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CHAPTER 2 2 . 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter reports the results of an initial, exploratory, and income plete test of the model developed in Chapter 1. The data used for this purpose are from 15 World Fertility Survey (WFS) countries--the maximum number available when we began the empirical research. For present pur- poses, the Setting variability referred to in Chapter 1 is operational- ized as between-country variability. For the remainder of this chapter, we will refer to the country level of observation as the macro level, and the individual level of observation (whether respondents or couples) as the micro level. Given this vocabulary, the model developed in Chapter 1 can be described as a micro specification consisting of 16 structural equations, and a macro model--as yet unspecified--consisting of hypotheses about the nature of macro variability in the micro coefficients. One of the purposes of this chapter is to operationalize the macro hypotheses in order to test the theory developed in Chapter 1. The remainder of this chapter is organized as follows. defines and justifies the problem to be studied. Section 2.2 Section 2.3 extends the macro hypotheses introduced in Chapter 1 by translating the hypotheses about sign variability in structural coefficients across the traditional/ transitional continuum into corresponding hypotheses about the effects of macro dimensions closely linked to the traditional/transitional distinc- tion, but more readily measured. Section 2.4 lists the countries that provide the data for the empirical analysis reported in this chapter, describes the macro variables, defines the subset of the WFS data to be used in the analysis, and describes the micro variables employed e In Section 2.5, the operationalization of the micro-level model is illus- trated with selected results for Peru and Korea. Section 2.6 reports the results of a macro analysis of micro coefficient variability, based on the discussion in Section 2.3, as well as on the extension and operation- alization of the macro reasoning presented in Section 2,3. Finally, Section 2.7 summarizes the accomplishments of this initial testing of the theory. ~0