Cover Image


View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 458

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement

Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 457
CONC[IJD~G A; Thomas Sheridan the first thing I want to do is thank He Beakers. We really appreciate the efforts ycu have put in. ~ also chard; Be organizers. A lot of effort went into getting this together. And ~ Chary Be participants many useful and interesting cants have Are freon Be floor. Our job, rear, is to put together a report that mans sense, Is not self-serving, in terms of 'please, Me, send Are money', kilt says, in effect, 'look, there are SC=3 really Important reseat issues out there that are not receiving proper attention'. ~ was taking note;, and saw of ~ rates halve little stars to indicate important points, for example: The idea of motoring pysiolc~ica1 state of the cooperator, as well as Storing the Cuter arm the Panicky state of the equipment was siesta. It sums to me that amtiTn~ally assessing the heals of both ~ sc~t~ that we don't Bill Cite know has to do. me ~ a rammer of issues relay to the diffi=~1 ties of deft, arm numbing, system productivit~r. At He very beginning, Ray Ni~rson, at Fife issues. An Williges insist that performarx~e ~ a Dative measure. Bruce Buchanan arm qhc~nas Mitchell tat about the reality of rK)n-=Il~it-~1 ~a~s -~ t TV_ A- ~ but scam of us other engineering types haven't partidearly ~ ~ 't ~ 't ~ ~ _ ~ _ _ _ ~ __ _ _ _ ~ ~ t_ ~ to ~ _ _ ~ AT people have An this all alarm, appreciated the Importance or cap mg ~ to t nose non-numer~4, or qualitative, aspects of time, space, and resources. They also to ~ ted out the ~rcblems of maintaining expert systems as ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ ~ t _ _ __ ~ ~ A_ ~ _ situations change and new Knowledge becomes available. Allen Newell characterized the trade-off between knowing versus seau~thin;, a priori knowledge versus getting new knowledge (sc~at related to the problem of conceal shirt in Aerations Death. Oneness was mentioned Mary times, but we are nat always clam what As implies. 457

OCR for page 457
458 . We heard at Me difficulties of eliciting (and ache new for a better ''I:~=ide manner" for eliciting) Pledge for the cons~cn~ction of ~ system. We also heard scan questions raised al Angst. I've soaks In He literature on talc and there "ain't such there". tie row test AL tra.mpa~ and brat kirk of Ping vis-a-vis Me relationship between intelligent systems al them users. Ail Hayes emphasized the graphical mt~fa~ art how basic float: ~ to the way people see, think, arx! make Davies. Peter Pollen mention ~ the fact ~ at we are now able ho, as ~ e pilots say, Hill ourselves ~ th kindness" that is, provide graphic displays and ''aided that are so complicated that nobody understands them. This certainly could happen with expert systems. Randy Davis picked up the same.point when he talked about designing to make understanding Pier. Natural language was mentions time and again, but it was also pointy Ant bat it's no panacea. Blat there may be larl3uages which are not "naturals, but which are better for certain applications. Barubh Fisc~hoff ta~ about the need for barb m~els art the fact that p ~ pie are not very well calibrated with re ~ t to ckher people's questions and models of reality. We talked about the mechanical work, '~E~nipulatian". It also was pa Stem out that we need better models of (and nctation for) characterizing the process of manipulation. Allen Newell suggested that we need a theory of presence. We know a little bit about the effects of fidelity ~ s;~1ators from this point of vim, but ~ nob a Ash better ~zsta~i~ of what it mans to feel Spay. Rdren Codk tallied a}~aIt ~~;ated c~icaticn, which we are going ~ have one hell of a 1= mare of than we have had ~ the past. We are not going to have situations where peccable are holding hands; they are going to be separated, and the t' communication is going to be mediated by computers. Questions of -caviar stress and contending objectives are going to be aggravated or, at least, changed by computer mediated communication and by all this "non-human expertise'' that's floating arcing. In the last "P-C=ion' Dave Akin raised questions about the paucity of our human performance date and what people can do relative to what machines can do. Harry WoLbers picked up on the same point.

OCR for page 457
459 And, finally, a lovely notion, I think, made by Bill Star buck is the importance of being playful and deviant. Guilio Varsi asked about prioritiz ~ these ideas. _ e ~ e ~ | That takes a great deed of wisdom but we will try-. There is a further comment that eshOuld be made. MESA he= been extremely cautious about avoiding the risk of errors in space, especially when human life is concerned. This caution is vary la~=ry. here human safer is not an issue, however, there can be mare risk Caking with respect to such arms as budgetary considerations, Ding of egpiEment, and shim= on ache allocation of functions between people and au~nation/robotics to drive ache best mix teas ~ an sap ~ ica~ evidence. We have seen the evidence of this symposium that the computer scientists and the behavioral and human factors scientists can arrive at a common ground. We believe that this interface is obvious and extremely important for mission success based on the best of both worlds that is superior to either automation or humans used alone. fact, we don't believe that either one can be used alone sur--csfully at this time or in the future. In conclusion, ~ thank you all for trudging through the snow and sleet anS for your worth while contributions. I'm sure that it has been useful for all of us. N=3 ]. TAR ideas presented by Professors Newell an] Sheridan :m their closing remarks were categorized and summarized (along with the "issues and research recommendations" presented within each paper) in the section titled "Assumptions, Conclusions and Recommendations".

OCR for page 457

OCR for page 457

OCR for page 457