Click for next page ( 62


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 61
Appendix Opportunities for Improving Reliability of Public Works Using Nondestructive Evaluation Note: This report was prepared at the request of the Committee on Infrastructure Innovation by a pane} chaired by Committee member Gordon Kino, tenth Stanley Wolf ~ the NRC task coordinator, - d including as other members: Nicholas Casino, National Bureau of Standards, Ga~thersburg, Maryland Robert Crmt, Who, Janney, Ebtner Associates, Inc. Northbrook, Illinois Kelly O'Day, Peer Systems, Inc., Philadelphia, PenneyI,rania Robert Price, Openaka Corp., Inc., Den~rille, New Jersey 61

OCR for page 61

OCR for page 61
CONTENTS I. Conclusiom =d Recommendatiom lI. Introduction III. Status of NDE ~ Selected Public Works Systems Highways Building Systems Water Piping Systems IV. Near-Term Demonstration Project Concept Project Objectives Project Approach Outline of Project Work Plan V. Research Concepts New Hardware Development of User Friendly Systerna Non OCR for page 61

OCR for page 61
L CONCLUSIONS ED R1:COMMENDATIONS This study outlines opportunities for greater use of nomads structive evaluation (NDE) to improve the reliability, of public works ~nfrastNcture. These infrastructure systems are complex, have long service lives (e.g., decades), and are sometimes diffi- cult to access (e.g., below grade). Their continuous operation is integral to personal and commercial activities. The operas conclusion of this study ~ that greater use of NDE, coupled with standardization and a failure analyem framework, a cost effective way to improve the reliability of public works infrastructure. By in creasing system reliability, NDE can make possible new options for design, construction, al ~ maintenance. A focused effort is needed to achieve this capability. The NDE pane} sought to delineate directions on specific Dues to show the effecti~rene" of NDE. Its conclusions and recommendations are, in order of decreasing priority: Near Term Demonstration Project NDE is at the threshold of making significantly increased contribution to the reliability of public works facilities. The ef- fectivene" of NDE can be most persuasively shown through a coordinated field demonstration of bearers techniques rather than through research add development projects. The status of NDE three public works areas ~ reviewed in Section H! of this appendix. Recommendation: A near-term demonstration project must be conducted to verify the effecti~rene" of NDE. Section IV of this appendix proposes coordinated field testing of several commer- ciaDy mailable and emerging NDE methods ~ order to evaluate their capabilities for providing reliable facility condition informs tion. One possible case study ~ the exarrunation of a set of urban streets which pa" over utility comport in different regions of the country and which are scheduled to be exca~ra~ ~ the near fu- ture. Standard methods normally used to examine the utilities and roadways should be employed to establish a baseline set of data. These should be compared with information obtained by a vaFiet~r of NDE methods. 65

OCR for page 61
~6 Institutional Focus for Reteach, Standards, and Information Public works systems can benefit firom the existing NDE can pability and the results of research on NDE. However, at present, this capability is distributed throughout several institution in in- dustry, government, and academia, none of which have a principal responsibility to public works. Recommendation: Responsibility for promoting NDE within public works must be given to a central organization In order to obtain most effective benefits from NDE. This org~ation must be capable of both fostering NDE "d amunng its relevance. As Recut in Section At, it would be-expected to (a) carry out and finance research and development, (b) provide leadership in development of standards "d user-friendly field instrumentation, and (c) disseminate information., Reliability Strategies for Public Works Reliability strategies consist of plans for continuous and cony effective provision of services or products. NDE can be most effective for public works infrastructure if integrated rhythm an overall management strategy for systems reliability (Section V). This management strategy would include an analytic framework for detection of defects, for failure analysis, ~d for accept/reject Sections. As noted in Section IT, this strategy car be the bash of predictive maintenance for public works. Such a strategy being implemented for electric power plants, where principal fail- ure modes of key components have been determined, ant NDE of these components ~ conducted both on-line and intermittently to evaluate whether repair, replacement, or continued operation warranted. Recommendation: A set of reliability strategies needs to be determined for public works systems. The range of strategies ~ broad from accepting system outages due to frequent failures (once per year) to continuous monitonug to mmimi~e the occur- rence of failures alla the ensuing outages. This effort should be hinted at identifying the distribution of reliability strategies used today, the critical components dominating system outages, and appropriate strategies for these systems depending upon factors such as the t ype of public works system and size and location.

OCR for page 61
67 Research and Development on and Standardization of Selected NDE Methods Many available NDE methods (dieted in the GIomary) appear attractive for application to public works systems, but develop ment and engineering ~ needed for these method to become com- merciaDy competitive products. In addition, standards have to be established ~ order for NDE methods to yield consistent results in the many different public works systems. Recommendation: Future research on new NDE hardware and software specifically for infrastructure systems should be con- ducted. This effort should be directed towards embedded sensors like fiber optic sensors In new structures, ultrasonic pulse echo (or impact echo) especially applied to concrete, and thermography and ground penetrating radar for undergroundstructures and pow sibly buildings. Along with this capability, user-friendly systems operating in real tune or near time should be developed for use the field. These tasks are described In Section V. Recommendation: Considerable attention must be given to NDE standardization. Section V! notes that standards should be established in the areas of methodologies, data analysis, and paw fail rules or criteria. Methodology includes both the equipment and its employment; analysis extends Tom simple to complex signal processing; pas~fail criteria refer to data interpretation in the context of accep~reject Sections for continued operation. II. INT1LODUCTION Facilities deteriorate over time, and the cumulative eEects of corrosion, wear and tear, fatigue, freeze-thaw cycles, etc., can e~ren- tuaDy undermine the structural integrity or functional capability of facilities comprising our nation's infrastructure. Maintenance activities are needed to protect structures from deterioration and preserve their integrity. In turn, improved design is necessary both to reduce the required maintenance as wed as to facilitate it. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) offers infrastructure man- agers tools which can help them to design, operate, and maintain their facilities in a more cos~effective manner. NDE involves both probing structures, for flaws and other features with techniques which do not damage the structures and evaluating the residual integrity of the structure. This concept has recently emerged from

OCR for page 61
68 the more generic term, nondestructive testing, which refers to flaw detection. Reliable condition information, coupled with effective mod- els and decmon support tools, can lead to unproved ma~nten~ce management, which ~ turn, offers the potential of reduced costs to m~nt~un our public facilities. An example of this has been demo~tra~ by the use of NDE for cIames of electric power gen- erating plants (Armor, et al, 1981~. Key components in the failure profile of fossil-fuel fired plants are the boiler, turbine, "d stern generator, which lead to 25, 2, and 5 days outage per year of per baseload plant, respectively; these outages total about $30 million annually, since each unscheduled outage costs about $1 million per plant per day. The dominant failure modes of each compm nent ~d fruitful areas for on-~ne nondestructive monitoring have been estabILshed. Specifically, NDE provides information regard- ing the likely impact of Baws on the structural integrity of these components in time for planned maintenance rather than repair during ~ unscheduled outage. NDE can also medicate unexpected and unacceptable plant operating condition that arise, so that appropriate modifications can be implemented. When used as part of an overall reliability strategy, NDE may also allow design and maintenance options not otherwise possible. The interest in design of structural components with nominally brittle ceramics has led to a requirement for NDE dur- ing both processing and service of these components (Katz ~d Lenoe, 1981; Evans, 1981~. An NDEYbased maintenance option ~ the "retirement-for-cause~ program In the Department of DO feme. Implementation of this program would change the basis for replacement of a critical component from an arbitrary time of ser- ~rice to the detection by NDE of a design-critical Eaw; thus NDE will lead to substantially increased time of service and cost effec- tivene" of each component (Thompson and Thompson, 1981~. Because ex~t~g infrastructure systems represent an enor- mous financial investment Ed have extremely long design lives, reliability strategies should emphasize maintenance. The total maintenance in~restment will deepens upon the specific facility en ~ the maintenance strategy. The bases for maintenance strategic include: I. Post-fai~ure repair as needed - repair facilities wicn neces- sary after senous problems develop. It ~ likely that the

OCR for page 61
~9 repa~r-a~needed strategy wiD result ~ the highest total cost because the extent of deterioration win have proceeded to the point where major and costly rehabilitation will be needed to restore the facility. 2. Continual preventive maintenance - develop routine main- tenance to prcac~vc facilities and apply maintenance con- tinuously. The preventi~re-mamtenance strategy will adroit the costly rehabilitation expense by keeping the facility in sound condition; however, the routine maintenance costs may be significant. Managers need to know the tradeoffs between the routine maintenance costs and rehabilitation costs. 3. Predictive maintenance - monitor facility conditions and maintain facilities based upon condition information and predicted likely future condition. This strategy requires con- stant feedback of reliable information on facility conditions so that managers car' amps the deterioration trends of the facility. As a facility beams to enter a rapid deterioration phase, protective maintenance activities are undertaken. Predictive ma~ntensuce ~ bred on the premise that m~nte- nar~ce should be invested In facilities prior to the onset of accel- crated deterioration. It ~ a cost~effective way for infrastructure managers to mamta~n the facilities ~d prolong their useful lives. Its Widespread use will require techniques such as elective NDE to mo~tor facilibr condition systematicaBy, modem and associated data bases to predict facility detenoration, and Section support methodologies to assist mar~agers in allocating the maintenance and rehabilitation funds. Various NDE methods are already employed within current infrastructure inspection routines, including visual, laser, elec- trocheniical, and acoustic techniques (ManDing, 1985; Burdekin, et al, Ig86; Brown ~d CaldweD, 1984; Wibon, 1985; C~iforma Dept. of Water Resources, 1986~. These have been incorporated maintenance procedures on 8 piecemeal basis. One extremely suc- ce~fu} application of modern NDE technology ~ the correlation leak detector (Califc~rma Dept. of Water Resources, 1986~. This technique malces it possible to use a small hand-held system with two detectors to pinpoint the location of a water leak. Because of its cost benefits, this system has been widely adopted since its inception in 1978.

OCR for page 61
70 This study discuses opportunities for greater use of NDE In condition assessment arid overall reliability strategies for public works, in order to achieve both better design and more effective managenal strategies for operation of these systems. It is timely to examine these opportunities, since NDE has developed rapidly within the last two decades through ad~r~ncen in instruments tion, understanding of the interaction of radiation tenth defects In materiab Ed components, appreciation of the role of defects in material and structures, and recognition of the economic lever- age of reliable structural performance. Section m of this report discusses the use of and need for NDE techniques ~ three repre- sentative infrastructure systems. The concept of a project with near-term payoff is proposed in Section IV to demonstrate and evaluate the capabilities of NDE for the infrastructure; a specific example ~ given as wed. Section V describes research needs to enhance the role of NDE In infrastructure assessment. In Section V], institutional issues are noted. HL STATUS OF ODE ~ SELECTED PUBLIC WOWS 53YI311:MS A wide range of NDE techniques is available for use in assent ing the condition of the nation's infrastructure. Brief descriptions of some of the more important method now ~ use along with some possible emerging techniques for infrastructure Ferment are presented in the GIomary "d In Table 1. Current applications of these techniques in three specific public works areas ---highways, buildings (mostly above grade), and water supply pipes (below grade) are described In this section; no priority ~ designated. Hi~w"e Definition of Highway System In the context of this review, Highway systems refers to pavements and bridges intended to carry high-speed, high-volume traffic. Typically, the pavements are of concrete, with or without reinforcement. Very often the concrete slabs have been covered tenth asphalt o~rerIays. Bridges are composed of steel or reinforced concrete superstructures, arid bridge decks are typically reinforced concrete. The advances made in the development of NDE methods

OCR for page 61
71 for the evaluation of highway oysters have been made possible by the concerted efforts of the Fevers Highway Adn~nistration and state highway departments. Little work has been performed directly on NDE inspection techniques suited specifically for city streets which are typically asphalt concrete pavements supported by prepared subgrades. The nature of the deteriorating actions are not identical for these two broad classes of highway systems. However, it may be possible to transfer some of the technological solution Tom state and federal highway programs. Types of Defects or Deterioration For concrete pavements containing steel reinforcement, one of the major forrrm of deterioration ~ cracking due to the disruptive stremes arming from corrosion of the steel. Extensive research has shown that the premature failures here resulted from the exten- sive application of deicing chemical. The chloride ions negate the normally protective (alksdine) environment provided by con- crete for the embedded steel reinforcing elements so that these elements are prone to corrosion in the presence of moisture and oxygen. Chemical incompatibilities among the matenab used to make the concrete or the clisrupti~re action of multiple cycles of freezing and thawing are other causes of concrete pavement d~ terioration. These can only be effectively controBed by proper selection of materials and TIiixture proportioning during concrete production. FmaDy, the disruption of the subgrade can lead to pavement cracking. Bridges are more vulnerable than pavements to deterioration because of the more severe loading and exposure conditions. For example, normal fluctuation ~ ambient temperature cause dif- ferential movements which, if not carefully considered in design, can lead to high stresses. Bridges are aL30 subject to high cyclic stresses, which tend to reduce the strength of the material. BY cause of these factors and the grave consequences of a failure, bridge inspection becomes ~ key element of the infrastructure maintenance program. For steel bridges, the prmcip^1 cause of distress are corrosion and cracking which usually arise from cyclic Joshing in combi- nation with poor design details. For reinforced and prestressed concrete bridges, the major canes of Hatred are environmental deterioration of the concrete and corrosion of embedded steel.

OCR for page 61
go (the EPRI NDE Center of the J.A. Jones Applied Research Com- pany, Charlotte, North Carolina) funded by the Electric Power Research Institute. This laboratory conducts research, qualifies techniques for engineering application, used conducts training of personnel for field testing. It is generally recognized that these capabilities far exceed those which could be justified by m~i~ridual electric utility complies. Another example ~ the American Welding Institute (Knox- grille, Tennessee) which was formed in 1984 under the premise that welding technology is critical to the reliability of many systems, but that it ~ not an area of focus for corporations designing and manufacturing these systenm. Therefore, amiable and emerging capabilities have not been brought into application as quickly possible, sometimes comprom7R=g the effectiveness of the welding technology actuaBy used. It is the opinion of this study pane} that the use of NDE in public works mirrors the above two examples and that a central organization ~ needed to provide leadership In research and devel- opment capability, in engineering qualificatioII of NDE techniques, and In personnel training. This organization Should aLso serve as a central source for dissemination of information on techniques add standards as weD as for trar'rfer~g Formation on research to utilities and other interested parties. Fir' ally, this organization should also participate ~ establishing standard and be able to compare the standards used In different NDE public works groups throughout the country. Most public works utilities win have some resident or m-house NDE expertise. However, the level of expertise required for some specialty NDE methods, and the equipment for these methods, may be provided more effectively by personnel operating out of regional centers rather than within each utility. Such regional groups would genre as a conduit of information to and from the central organization descnbe.d above to brag both problems and solutions to the attention of appropriate persons. Personnel Faming Greater emphasm has been placed on engineering system ret liability now than ever before. Thus, there is a great demand for persons with knowledge of NDE methods. Only a few universities offer multiple courses and multifaceted research programs in NDE,

OCR for page 61
91 ar ~ their graduates are sought by firms ~ industries (or research and development areas) supporting the university research. A pa=- alle} shortage of termed emaciate engineers or technicians exists as well. It ~ unlikely that this shortage will be relieved ~ the near future, so that infrastructure systems will have to compete for ND~trmned personnel. In contrast to the deficit ~ initial training programs, there appears to be ample number of refresher courses on NDE methods. ODE Standards in order to consistently apply NDE methods, standards have to be established for their use. Though many elements of the standards process already emit, they are inadequate for compre- hensive application of NDE methods to public works and for broad acceptance of information provided by NDE. Standards should be established in the areas of methodoic)gy, analysis, And pass/fai} rules or criteria. Methodology includes the type of NDE equipment add the process by which it is am plied. The NDE equipment should accurately measure quantities required. Necessary response ranges, safety,, and ruggedn-A need to be established. The process should be established which cons~ tently applies the NDE equipment. This Cures that comparative results can be consistent. Appropriate calibration of the equip ment to laboratory standards and to field conditions should be included ~ the methodology standards requirements. Analysis of NDE data ranges from very simple counts to com- plex signal proce-ins. Because of this, method need to be em tumbled through standards for consistent data interpretation and comparison. As application of NDE methods expand, more em- phasis is placed on user-friendly equipment which puts the method in more hands for greater use. The establishment of standards for methods of analysis would a - let ~ this opportunity. NDE method provide the data for interpretation and decision making. In many Stances the data and resulting analysm provide information which cannot be classed as pa" or fail, In other ~n- stances it does. Standards or guidelines should be provided which include rules for use of the information resulting from aneurysm. Some rules are already established by existing standards which can be cros~referencetl. In the process of establishing rules, the need would be revealed for new ones.

OCR for page 61
92 VIL GLOSSARY Acoustic Erni~ion: When strew ~ applied to a body and cracks or faults propagate through it, acoustic wares are emitted. Thus, acoustic emission can be an indicator of the onset of structural faults. The direct obeenration of the sound emitted Tom a water or gas leak con be a very powerful and simple nondestructive evaluation technique. Acoustic Resonance Methods: A common method for finding structural flaws, such as the presence of delaminations or of cracks in metal structures, ~ to tap the structure with a hammer and listen for the resonant vibration. The sound wild change when there ~ a fault present. A chain can be dragged scrod a structure to carry out this measurement on a Isrger scale. It ~8 also possible to determine the frequency content of the recorded vibrations, so as to carry out a more detailed quantitative analysm. This technique, although an extremely powerful one for showing up the presence of a fault, does not readily pinpoint its location. Chemical Techniques: The presence of moisture Ed acidity or al- lcalinity can be detected by change ~ color of certain chemical semors such as litmus paper. Correlation Water Leak Testing: An extremely powerful method for locating a leak ~ to use two microphones to measure the acoustic emotion Tom a leak. The recorded signals are subject to a signal processing method known ~ correlation analysis which can be determined by the position of the leak tenth respect to the microphone locations. Displacement Gages: Tlnese are used to measure the relative mo- tion between two reference pointy Vanous techniques are available depending on the magnitude of displacements that must be measured and the distance between reference points. For relatively large displacements between Extant points on a structure, electro~optical gages are a~railable. For measunng small displacements between closely spaced points, mechanics and electrical gages are a~railable. Dye Penetrants: A structure can be coated with a simple or fluorescent dye whith glows under ultraviolet light. This is a simple and quick technique for recreating the presence of small surface cracks.

OCR for page 61
93 Eddy Current Techniques: Ecidy current testing involves mew surement of the impudence of a small coil excited by a radio frequency current, when it is moved along the surface of a metal conductor. If there ~ a crack or flow near the surface of the conductor, an impedance change ~ obeer~red. This tech- ~uque ~ most useful for obse~r~g small near surface cracks in metal. Electrochemical Methods: Measurement of the frontage potential between a copper/copper suEate half-cell, placed on the sur- face of concrete, and the embedded reinforcement can be used to deliniate regions of corrosion activity. Polarization tech- niques are under development that would glare indications of corrosion rate. The latter method will be extremely useful in the prediction of remaining life. Fiber Optic Sensors: Optical fibers can be buried In the ground. In building structures and so on during the course of co~truc- tion. Sensors for various types of liquids, gases, temperature measurement, pressure, displacement, strain and so on can be either part of the fiber itself or care be attached to the fiber. The fiber optic semore can ~ In prmc~ple, be interrogated from time to time, even many yeam after ~rmtaBation. The fibers tales up very little room, are impervious to electromagnetic interference, and their presence does not affect structural m- te~ty to any great degree. Fiber optic semors here not been used in inhastructural application, and are still very much in the reteach stage. However, they may be widely up ~ the future as they become more fully developed. Gas Leak Detection with Lacers: This technique uses sensors which are sensitive to certain tracer gases. Such tracers are inserted into a pipe under pressure, and their leakage ~ used to detect the presence of cracks. Ground Radar: Short pulse radar techniques have been developed for detecting delamination In bridge decks for locating buried pipes, and for detecting flaws ~ concrete. Holography: By recording a photographic image of the optical hinges caused by interference between an optical beam ret fiected from a surface and a reference beam, it ~ possible to obtain a Lenitive measure of surface displacement. Such tech- zuques can be USA to look at changes of shape tenth time of a structure, or to measure vibration amplitudes of a structure.

OCR for page 61
94 Magnetic Field Measurements: When there are ferromagnetic ma- terials, such as pipes, buried in the ground, measurement of smug anomalies of the magnetic field with a detector moored over the surface of the ground can show up the presence of buried structures. This technique can also be used to detect cracks in steel components. Neutron Absorption: The absorption of neutrons pawing through maternal can be used to measure density. Changes ~ absorb tion can be employed to measure the moisture content. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR): This relatively new tech- nique has been applied mainly In medical applications. Its application to structural components has been demonstrated at Southwest Research Institute. It ~ useful for determ~n- ing the moisture content in materiab. At the present tune, the large magnets it needs, along with the sophisticated com- puter proce - sing required makes the system too sophisticated, bulky ~d expensive to be applied to infrastructure amen meet. However, this may change. Odor Sensing: This technique ~ useful for determining the prep ence of leaks of certain gases =d vapors. It is subjective, and erratic as a testing method because it relies on the judgment of the Spector. Radiography: X-ray, gamma ray and other penetrating radiation can be used to detect cracks, voids and foreign materiak In stmctural components. Although it can be effective, the apparatus is bulky, and requires personnel access to be limited while the work ~ in progre - . It ~ unsuitable for use ~ the field to examine components which are more than one foot thiclt. Stereo Photography: Stereo photography is a simpler and less sensitive technique than holography for measuring the shape and size of structures. It can determine whether distortions in the shape of a structure have taken place ogres a period of time. Strain Gages: A strain gage measures the change In reactance of a small wire or foil when it ~ stretched. When this gage is bonded to a structure such as a bridge member, it can measure the strain produced by applied loads. Television Inspection: This technique is like direct visual inspec- tion. A TV camera can be inserted in, for instance, a sewer pipe to determine the conditions inside the pipe.

OCR for page 61
95 Thermography: An infrared camera m USA to observe small maria tion in surface temperature. When a pavement, for example, is heated by the sun, the presence delamination causes aroma lies In the surface temperature which are detected by the camera. In other applications, by using pulsed heat sources, more detailed information on the depth and location of inter- nal structures can be obtained. Ultrasonic Testmg: In the pull technique a high frequency strew puke ~ introduced into an object and the reflection from interfaces are recorded. Pulse echo method are commonly used for finding faults such as Roil and cracks In metal struc- tures. Such techniques are being developed with relatively low frequency pulses for ex=TnT.~ng concrete. Measurements of the attenuation and precocity of acoustic warren can also pros vice "formation on the porosity of material, delamination, and the quality of bond between the two different materi- ~. ~ this case the through transaction method ~ USA in which the tra~it time between a tr~m~tting and a receiving traducer ~ measured. Visual Inspection: V]BU^1 inspection ~ the supplest aDd most commonly used technique for evaluating amide range offaulta. It ~ often the only NDE technique available, but it ~ labor intermive, and only shows up surface anomalies. The quality of visual inspection is highly subjective and is dependent on the experience of the inspector.

OCR for page 61
96 Table 1. Features Measured by Vanous NDE Methods Features Voids & Cracke Strain Location of R~inforcement Densit~r Motion ~ Interfaces Radiography G F G N G Neutron Scattering ~ Reflection N N G N N Visual G (surface) N N G N Tele~rision G (surface) N N G N Photography (stereo) G F N N N Holography F G N G N Fiber optic Sensor G G N N N Thermog~phy F N N ~N Ultrasonic Testing G F F N G Acoustic Resonance (semmic) G (in concrete) N F N F Acoustic Emission E. (dynamic) N N N N Correlation Water Leak Testing N N N N N Eddy current G (surface) N N N N Ground radar G N N N G Magnetic Field Measurements F N N N F Displacement (Gage) F G N G N Strain gage F G N G N Dye penetrant G (surface) N N N N Odor eensor N N N N N Chemical N N N N N Le~ detection N N N N N Electrochemical Methode ~N N N N NMR N N N N N Note: Letters in Table indicate relative detectability of {eature by each technique. Key: G = Good F = Fair N = Not Detectable

OCR for page 61
97 Table 1. Features Measured by Various NDE Methode (continued) Dimensional Location Stability of Embedded Features Corrosion Moisture ~ Warpa~e . 13tn~ctures . Radiography E. N N G Neutron Absorption ~ Reflection N G N N Visual G G G N Tele~rision N N N N Photography (stereo) G (outaide) N G N Holography N N G N Fiber optic Sensor N N G N N Thermography N G N F G Ultr~onic Testing F ~N G N Acoustic . . [esonance (seioniic) N N N F N Acoustic Emission N N N N G Correlation Water Leak Testing N N N N G Eddy current N N N G N Ground radar N N N G F Magnetic Field Measurements N N N F N Displacement (Gage) N N G N N Strain gage N N G N N Dye penetrant N N N N N Odor sensor N F N N G Chemical N G N N F Le~c detection N N N N G Electrocheniical Methode G F N N N NMR N G N N N N G G N N

OCR for page 61
98 Table 2. Representative Examples of U.S. Institutiom Conduct~g R - earch and De~relopment in Nondestnactive E`raluation Areas of Effort - Representati~re Examules of NDE Technioue De~relonmcnt Institutions Grou~d Conductin ~Penetrat~g R&D on NDE Acoustic Electroma~rneticThermo~raDhic Radar Rockwell Science Center X X Jones Associates X United Tech. Research Center X Schlumberger X Southwest Research Institute X XX Concrete Technology Laboratory X Wiss, Janney, Eletner Assoc. Inc. X XX Johns Hopkine University X X Ohio State Uni~rersity X X Stanford Uni~rersity X X National Bureau of Standards X X X X Ames Lab (Iowa State Uni~reraity) X X X Argonne Natl. Lab X X Batelle Pacific Northwest Lab Idaho National Engrg. Lab Oak Ridge National Lab Waterways Exper. Station Na~ral Constr. Engrg. Lab X X X X X X t X

OCR for page 61
99 Table 2. Representative Examplce of U.S. Institutione Conducting Research and De~relopment in Nondestructi~re E,raluation (continued) Areas of Effort Representati~re Examples of Institutions Materials Charactensation ~rith NDE Methods Conductin~r Pobmer Geotechnical R&D in ND E Met ale Ceramice C'omPosites Concrete _S tructure Rockwell Science X X X Center Jones Associates X United Tech. Research Center X Schlumberger Southwest Re~search Institute X X X X X Concrete Technology Laboratory X Wi", Janney, Eletner ~oc. inc. X X X Johns Hopkins Uni~r. X X X Ohio State Uni~rersity X X X Stantord University X Natl. Bureau of Standarde X X X X Ames Lab (Iowa State Uni~remity) X X X Argonne Natl. Lab X X Batelle Pacific Northwest Lab X Idaho National Engrg. Lab O~k Ridge National Lab Waterways Exper. Station Na~ral Constr. Engrg. Lab X X X X X X X

OCR for page 61
100 Table 2. Representati~re E:,camples of U.S. Institution Conducting Research Ad De~relopment in Nondestnacti~re Evaluation (continued) Areas of Effort Reoresentati~re Examples of Institutions Conducting R&D on NDE Aircraft Enemy Plants Infrastructure Building Component _S~rstem Characterization with NDE Methods Rockwell Science Center X Jones Associates X United Tech. Research Center X Schlumberger Southwest Research Institute X X X Concrete Technology Laboratory X X X Wise, Janney, Elatner A"oc. Inc. X X X Johns Hopkins University X X Ohio State University X X Stanford IJni~rersity Natl. Bureau of Standards Ames Lab (Iowa State University) Argonne Natl. Lab Batelle Pacific Northwest Lab X X X X X X X X Idaho National Engrg. Lab X Oak Ridge National Lab X Waterways Eloper. Station X Natural Constr. Engrg. Lab X X