect of mental practice and physical practice -

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Mental Practice 63 learning the running high jump for college women. Unpublished master's thesis, Arkansas State College. Standridge, 3.0. 1971 The effect of mental, physical, and mental-physical _ , ~ ~ practice in learning the whip kicke Unpublished mas ter ' s tines is, Uni are rs ity of Tenne s s ee . Start, K.8. 1962 Stebbins, 3. 1968 The influence of subjectively assessed games ability on gain in motor perf ormance after mental practice. Journal of General Psychology, 6 7, 169-172. A comparison of the effects of physical and mental practice in learning a motor skill. Research Quarterly, 39, 714-720. Stephens, M.L. 1966 The relative effectiveness of combinations of mental . ~ and physical practice on performance scores and level . ~ . . Of aspiration scores for an accuracy task. Unpublished master's thesis, University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Surburg, P.R. 1968 1976 Audio, visual, and audio-visual instruction with mental practice in developing the f orehand tennis drive. Research Quarterly, 39, 728-734 . Aging and effect of physical-mental practice upon acquisition and retention of a motor skill. Journal of (gerontology' _' 54-67.

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64 . ~ _ ~ ~ _ ~ _ L J. Cal A_ \_ ~ ~ ~ T ru s s e 1 1 , E . M . 19 52 Mental practice as a factor in the learning of a ~ , ~ _ ~ _ complex motor skill. Unpublished master 's thesis. University of Cali fornia at Berkeley. Tufts, S.A. 19 63 Twining, 1949 Weinberg, 1 9 8 2 19 65 The ef f ects of mental practice and physical practice on . the scores of intermediate bowler s . Unpublished _ . _. master's thesis, University of North Carolina at G re e ns bar o . W.E . Mental practice and physical practice in learning a motor skill. Research Quarterly, 20, 432-435. R . S . The relationship between mental preparation strategies and motor performance: A review and critique. Quest, 33' 195-213. White, K.D. ~ Ashton, R. ~ and Lewis, S. 1978 Learning a complex skill: Effects of mental practice, physical practice' and imagery ability. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 10, 71-78. Whitehill, H.P. 1964 The effects of variations of mental practice on learning a motor skil 1 . University of Oregon. The effects of mental practice on children's learning ~ . . and retention of gross-motor skills. Unpublished ~ . ~ . doctoral dissertation. University of (Oregon. Unpublished master's thesis,

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-1~:1~ an r ru cat Ail: 65 Whiteley, G. 19 62 Whitworth, P. - 1986 W i 1 1 s ~ B . J . 1 9 6 6 Wi 1 1 s ~ K . C . 19 65 Wilson, M. 1960 The effect of mental rehearsal on the acquisition of _ , ~ ~ ~ ~ motor skill. Unpublished dip lo me in e ducation dissertation, University of Manchester, 1962. Effects of internal imagery and experiental state on the performance of intercollegiate smallbore rifle ~ ~ , shooters. Unpublished Master's thesis. Department of - Physical Educat~ on, Western Kentucky Uni~rersity. Mental practice as a factor in the performance of two motor tasks. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Uni ve rs ity of Wis cousin, Madison. The effect of mental practice and physical practice on Unpu b 1is h ed master's thesis, learning a motor skill. - Arkansas State College. The relative effect of mental practice and physical _ . . ~ . ~ practice in learning the tennis forehand and backhand drives. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, State University of Towa. Woolfolk, R.L., Murphy, S.M., Gottesfeld, O., and Awaken, D. 19~3S Effects of mental rehearsal of task motor activity and mental depiction of task outcome on motor skill performance. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7 , 1 9 1- ~ 9 7 .

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