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WELC!C~ Thomas B. Sheridan Welcome to the Symposium on Human Factors in AutcmateJ and Robotic Space Systems. I will start by saying a few words about why we're all here. - ~ . A bit over a year ago, actually before the challenger accident, Melvin Montemerio, the Manager of the Human Factors Research Program an] Co-M~nager of the Autcmation an] Rdbotics Program for the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology in MESA Headquarters, requested the Committee on Human Factors of the National Research Council to consider the near= for human factors research in evolutionary manned space stations. Mel asked the committee to look at future manned space systems beyond the Initial Operating Configuration (IOC\: looking ahead into the late 1990s and beyond. `_ __ _ mystical leave and MEXe M~Greevy is currently managing the programs.) It was clear to us that any new research started now could not have much effect on the design of the IOC, so we knew we had to speculate for a period beyond this first space station. It was also clear to us, as we thought about it, that if a single issue could be considered to have the most effect on human factors in the space Program, it would be ~ — — — ~ ~ — ~ fI might mention that gel is on the computer. And while much of the public, even the Congress, and even some in MESA management, have come to think in terms of the astronaut versus the computer and automation and robotics, ~ believe the science and technoicgy community and many in NINA know better. It's really the astronaut, or human beings, working together with the computer and automation and robotics In close cooperation, that W111 result in the greatest mission sur--=s. But simply to say that and to ' ~ We have a long have it really happen, are, of course, not the same. way to go to piers it all together So we were asked to think about this major issue and to organize a symposium, cam posed of experts who, In cur judgement, represented the most critical ares of human-machine interaction, even though we cculd not cover all of the major aspects of human factors. The committee decided that it would be most effective if it concentrated on human factors issues in relation to computers, automation, robotics, and the roles of people in the space stations of the future. A reason for selecting the symposium format was the opportunity that it waned afford an exchange with other people in the scientific community (including NASA) and other organizations who might make cogent contributions to the discourse. 13
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14 Let me iderltif~r the people who worked hard with the Sy~si~n Storing Group to put this sy~simn together, the staff of the Committee on Human Factors: Dr. Stanley Deutsch, the Study Director for the cc~mit~ce; Dana ~user, a consuming to the canine, who is largely responsible for having all of the symposia papers ready on time; Elizabeth Neilsen, the committee's staff assistant, whose support on the logistics was inval~t~hle; and Beverly Huey, also a consultant, who helped us to meet our schedule in myriad ways. They will all be available during the meeting if you have any needs. We ask you to listen to our thoughts, and possibly some irreverent comments about the space program and the research that's been done or should be done, and to participate in the discussion. One reason that the proceedings are available out at this time is so that we can capture your ideas and include them An the proceedings of the meeting. I thank you for participating and I hope we can make this an interactive meeting. Now, I want to introduce Dr. Raymond S. (:olladay, the Associate NASA Athninistrator for the Office of Aeronautics arm Space Technology, to say a few words about the NASA organization. I will then ask Dr. David A. Gosling, the Executive Director of the Commission on Behavioral arm Social Sciences and Education (CEASSE), to say a few words about the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council. me C~nitt~ on Oman Factors is located organizational ly within CLASSY. So, first, Ray Colladay.
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