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EN FACTORS IN PI AND RO~C SPACE SYSTEM: EXCEEDINGS OF A SY~;I~ Thomas B. Sheridan, Dana S. causer, and Starkey Deutsch, editors C=ittee on Human Factors commission on Behavioral ark Social Sciences and Education National heat Council Washington, D. C. 1987

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NICE:: me project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Ga~rernir~ Board of me Natic~1 P`eseamh pencil, whose namers are drawn frail the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Ac:ad~ of ~in~rir~, anal the Institute of Chicane. me Hers of He committee r~c~s~ble for the report wee ~ for their Special catheters arrt with rears for appropriate teal ance. This report has been reviewed by a gram ether than the abhors aocordi~ to pi approved by a Report Review remittee consisting of I; of the National Ac:ader~y of Sciences, the National Acad ~ r of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. m e National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific research, dedicated to the fur theranoe of science and technology and to their ~~=. for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government an scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press ~ president of the National Academy of Sciences. Ibe National A~3y of Er~ineering was established in 1964, urger the charter of the National Any of Sciences, as a parallel organizatian of artst~i~ engineers. It is As in its administration and in He selection of its namers, Sharing with the National Acadia of Sciences the responsibility for advising the f~eral govern. Ice National Academy of Engineering also Sponsors er~gineerir~ pa ~ aimed at rn~tir~ national r ~ as, er~a~rages -duration arm research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine OR_ established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the service" of em ment members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. ~ e Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its CCngrEsSiQna1 charber to be an adviser to the federal genern=enb and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of^mP~ical care, research, and education. Dr. Sequel 0. Trier is president of the institute of Marc ~ . the National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Aca~emy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Cw nail has Hague the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the get, He public, AL He scientific and er~ine~ir~ cc~munities. Ice Coil is a~inis~ jointly by boy Academies and the Institute of Porcine. Dr. Embank E - ss and Do. Port M. White are chairman are vice chairman, restively, of the National PA Avail. Ihis work relax-= to the National As ~nautics and Space i ~ idiot ration ~ ract Number NASW-4071. However, the content die= not necessary y reflect the position or the policy of the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. He Uhited Statue government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive and irneicc~ble license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reprc~uce, deliver, perform, dispose of, and to authorize others so as to do, all or any portion of ~ is work. Available from: Committee" on Human Factors Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.

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SAM Sat GAP WAS B. ~ (=a=), ~r~nt of Er~in~'ing and Applied Penology arxt Depar~t of Panicle Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Phonology MAR ~JS~, it of Sociology, University of California, los telex ALIEN HEREIN, ~ tar Sci once ~ z ~ nt, ~rnegie-Mbllon Univer~;ity JUDITH REIIM~N OLSON, Graduate School of Bleariness Administration, UP versity of Michigan RDu~hu C. WIILI~, Department of Industrial Eng ~ "=ring and Operations research, Virginia Polytechnic Institube and State University HARRY L. ROBBERS, Space Station Program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company' HuntingLan Bract, ral ifornia SERIES ~I, Study Director ~ S. IWSI;~, Project Coordinator/Consultant BEVERLY M. HUEY, French Associate/Consultant ~TZA8EIEi F. NEATEN, Fcsearch Assistant }HARE A. Cow;, Administrative Secretary iii -

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ME ON }EN FA=ORS 1986-1987 IHC0S B. SHERIDAN (Cha=), Department of Engineering art Applied Psychology and Depar~t of ~ica1 Engineering, Massachusetts Instibate of Penology NANCY S. ANDERSON, Depar~t of Psychology, University of Maryland CLYDE H. ~ BS, Depar ~ t of Psychology, University of Michigan JEROME I. EIRIND, Information Systems, Xerox Corporation, Palo Alto, California SCAR GRISLY, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles ROBED M. GUION, Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State U~versi~ DoUGLAS H. HARRIS, Anacapa Sciences, Santa Barbara, California JULIAN HOCK, Department of Psychology, Colombia Uni~rersit~r, THOMAS K. Lo, Information Sciences Division, Bell ~ication P~ar=, ~rristawn, Near Jersey JUDITH IN OISON, Graduate School of Boniness Administration, University of Michigan RICHARD W. PEW, ~ rter and Information Sciences Division, Bolt Beranek and Newman Laboratories, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts STORER H. SNOOK, liberty Mutual Insurance Company, Hcpkinton Research Center, Hcpkinton, Massachusetts CHRISTOPHER I. DICKENS, Aviation Resc arc h Institute, University of Illinois ROOKS C. WOLLI0F~, Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State U m versity HERDED P. VAN CYll, Sway Director STANLEY DEUTSCH, Study Director (1984-1987) in

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S~S~ PA;E==PA~; THOMAS B. SHERIDAN tChalr), Department of Engin^Pring and Applied Psychology and Department of Mechanics Eng~n^='ing, Massachusetts Institute of Technology DAVID L. ARIN, Assistant Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ANIAL K. n~lCZY, Telerobot Research Program, Jet Propulsion laboratory, Pasadena, California BRUCE G. BUCHANAN, Knowledge Systems Laboratory, Stanford Um versity RAYMOND S. COLLA CAY, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology, National Aeronautics and Space Administration KAREN S. COOK, Department of Sociology, University of Washington RAN~DAVIS, Associate Professor, SIoanS6hool of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MUCH FISCHHOFF, Department of Er~neerinq and Public Policy, Carnegie-Me1lon Un~versi~ OSCAR ~SKY, Department of Sociology, Un~versi~r of California, leas Angeles PHILIP J. ~YES, Natural Image System, Carnegie Grasp, ~c., and Carrlegie-Mellon Un~versi~ WILLIAM C. HE, Depar~t of Psychology, Rice Un~versi~ H. ANDREW ~:CHENER, Depar~t of Sociology, University of Wisconsin THOMAS M. A, Cuter Science Depar~t, Carn~ie-Mellon UP veracity ALLEN NEWELL, Computer Science Denartment. r=~ne~ie-Mr~lon University ~ ~ ~ ~ _ RAYMOND S. NICKERSON, Bolt Beranek and Newman Laboratories, Inc., Age, Massachusetts JUDITH REGIMEN OISON, Graduate School of Blueness Administration, University of Michigan Flock G. POLS ON, Computer Laboratory for Instruction in Psychologist Research, University of Colorado WILLIAM H. STAR3UCK, Depertment of Creative Management, New York University LAURENCE STARK, Telerobotics Unit, University of California, P-'kF1ey ROBERT C. WIT.T.T~F~, Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University HARRY L. WOLFERS, Manned & Em Systems, Space Station Program, MeDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Parch, c=1ifornla v

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FO~RD m e Committ=- on Human Factors was established in October 1980 by the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Research Chancy . It is sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, the Air For he Office of Scientific Research, the Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Science Fcun~ation. me principal Objectives of the committee are to provide new perspectives on theoretical an] methodological issues, identify basic research needed to expand and strengthen the scientific basis of human factors, and to attract scientists both inside and outside the field to perform needed research. me goal of the committee is to provide a solid fcundation of research on which effective human factors practices can build. In order for the committee to perfo~-~ its role effectively, it draws on experts fern a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines. The committee includes specialists in the fields of psychology, eng peering, biomechanics, cognitive sciences, machine intelligence, computer sciences, sociology, and human factors engineering. Participants in the working groups, workshops, and symposia organized by the committee represent additional disciplines. All of these disciplines c~cntribute ~ Me basic Eta, theory, and mesh== r~r~ to improve the scientific basis of human factors. V11 ;

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Cots ~EFAC:13 S~S~ SPRY WELD me B. Sheridan WONTON Raymcrxi S. Colladay OPEN]NG SESSION KEYNOTE ADDRESS: HEN FACINGS RESEARCH FOR TO NASA SPACE STATION Allen N~11 SESSION I: SYSTEM ~I~C3~:V]:TY: PEOPLE AND ~CInNES DtJCTIV:Ll7Y ~ THE SPACE SILICON Raymond S. Ni~kerson DISaJSS7ON: ~ ON SYSTEM ~OUC=V~: PEOPLE ~ CHINES Robert C. Williges SYNOPSIS OF CAL ~JDIIN=: DISCUSSION SESSION II: EXERT SYSTEMS AND THEIR USE AI SYSTEM IN 1~: SPACE STATION Madras M. Mitchell :r SYSTE0: A:~;CC~ONS IN SPACE ~~= G. Buchanan DISaJSSION: ~ ON or SYSTEM AND WAR USE Allen Newell SYNOPSIS OF CAL AUDIENCE DISCUSSION ix xii 1 13 15 17 31 82 87 91 113 142 147

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SESSION ITI: LANGUAGE AD DISPIAYS FOR H~N~TrER ~NICA1ION CHANCE IN H~N~ ~ERFACE~ ON TO SPACE SOON: NEED 10 HAPPEN AND HOW 10 ELAN FOR IT Philip J. Hayes m7E FACIORS ~ THE DESIGN AND DEVEIO~NT OF SOEI~RE TO SPACE Sl~lION Peter G. Polson DISCUSSION: DESIRING FOR TO FACE OF TO Ft~ RESEARCH ISSUES IN Ht~N~R INI=ACl~lON J~;th Rei~an Olson SYNOPSIS OF CAL AUDIENCE DISCUSSION . SESSION Its: -AIDED ENCORING AND DECISION MEG =13US~ESS AND TRANSPARENCY IN war CYST R~1 Davis DECISION MORN-AIDEI) AND UNAIDED Baruc~h Fisc}~loff DISCUSSION: ISSUES IN DESIGN FOR UN~Q William C. Howell SYNOPSIS OF GENERAL AUDIENCE: DISCUSSION SESSION \1: ~ESENC3 AND SUPERVISORY COAL TE=)PER~ON, PRESENCE, AND TErDRO~CS: RESET NO FOR SPACE Tharras B. Sheridan TE~EO=~; FOR TO EVOLVING; SPACE: S]~CN: RESEA:E=I NO AND MING FLOES Thrice Stark 151 176 201 208 211 234 263 275 279 292 DISCUSSION: MOB ON HENCE AND SU~RY COME 320 Antal K. Bejczy SYNOPSIS OF GENERAL ~JDI:INC:E: DISCUSSION x 323

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SESSION VI: So Escrow IN DUSTY Am PE~RMANC13 SOCIAL SAWS, ~ER~)L~TE) MUNITION SYSTEMS, AND AN ~ODUC=VrTY At SPACE: S:~0NS: A RESEPR(X Am wren S. Cook CONTROL, CONEIICI, AND CRISIS ~ IN To SPACE S~ION'S SOCIAL SYSTE2{ (YEAR 2000) H. Armored Mi~hener DIS CESSION: =NFII = AND STRESS IN THE SPACE SIAIION Oscar Grusky SYNOPSIS OF GENERAL AUDIENCE DISCUSSION SESSION VII: THE HUMAN ROLE IN SPACE SYSTEMS THE RATES OF HUMANS AND MACHINES IN SPACE David L. Akin SHARING COGNITIVE BASES BETWEEN PEOPLE AND CCYELTERS IN SPACE SYSTEMS Wit liar H. Star buck DISCUSSION: CCMNENTS ON THE HUMAN ROLE IN SPACE SYSTEMS Harry L. sobers SYNOPSIS OF GENERAL AUDIENCE DISCUSSION CONCIllSION CONCLUDING REMARKS Allen Newell 00 Comas B. Sheridan APPENDIX: SYMPOSIUM GRAM xi 329 356 390 402 405 418 444 451 455 457 463

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PREFACE A steer Meg grasp formed by the Committee on Human Factors was charged to identify the types of human factors research that, if funded and begun immediately, held be likely to produce results applicable to the evolutionary design of a National Aeronautic and Space Administration national space station to be launched ~ the l990s. The steering group was instructed to consider human factors research relevant to such future space systems as the space station, 1unar bases, and possibly interplanetary travel. _ _ _, ~ - ~ ~ steering group and is reported in these proceedings, did indeed yield information applicable to future soace systems. The svmnosium. which was planned Dv the In addition, it provided information and offered insights of potential interest to many other civilian and military endeavors. It was cur hope that this potential for transfer WaN1d occur. I would like to thank the participants in this project for their time, effort, and contributions to the symposium. Individual authors accept primary responsibility for each paper and this authorship is ac - ledged at the beginning of each paper. Steering group member deliberated, redried, and contributes ~ improvements In the coning of each paper. ~ am especially grateful to them for their generous contribution of time both before arx} afar' the sync osium. The steering grc up, and the otter principals in the production of this symposium, received a great bead of guidance and assistance fern NEST personnel. On behalf of us all, I would like to thank Shiv ~ Mbntemerio and Michael M~Greevy of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology, Richard Carlisle and Bryant Cramer of the Space Station Office, an] Owen Garriott, astronaut, for their extensive summaries of the space sedation planning activities bring the initial Ock~ 1985 steering group briefings. Special thanks are also due to Jesse MOOLAH the director of the Jason Space Center, Joseph Locus, assistant director, David Nagel freon the Ames Pesear ~ Center, and the many NASA personnel who participated in the briefings of the steering commit-== held at the Johnson Space Center. Finally, thanks are due to the people who have worked behind the scenes to ensure that the symposium was conducted, and the proceedings prepared, in an organized and timPly manner. Appreciation is extended to Stanley Deutsch, study d ~ r at the time of the symposium, for his contributions to its planning; to Dana Kruser, project coordinator, xiii

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for her efforts ~ ~ organization are exaction of ~ symposium are Distance In ~ Diving of this report; to Elizabeth Neilsen, r~ assistant, for her managerial are logistic sort; to Beverly Husy, Do also profit logistic support; to Pristine Methane, of the c~mn;~sian staff, for editorial s ~port; to Margaret C ~ ng, who provided secretarial resistance in preparation for the symposium; to Adrian Holtzbhum, for secretarial -distance in preparing this document for review; and to Martha Seij as, for preparing the document for publication. I express my sincere thanks to each of these individuals for their significant contributions . Thomas B. Sheridan, ChaLr Committee on Human Factors XIV