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Appendix Biographical Sketches NEVILLE MORAY (Chair) ~ professor of industrial engineering at the University of Toronto with responsibility for the human factors program. He has held academic positions at Stirling Uni- versity, the University of Toronto, the University of Sheffield, the University of Hull, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is currently also a Miller visiting professor in the departments of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. For five years he rem resented the United Kingdom on the NATO Science Committee Special Panel on Human Factors. His basic research is concerned with the role of the human in complex automated systems and the estimation of operator mental workload. His consulting work has included work for nuclear regulatory bodies in the United King- dom and Canada on human factors issues for the Sizewall "B" public inquiry, task analysis, the design clef emergency operating procedures, models of operator error, and the use of simulators in training. He has been responsible for organizing NATO workshops on mental workload on human error, has served on a committee of the IEEE on guidelines for nuclear industry human factors, and is vice president of Human Factors North, Inc. He received B.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Oxford University. LINDA R. COHEN is a visiting assistant professor in the De- partment of Economics at the University of California, Irvine. She conducts research on the political economy of nuclear power, 109

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110 energy policy, and electricity. She has also studied federal pro- grams to develop new technology including nuclear research and development programs. She was a member of the Advisory Pane] in Support of the Office of Technology Assessment of the U.S. Congress, assessing magnetic fusion research and development in 198~1987, and a member of the Department of Energy's Program Review Committee on Airborne Nuclear Waste Management in 1980-1982. She was an assistant editor of Public Policy from 1978 to 1980. She received an A.B. in mathematics from the Univer- sity of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. in economics from the California Institute of Technology. RUSSELL R. DYNES is chair and professor of the Department of Sociology at the University of Delaware. He Is also President of the Research Committee on Disasters, International Sociological Association. He has held academic positions at various universities including University College, Cardiff, the University of Delaware, the University of Delhi, Aims Shams University, the Arab States Center for Education in Community Development, Ohio State University, Capital University, and the University of Tennessee. His research experience has included work on educational changes in a transitional community, laboratory simulation studies of or- ganizational behavior under stress, community reaction to water resource problems in relation to planning cross cultural studies of disasters, organizational response to major community crises, or- ganizational communication and decision making in disaster, and delivery of emergency medical services and mental health services in disaster. He has been a participant in numerous conferences and workshops on disasters and was a member of the Task Force on Emergency Planning and Response to the Accident at Three Mile Island. He has consulted for the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Community Services Administration, the President's Reorganiza- tion Project, the Secretario de Gobernacion, the Stanford Research Institute, and a number of private law firms. Dynes received A.B. and M.A. degrees from the University of Tennessee and a Ph.D. from Ohio State University. HERBERT ESTRADA, JR., is president of MPR Associates, Inc. He has had firsthand experience in engineering of fluid and control systems, 12 years of which were devoted to the design, analysis, field installation, test and evaluation of naval nuclear propulsion

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111 plant systems. Since 1964 he has been responsible for the technical coordination and direction of projects including design, analysis, testing, and operation of nuclear fossil-fueled power and marine propulsion systems, hydraulic, pneumatic, and electronic control systems, electrical systems, and fluid systems. From 1951 through 1963 he worked at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory of West- inghouse Electric Corporation; his responsibilities there included: supervisor of advanced surface ship control engineering, chief test engineer for acceptance testing of Bettwdesigned reactors for nu- clear submarines at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, lead engineer for nuclear plant analysis of Skate Class Nuclear Submarines, and designer of power range instrumentation and reactor protection systems and hardware for the U.S.S. Nautilus. Estrada received a B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania. He has taken graduate courses in physics and mathematics at the University of Pittsburgh. CLAY E. GEORGE is professor of psychology at Texas Tech University. He has conducted research on adaptive behavior, team effectiveness, team performance, intragroup coordination, interfer- ence and fatigue in multit ask training situations, and team mem- ber coordination. He has held positions at George Washington University, Arizona State University, the University of Houston, and Texas A & M University. He has been a consultant for nu- merous institutions, including Goodyear Aircraft, the U.S. Army Infantry School, the U.S. Army Human Engineering Laboratory, the Houston Chapter of Industrial Engineers, Lubbock Mental Health Association, Matheson, Bieneman, Veale, & Parr, Attor- neys at Law, ant! Applied Science Associates, Inc. He is a member of the American Psychological Association. George received a B.S. in psychology and sociology from Arizona State University, M.A. degrees in psychology and anthropology from the Univer- sity of Arizona, and a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Houston. PAUL M. HAAS is a manager of Advanced Systems Technol- ogy, International Technology Corporation, and is responsible for technical management of a national program related to severe accidents in advanced nuclear reactors and for development of programs in systems engineering and science. From 1976 to 1987 he was head of the Reliability and Human Factors Group, Engi- neering Physics and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National

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112 Laboratory, where he had technical, management, and admin- istrative responsibility for an interdisciplinary group conducting research in human-system engineering and science. He has 13 years of professional experience in systems safety, reliability, and human factors. HE research experience has included analysm of severe accidents in advanced reactors, reliability data systems and data anIaysis, human factors, training systems and human performance modeling. His management experience includes technical, person- nel, and financial management of tasks, projects, and multiproject programs. His professional affiliations include the American Nu- clear Society, the Human Factors Society, and the Risk Society of America. Haas received a B.S. in engineering science and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in nuclear engineering from the University of Vir- ginia. He has taken a postdoctoral course in cognitive psychology at the University of Tennessee. LARRY HIRSCHHORN ~ a senior researcher at the Management and Behavioral Science Center of the Wharton School. He con- ducts research in the areas of manufacturing and office technology, the problems and opportunities posed by group and team work, and the impacts of computerized production processes on job and organization design. In addition, he does consulting work on such issues as organization design, job design, organization process, and problems of role and authority. His clients have included the Sun Company, Exxon Enterprises, the Nuclear Regulatory Com- mission, the Legal Services Corporation, and Wallace, Roberts and Todd. Hirschhorn received a B.A. in economics from Bran- deis University and a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. BEVERLY M. HUEY served as a research associate to the panel. As a staff member of the Committee on Human Factors, the projects she is involved in include one on pilot performance model- ing in CAD/CAE facilities and a workshop report on multicolored displays. While completing course requirements for a doctoral degree, she has had practice placements as an engineering psy- chologist in the Close Combat (Light and Heavy) Directorate of the U.S. Army Human Engineering Laboratory and as a data analyst and consultant for a counseling center. In addition, she has taught courses in statistics and the use of computer statistical packages. She is currently a member of the Human Factors Society, the American Statistical Association, Psi Chi, and Alpha Kappa

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113 Delta. Huey received B.S. degrees in psychology and sociology from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and an M.A. in psychology from George Mason University. A graduate student in the Psychology Department of George Mason Univer- sity in the Human Factors Engineering Program, she expects to receive a Psy.D. degree in 1989. JOYCE KEEN is the director of the Department of Clinical Psychology at Iowa Methodist Medical Center, the largest health system in Iowa. In addition to administrative duties, she is an active clinician specializing in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine. Her previous research has included human isolation studies, longitudinal child development studies, the psychology of morbid obesity patients electing gastric stapling, and indexing studies in behavior therapy for the Ford Foundation. She was formerly a registered nurse, with experience in spinal cord injury, neurosurgery, urology, medicine, surgery, psychiatry, as well as chemical dependency and eating disorders. She received a B.A. in psychology from the University of Alabama, a Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Nova University, and completed a postdoctoral internship in clinical psychology at the Ohio State University Hos- pital. TODD. R. LAPORTE is professor of political science and asso- ciate director of the Institute of Governmental Studies at the Uni- versity of California, Berkeley. He conducts research on the struc- ture and decision-making dynamics of complex, technologically intensive organizations, and the effects of advanced technologies on organizational and regulatory development. His recent work includes studies of public policy and organizational dilemmas of radioactive waste management, as well as institutional effects of alternative energy technologies on utilities and regulators in the operating technologies demanding a very high level of operational reliability, especially, air traffic control, regional electrical power systems, the nuclear power fuel cycle, and naval aircraft carrier op- erations. He has served on the National Research Council's Board on Radioactive Waste Management and on the External Advisory Cornrnittee, Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratories. He is a member of the National Academy of Public Adminis- tration, has been a fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Smithsonian Institution, and has been a re- search fellow at the Sciences Center in Berlin. He received a B.A.

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114 from the University of Dubuque and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University. JENS RASMUSSEN is a professor of cognitive engineering at the Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, and the Technical Uni- versity of Copenhagen, Denmark. Previously he was head of the Electronics Department at Riso. He has been working on control and instrumentation for research reactors and reactor experunents and has been chairman of the Riso reactor safety committee. Since 1960 he has been active in research in probabilistic risk analysis and, in particular, in human reliability and analysis of human performance in complex systems. He has served on several pan- els and committees on these issues; he was the chair of a group of experts on human error analysis and quantification under the OECD Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations and a member of the NATO Special Program Pane] on Human Factors. He is an member of the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences. He received an M.Sc. degree in electronic engineering from the Technical University of Copenhagen. RICHARD SHIKIAR is director of the Human Affairs Research Centers (MARC) of Battelle Memorial Institute. Previous posi- tions at HARC include director of the Social Change Study Center and coordinator of its organizational effectiveness program. Over the past eight years, he has directed and worked on a number of research and consulting projects involving human behavior in po- tentially hazardous facilities. His substantive contributions include safety assessments at a chemical facility, determination of generic human factors improvements to safety at liquified natural gas fa- cilities, and a variety of applications at nuclear power plants. The latter inclucle development of a content sampling approach to the operator licensing exam administered by the Nuclear Regulatory Cornrnission, determination of appropriate educational qualifica- tions for operators, assessment and improvements in emergency operating procedures, and development of methods for assessing utility management. As manager of the safety technology pro- gram, he was involved in analysis of the human side of safety from man-machine interface issues to management and organizational analyses. Prior to his positions at Battelle, he was associate pro- fessor of industrial/organizational psychology at Colorado State

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115 University. He received a B.S. degree at the City College of the City University of New York and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in psy- chology from the University of Illinois. J. ED. SMITH is president of Ed's Nuclear Service Corporation. He retired from Duke Power Company in 1986 after a career there beginning in 1949. He has extensive power plant experience in both fossil and nuclear plants, the last 27 years in the nuclear field. After completing the Oak Ridge School of Reactor Technology in 1961, he participated in the checkout, startup, operation, and decommissioning of the Carolina~Virginia Tube Reactor. In 1967 he was named station manager for the three-unit Oconee Nuclear Station and served in this position until 1984, when he became an assistant to the vice president, nuclear, and served as such until his retirement. He has broad industry experience including work with the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, the Nuclear Utility Management and Resource Committee, and the American Nuclear Society. Currently, he provides nuclear consulting services to three utilities, primarily as a member of their independent safety review boards. He holds a B.M.E. degree from North Carolina State University and an M.S. in nuclear engineering from the University of South Carolina. HAROLD P. VAN COTT ~ senior staff officer and study di- rector of the Committee on Human Factors. He has served as vice president of the Essex Corporation; chief scientist at Biotech- nology Inc.; chief of consumer sciences research at the National Bureau of Standards; and director of the Institute for Human Perfomance Research at the American Institutes for Research. His nuclear human factors experience includes work on the de- velopment of NUREG-0700 and NUREG-0801; management of 10 control room design reviews; human factors studies for Toledo Edison, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada; and the development and presentation of human factors workshops for power plants and Department of Energy laboratories. He is a fellow of the Human Factors Soci- ety and a member of the American Psychological Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Washington Academy of Science. Van Cott obtained M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of North Carolina.

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116 DAVID A. WARD is a research manager on special assignment at the Savannah River Laboratory of E.~. duPont de Nemours and Co. He is also currently a member and past chairman of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards to the Nuclear Reg- ulatory Commission. Prior to his present assignment, Ward was manager of the Reactor Safety Research Division and, earlier, of the Nuclear Engineering Division at the Savannah River Labora- tory. From 1975 to 1980, he was superintendent of the Reactor Technology Department at the Savannah River Plant. He joined the DuPont Company after receiving a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Illinois in 1953 and has held a variety of other engineering and supervisory assignments involving research ant! development activities in thermal hydraulics, safety analysis, and operations of nuclear reactors. He has been a mem- ber of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards since 1980 and has been extensively involved with the comm~ttee's work in human factors. He was a member of the National Research Coun- cil's Committee on Advanced Nuclear Systems in 1982 and is a fellow of the American Nuclear Society. DAVID D. WOODS Is a senior research psychologist at Westing- house Research and Development Center. He conducts research on human perception, attention, and decision making. He created and managed a research program in cognitive engineering that in- vestigates human problem solving in complex-driven worlds. This work explores what is effective support for human problem solvers through (1) studies of problem solving in dynamic situations, (2) models of cognitive processes in person-machine environments, and (33 the development of new kinds of support systems. He has conducted some of the initial work on operational decision mak- ing in simulated and actual nuclear power plant situations. He was also the codirector of two international meetings on cognitive engineering and artificial intelligence in complex woricls. Woods received a B.A. in psychology from Canisius College and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in cognitive psychology from Purdue University.