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emerge from these areas should be tested for their applicability to more complex, nonexclusively tex~based tasks, such as graph- ics design, tactical decision making, project planning and tracking, and data base query. It is likely that the complexity of these tasks, in which the user is almost never doing a task that ~ well-learned, requires the user to use mental modets and to try out actions never used before. These may be ideal domains in which to test notions of the use of mental modem, the productive interaction of sequence/method representations and mental models, and the involvement of general problem-solving skills, reasoning, and deci- - slon ma ~lng. RE1?E:RENCES Adelson, B. (1981) Problem solving and the development of abstract cate- gories in programming languages. Memory and Cograhon, 9, 422-433. Ausubel, D. P. (1960) The use of advance organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful verbal material. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 267-272. Barnard, P. J., Hammond, N. V., Morton, J., Long, J. B., and Clark, I. A. (1981) Consistency and compatibility in human-computer dialogue. International Journal of MamMackinc Stucco, 15, 87-134. Baron, S., and Levison, W. H. (1980) The optimal control model: Status and future direction. Procecdinge of IEEE Confcrcnec on Cybernetics and Society. Cambridge, MA. Bayman, P., and Mayer, R. E. (1984) Instructional manipulation of users' mental models for electronic calculators. Inicrnational Journal of Man- Machnc Studies, 20, 189-199. Bewley, W. L., Roberts, T. L., Schroit, D., and Verplank, W. L. (1983) Human factors testing of Xerox's 8010 "Stark Office Workstation. Pro- cecdinge of the 198S CHI Confcrcnec on H?=nan Factors in Computing. New York: Association of Computing Machinery. Black, J. B., and Sebrechts, M. M. (1981) Facilitating human-computer communication. Applied Peycholingu~tic~, 2, 87-134. Bott, R. (1979) A study in complex learning: Theory and methodology. Report 82. Center for Human Information Processing, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA. Burton, R. B. (1981) DEBUGGY: Diagnosing bugs in a simple procedural skill. In D. H. Sleeman and J. S. Brown (eds.), Intciligent laboring Systems. London: Academic Press. Card, S. K., KIoran, T. P., and Newell, A. (1980a) Computer text editing: An information processing analysis of a routine cognitive skill. Cogrutivc Psychology, 12, 32-74. Card, S. K., Moran, T. P., and Newell, A. (1980b) The keystroke level model for user performance time with interactive systems. Communicahons of the ACM, 23, 396-410. 34

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