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Ergonomic Models of Anthropometry, Human Biomechanics, and Operator-Equipment Interfaces Proceedings of a Workshop Karl H.E. Kroemer, Stover H. Snook, Susan K. Meadows, and Stanley Deutsch, editors Thomas B. Sheridan, Chair Committee on Human Factors Committee on Human Factors Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competence and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions In the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy' purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This work relates to Department of the Navy Grant N00014-85-G-0093 issued by the Once of Naval Research under Contract Authority NO 196-167. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive and ir- revocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate reproduce, deliver, perform, dispose of, and to authorize others so as to do, all or any portion of this work. Available from Committee on Human Factors Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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WORKSHOP ON INT1:G"TED ERGONOMIC MODELING KARL H.E. KROEMER (Cochair), Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University STOVER H. SNOOK (Cochair), Hopkinton Research Center, Liberty Mutual Insurance Company, Hopkinton, Massachusetts M.M. AYOUB, Ergonomics Institute, Texas Technical University ALVAH C. BITTNER, JR., Analytics, Inc., Willow Grove, Pennsylvania BENJAMIN CUMMINGS, U.S. Army Human Engineering Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland NEVILLE HOGAN, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology INTS KALEPS, Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, U.S. Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ALBERT I. KING, Bioengineering Center, Wayne State University JAMES L. LEWIS, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas WILLIAM S. MARRAS, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Ohio State University HUGO W. McCAULEY, Crew Systems Design, Northrop Aircraft Division, Hawthorne, California JOHN T. McCONVILLE, Anthropology Research Project, Inc., Yellow Springs, Ohio JOE W. McDANIEL, Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, U.S. Air Force, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ALBERT B. SCHULTZ, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan HOWARD W. STOUDT, Department of Community Health Science, Michigan State University STANI,EY DEUTSCH, Workshop Organizer SUSAN K. MEADOWS, Research Associate ELIZABETH F. NElLSEN, Staff Assistant .e 111

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COMMITTEE ON HUMAN FACTORS THOMAS B. SHERIDAN (Chair), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology NANCY S. ANDERSON, Department of Psychology, University of Maryland CLYDE H. COOMBS, Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor JEROME I. ELKIND, Information Systems, XEROX Corporation, Palo Alto, California OSCAR GRUSKY, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles ROBERT M. GUTON, Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University DOUGLAS H. HARRIS, Anacapa Sciences, Santa Barbara, California JULIAN HOCHBERG, Department of Psychology, Columbia University THOMAS K. LANDAUER, Information Sciences Division, Bell Communication Research, Morristown, New Jersey JUDITH REITMAN OLSON, Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Michigan RICHARD W. PEW, Experimental Psychology Department, Computer and Information Sciences Division, Bolt Beranek and Newman I,aboratories, Cambridge, Massachusetts STOVER H. SNOOK, Hopkinton Research Center, Liberty Mutual Insurance Company, Hopkinton, Massachusetts CHRISTOPHER I. WICKENS, Aviation Research Institute, University of Illinois ROBERT C. WILLIGES, Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University HAROLD P. VAN COTT, Study Director STANLEY DEUTSCH, Study Director (1984-1987) 1V

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Foreword The Committee on Human Factors was established in October 1980 by the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Research Council. The committee is sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Army Research Institute for the Be- havioral and Social Sciences, the National Aeronautics ant! Space Administration, and the National Science Foundation. The prin- cipal objectives of the committee are to provide new perspectives on theoretical and methodological issues, to identify basic research needed to expand and strengthen the scientific basis of human fac- tors, and to attract scientists both within and outside the field for interactive communication and to perform needed research. The goal of the committee is to provide a solid foundation of research as a base on whim effective human factors practices can build. Human factors issues arise in every domain in which humans interact with the products of a technological society. In order to perform its role effectively, the committee draws on experts from a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines. Members of the committee include specialists in such fields as psychology, en- g~neering, biomechanics, physiology, medicine, cognitive sciences, machine intelligence, computer sciences, sociology, education, and human factors engineering. Other disciplines are represented in the working groups, workshops, and symposia. Each of these contributes to the basic data, theory, and methods required to improve the scientific basis of human factors. v

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Contents PREFACE 1 INTRODUCTION 2 ANTHROPOMETRIC MODELS The Anthropometric Data Base, 4 Anthropometric Computer Models, t! Three-Dimensional Anthropometry, 13 Discussion, 16 3 BIOMECHANICAL MODELS ......... 19 History of Biomechanical Models, 20 Review of Biomechanical Modem, 22 Models of Bones, 25 Models of Single Joints, 26 Models of the Hip and Knee Joints, 26 Models of Joints of the Upper Extrenuty, 28 Models of Intervertebral Joints, 28 Models of Multiple Body Segments and the Whole Body, 29 Models of Fingers and the Thumb, 29 Models of the I,ower Extremities, 30 Models of the Spinal Column, 32 Models of the Thorax, 32 Models of the Whole Body, 33 Discussion, 33 X1 . V11

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4 HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE MODELS BOEMAN, 45 : Computerized Accommodated Percentage Evaluation (CAPE) Model, 46 Crewstation Assessment of Reach (CAR) Model, 46 System for Aiding Man-Machine Interaction Evaluation (SAMMIE), 51 Articulated Total Body (ATB) Model, 53 Computerized Biomechanical Man-Mode} (COMBIMAN), 55 CREW CHIEF, 58 PLAID and TEMPOS, 60 Discussion, 64 GENERAL DISCUSSION 68 Conclusions, 68 Requirements, 69 Criteria for the Development of an Integrated Model, 69 Standardization, 71 Approaches to the Development of an Integrated Model, 71 Supermode} Approach, 72 Modular Approach, 72 Data Requirements, 73 Analysis of Muscle and Joint Dynamics, 78 Body Segments and Effects of Trauma, 79 Bone and Link Dynamics, 79 Motivation and Fatigue, 80 6 RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS -43 REFERENCES ...... .. V111 .81 85

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TABLES TABLE 2-1 Military Data Contained in the AAMRL Anthropometric Data Bank 6 TABLE 2-2 U.S. Civilian Population Data Contained in the AAMRL Anthropometric Data Bank 7 TABLE ~1 Biomechanical Models 34 TABLE ~1 Early Interface Mode} Characteristics 44 TABLE ~2 Comparison of Interface Models 65 TABLE 5-1 Data Requirements of Potential SERDS Users 70 TABLE 5-2 System Components for a CAD Approach to the Design of Manual Workspaces 76 FIGURES FIGURE 2-1 Typical univariate descriptors of body size FIGURE 2-2 Head and face measurements FIGURE 2-3 Segmented human and mode! FIGURE 2-4 Stereo camera array FIGURE 2-5 "Terrain maps of the human body FIGURE 2-6 Anatomical axis system for the head segment FIGURE 4-1 CAR Link-person mode} FIGURE 4-2 CAR three-dimensional anthropometrically variable crew member FIGURE 4-3 Example of a SAMMIE geometrical mode] FIGURE 4-4 COMBIMAN man-mode] FIGURE 5-1 Graphic display of integrated ergonomic modeling system FIGURE 5-2 System structure for an integrated computer-aided workspace design system 1X 9 10 12 14 15 16 48 50 52 56 74 75

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Preface In the prospectus for the workshop, co-chairman Kroemer de- scribed three major classes of models: anthropometric, represen- tations of static body geometry such as body dimensions, reach, position of the body and/or its parts, posture; biomechanical, rep- resentations of physical activities of the body in motion, using an- thropometric data as inputs; and interface, specific combinations of anthropometric and biomechanical models for representations of human-machine interactions. These models can all contribute to the system design process. Their integration into a compre- hensive ergonomic mode] of the human operator could provide a valuable too! for researchers, designers, and program planners. Consequently, the Committee on Human Factors convened a two-day workshop on June 17 and 18, 1985, in Washington, D.C., to assess the feasibility of developing an integrated ergonomic mode! and, if deemed feasible, to determine how to approach its development. The specific objectives of the workshop were to (1) assess the usefulness of current anthropometric, biomechanical, and interface models; (2) identify critical points of compatibility and disparity among these models; (3) review the feasibility of using these existing models in the development of an integrated ergonomic model; and (4) if feasible, recommend a research ap- proach to the development of an integrated ergonomic model, including studies needed for each of the three major classes of models to provide a basis for an integrated ergonomic model. ~ ~ J ~ ~ X1

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Fifteen experts in anthropometry, biomechanics, bioengineer- ing, work physiology, human factors engineering, psychomotor per- formance, computer modeling, and system design and operation participated in the workshop. Background papers were provided in advance for each of the three modeling domains: anthropomet- ric, biomechanical, and interface. In addition, the participants prepared brief position papers for distribution prior to the work- shop. These background and position papers, workshop delibera- tions, and follow-up materials constitute the basic elements of this project report. The audience for this report consists primarily of those pro- fessionals concerned with ergonomic modeling and system design, both within and outside the human factors community, including those involved in research, training, engineering, system develop- ment and acquisition, operations, programming, and maintenance. We thank the workshop members for their prodigious efforts. We also express our gratitude to a number of persons who con- tributed extensive additional information following the workshop: Albert I. King and William S. Marras for their research and compi- lation of the section on biomechanical models, an outstanding table of biomechanical models, and their contributions to development of research needs for biomechanical models; John T. McConville, for his preparation of the section on anthropometric models and for formulating research needs for anthropometric models; Alvah C. Bittner, Jr., who provided much of the information on the BOEMAN, CAPE, and CAR mode} sections; Joe W. McDaniel, for providing information for the sections on COMBIMAN and CREW CHIEF; and to James L. Lewis, Jeri W. Brown, and Barbara J. Woolford, who provided the discussion of the PLAID- TEMPUS model. A note of special appreciation is extended to Stanley Deutsch, the former committee study director, who worked with us to plan and organize the workshop, participated in the meeting, and con- tributed to the editing of this report; Susan K. Meadows, a major editor of this report who augmented, coordinated, and integrated the workshop proceedings into a report format; Michael K. Hayes, freelance editor, who improved the clarity and style of the final report; and Margaret A. Cheng, the committee's former admin- istrative secretary, who provided secretarial and administrative support. Karl H.E. Kroemer and Stover H. Snook, Cochairs Workshop on Integrated Ergonomic Models . X11