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Index Acceleration strategies in transition periods, 6, 173- 174 Adopt-a-school program, 122 Age of dislocated workers, 102 and mobility of workers, 15 and older people in Sunbelt areas, 35 and unemployment of youth, 121 Airports in diversified service centers, 45 in functional centers, 56 Autonomy of command and control centers, 55, 162 of national and regional centers, 48- 49 of urban areas, 161-162 Baltimore, public-private cooperation in, 163 Bankers) infrastructure, 7, 89-90, 173, 178 urban development, 7, 83-84 Banking services in national centers, 45-46 in regional centers, 46-47 Blacks females in work force, 27, 30 in public employment, 140 Blue-collar workers in functional centers, 51 shifts to white-collar employment, 5, 22-30, 33 Bonds for financing infrastructure, 86 interest rates affecting, 90 tax exemption for, 88 as leverage capital, 93 Canada fiscal equalization grants in, 149 job bank system in, 113-116 market-oriented, 115 worker choice in, 114- 115 Capital allocation of, 6, 61 formation and flow of, 60-61 from nonprofit organizations, 10, 164-165 investments for development, 6-7, 72-96 place-oriented policies in, 4, 7, 80-86 205

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206 sectoral policy in, 6, 72-80, 174 leverage (see Leverage capital) local factors in attraction of, 136-137 substitution for labor, 23, 26, 33 venture, 77 from nonprofit organizations, 10 waste from underuse of, 137 Career ladders and segmented employment patterns, 30 Civic climate and public-private partnerships, 159 Clerical jobs, factors affecting, 24-26 Cleveland, shifts in economic structure of, 22, 23 (Figure) Colleges, role in development of human resources, 8, 129-133 Command and control centers, 5, 38, 40 (Figure), 41-44 (Table), 45- 53, 174 autonomy of, 55, 162 characteristics of, 55-56 diversified service centers in, 39, 40 (Figure), 41 (Table), 45-49 functional centers in, 41-42 (Table), 49-52 public-private cooperation in, 10 specialized service centers in, 39, 40 (Figure), 41-42 (Table), 49- 53 Communications industry part-time employment in, 28 (Table) types of employment in, 25 (Table) Communities activities geared to local labor force, 138-139, 179 centers for training disadvantaged workers, 3 fiscal capacity of, 145-148 interests in conflict with national in- terests, 62-63 preserving integrity of, 136-140 revitalization of areas in, 169-174, 175 multiplier effect of, 139 role in redundancy planning, 126- 128 Index value recognized in public policy, 138-140 Community Development Block Grant (CDBG), 83, 87 Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), 142, 143 Computer industry, employment rate in, 99 (Table) Computer literacy, need for, 104, 128, 176 Concentrations of headquarters and strategic services, 14, 16 Conflicts between national and regional inter- ests, 62 between sectoral and regional poli- cies, 80 Conglomerates of corporate headquarters and con- centrations of specialized ser- vices, 14 multinational, headquarters in na- tional and regional centers, 49 Construction industry part-time employment in, 28 (Table) types of employment in, 25 (Table) Consumer-oriented centers, 39, 40 (Figure), 42-43 (Table), 53-54 Consumer services, 17-18 part-time employment in, 28 (Table) percentage of employees in, 20 (Fig- ure) rate of growth in, 22 types of employment in, 25 (Table) Contracts with private firms for provision of services, 144, 169- 170 Cooperation of private and public sectors, 10, 158-164, 179 Corporate community (see Private sector) Corporate headquarters concentrated in cities, 14, 16 in Frostbelt states, 35 in national centers, 46 autonomy of, 48-49

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Index in regional centers, 46-47 autonomy of, 48-49 Corporate services Cost in command and control centers, 38 part-time employment in, 28 (Table) types of employment in, 25 (Table) of public employment, 142, 143 of redundancy planning, 128 of relocation of workers, 115, 116, 117 (Table) of training programs, 129 Dallas development strategy in, 69 public-private cooperation in, 163 Decentralization of economic activities, 13-14, 175 and concentrations of headquarters functions, 14, 16 Decline of industries obsolescence in, 34-35 redundant labor problem in, 101-104 ripple effect of, 67 Demography and urban change, 14-16 Denver, public-private cooperation in, 163-164 Design as tool in urban development, 94-95, 180 Detroit, development strategy in, 69 Development, 59 and avoidance of ineffective incen- tives, 93-94 design concept in, 94-95, 180 infrastructure system in, 86-93 joint projects in, 92-93 land management in, 92-93 leverage capital for, 82-86, 91 and linkage between mainstream and those left behind, 64-66 Diversity long-term strategy in, 68-70 multiplier effect of, 85 national policy for, 60 national and regional interests in, 60- 64 public facilities affecting, 91-92 207 regulatory process in, 94 and reuse of old buildings, 95 and revitalization programs, 139, 169, 174-175 as source of opportunities, 63 transitional strategy in, 66-68 and urban development banks, 7, 83- 84 Disadvantaged population community-based centers for training of, 3 concentrations in cities, 15- 16 educational needs of, 2, 121, 123- 124, 176 higher education for, 130-131 minorities in (see Minorities) restricted opportunities for, 110 young people in, problems with, 8 Dislocated workers, numbers of, 103 (Table) Dispersion of economic activities, factors in, 13, 15 Distribution of opportunities, national interest in, 61-62 Distributive services, 17-18 part-time employment in, 28 (Table) percentage of employees in, 20 (Fig- ure) projected distribution in year 2000, 13 (Table) types of employment in, 25 (Table) Diversified service centers, 39, 40 (Figure), 41 (Table), 45-49 airports in, 45 national, 41 (Table), 45-46 regional, 41 (Table), 46-47 service jobs in, 48 subregional, 41 (Table), 47 transformation in, 47-49 in command and control centers, 56 in labor market, importance of, 36 Education alternative programs in, 123-124 and computer literacy, 104, 129, 176

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208 as continuous program, 126-129 demographic trends in, 19 employers involved in, 8, 122-123, 125, 132 government assistance for, 21, 176 increased levels of, 15 institutions in functional centers, 51- 52 integration with labor force entry pro- grams, 122 in Job Corps programs, 124 in military service, 124 part-time employment in, 28 (Table) and preparation for work, 121-126 and redundancy planning, 126-129 for redundant workers, 64 reorientation in, 2, 104-105 specialized schools in, 124 state involvement in, 124, 178 type of employment in, 25 (Table) universities and colleges in, 129-133 vocational programs in, 125 vouchers for, 8, 123-126 Education-manufacturing centers, 42 (Table), 52 Electronic technology, employment rate in, 99 (Table) Employment opportunities (see Labor force, mobility strategies for) Energy industry development in Sunbelt cities, 35 employment rate in, 99 (Table) Enterprise zones, businesses in, 84-85 Equalization of fiscal capacity (see Fiscal equalization) Extractive and transformative industries (see Manufacturing) Federal government services (see Government services) Finance industry employment rate in, 99 (Table) part-time employment in, 28 (Table) types of employment in, 25 (Table) Index Financial services in national centers, 45-46 in regional centers, 46-47 Fiscal disparities city-suburban, 147 interstate, 146, 147 intrastate, 146-147 Fiscal equalization, 2-3, 9, 145-150, 175, 178 in Canada and West Germany, 149- 150 cost-effective approach to, 148- 149 importance of, 63 for state and local services, 62 state power in, 147 Food products firms, in regional centers, 47 Frostbelt region population changes in, 34-36 urban growth in, 107 Functional centers, 41-42 (Table), 49- 52 blue-collar workers in, 51 manufacturing industries in, 55 nonprofit sector in, 51-52 production and nonproduction activi- ties in, 50-51 Geographic regions, growth and decline in, 34-37 and economic performance of cities, 36, 37 (Table) Geography of unemployment, 98-101 Goals in urban development and long- term strategy, 68-69 Government assumption of welfare costs, 118, 148 as capital retailer, 84 as capital wholesaler, 84 cooperation with corporate commu- nity, 10, 158-164, 179 economic policies of, 173-176 affecting capital investment, 72 for allocation of capital, 61

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Index relation to urban and sectoral poli- cies, 4-5 for urban development, 60 employment in (see Public employ- 54, 55 meet) expenditures of, multiplier effects of, 21 federal policies, 176- 177 intervention of, degree and level of, 3-4 and job information system, 10, 116- 117, 156, 158 state policies, 177- 178 support of public-private partnerships, 170 7 _ 7 Government-education centers, 42 Infrastructure (Table), 52 Government services, 17-18 career ladders in, 30 changes in, 19-21 part-time employment in, 28 (Table) percentage of employees in, 20 (Fig- ure) skilled labor in, 24 types of employment in, 25 (Table) Gross National Product government role in, 19 nonservice sectors in, 31, 32 (Table) subsidies as percentage of, 72 Growth, definition of, 59 Headquarters functions (see Corporate headquarters) Health services demographic trends in, 19 dual labor market in, 29 employment rate in, 99 (Table) government assistance for, 21 part-time employment in, 28 (Table) types of employment in, 25 (Table) High-risk programs, nonprofit organizations in support of, 10 Houston, development strategy in, 68 Imports, and decline in manufacturing employment, 33 209 Independent sector (see Nonprofit institutions) Industrial-military centers, 43 (Table), Information system, 7, 153-158, 177 council of advisors in, 155-156 federal support for, 156-157 inventory of assets and potential in, 154-155 national network in, 10, 116-117, 156, 158, 174 objectives of, 153 quality of data in, 156-157 urban indicators in, 157 value of. 3 154 in joint development projects, 92 maintenance by public employment, 143 national bank for, 7, 89-90, 173 national interest in, 62, 174 national system of, 86-91 priorities for expenditures in, 88, 89, 90-91 public capital investments in, 7 statewide banlcs for, 178 Institutional factors affecting urban areas, 57 Insurance industry employment rate in, 99 (Table) part-time employment in, 28 (Table) in regional centers, 46 types of employment in, 25 (Table) Intelligence system (see Information system) Interest rates affecting bond issues, 88- 89 International markets, producer services for, 21 Internationalization of business, effects of, 14 Job bank system in Canada, 113-116 market-oriented, 115 worker choice in, 114- 115 Job clubs, 113

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210 Job Corps, 124, 176 "Knowledge" jobs in service industries, 24-26 Labor force, 97-134 changing demand for, 33 in consumer-oriented centers, 53, 56 displaced workers in, 64, 103 (Table) distribution of employees among in- dustries, 20 (Figure) diversity in, importance of, 36 dual labor market, 27, 106, 119 education and training of (see Educa- tion) information system for, 7, 153-158, 177 investment strategies for, 7-8, 118- 133 in preparation for work, 121-126 local approach to, 106- 109 low-skilled jobs for, 9 in manufacturing, 32 migration and relocation of, 7, 82, 102 assistance by Canadian job bank, 113-116 corporate policy affecting, 108 costs of, 115, 116, 117 factors affecting, 107- 109 and intermarket job information, 112-113 national job information system for, 10, 116-117, 156, 158, 174 out-migration and in-migration rates, 108 resistance to, 9, 102, 110- 111, 112, 136 ripple effect of, 127 mismatches in demand and supply of, 64 mobility strategies for, 2, 111- 118, 174 and access to intermediate-level jobs, 30 Index age affecting, 15 national approach to, 105-106 occupational classes in (see Occupa- tional classes) part-time employment of, 27, 28 (Ta- ble) in production centers, 54, 56 projected distribution in year 2000, 12, 13 (Table) in public employment, 140-145 redundant, 101-104, 175, 179 as continuing problem, 102 education and training of, 64 long-term aspects of, 102 short-term aspects of, 102 replacement with capital, 23, 26, 33 retraining of, 8, 82, 102 cost of, 129 as preventive strategy, 127 universities as resource in, 132 segmented pattern of, 27-30 shifts in, 13 (Table) from blue-collar to white-collar jobs, 5, 22-30, 33 toward service industries, 5, 12, 16-22, 33 unemployment of (see Unemploy- ment) Land management in development projects, 92-93 Leadership groups commitment to community, 51 and public-private partnership, 10, 158-164, 179 role in development strategies, 68 Leverage capital for economic development, 7, 174, 175 effectiveness of, 82-86, 91 ineffective use of, 93-94 Local sector (see Communities) Location of economic activities, changes in, 13 Long-term strategy in urban development, 3, 68-70 Low-skilled jobs as entry into labor force, 9

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Index Manufacturing continuing importance of, 31-33 and displaced production workers, 64, 103 (Table) employment rate in, 20 (Figure), 99 (Table) employment shifts from, 5, 12, 13 (Table), 16-22,33 factors affecting growth in, 34 in functional centers, 50 imports affecting employment in, 33 180 obolescence affecting, 34-35 and overseas production of goods, 33, 120 part-time employment in, 28 (Table) projected distribution in year 2000, 13 (Table) regional decline in, 12, 34, 179 types of employment in, 25 (Table) unemployment rate in, 98 Manufacturing centers, 43 (Table), 50, 54 Medical services (see Health services) Military expenditures, impact of, 79 Military-related employment in Sunbelt cities, 35 Military service, skill and job training in, 124 Mining-industrial centers, 44 (Table), 54, 55 Minorities concentrations in cities, 15-16 education and training for, 2, 3, 176 female blacks in work force, 27, 30 in public employment, 140 Mobility of workers (see Labor force, mobility strategies for) Moving by workers (see Labor force, migration and relocation of) Multinational conglomerates, headquarters in national and regional centers, 49 Multiplier effects of development, 85 of government expenditures, 21 of public employment, 144 211 of revitalization of areas, 139 National centers, 41 (Table) autonomy of, 49 evolution of, 58 sevices in, 45-46 National interests and regional or sectoral development, 60-64 National policy (see Government) Nonprofit institutions, 17, 164-168, catalytic role of, 165-166 demographic trends in, 19 and difficulties with private philan- thropy, 166-167 in functional centers, 51-52 in long-term strategies, 3 part-time employment in, 28 (Table) percentage of employees in, 20 (Fig- ure) rate of growth of, 21 seed capital from, 10, 164-165 skilled labor in, 24 types of employment in, 25 (Table) Obsolete manufacturing plants and decline of jobs, 34-35 in functional centers, 50 Occupational classes and access to intermediate-level jobs 30 and dual labor market, 27, 29-30, 106, 119 projected growth in, 27, 29 (Table) Opportunities, economic development affecting, 63 national interest in distribution of, 61-62 restricted for disadvantaged persons, 110 Part-time employment of high-school students, 122 in occupational subgroups, 27, 28 (Table) in public employment, 143, 144

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212 Partnerships, public-private, 10, 158- 164, 179 and autonomy ot urban areas, 161- 162 differences of interests in, 159-160 models for, 162-164 stability of, 160-161 state and federal support of, 170 Personal services, 17-18 projected distribution in year 2000, 13 (Table) Philanthropy (see Nonprofit institutions Physical conditions affecting urban areas, 56-57 Pittsburgh development strategy in, 69 public-private cooperation in, 162- 163 services provided through contracts, 144, 169-170 Primary industries, 17 Producer services, 17-18 in command and control centers, 38 in Frostbelt states, 35 growth of, 21-22 in national centers, 45-46, 48 part-time employment in, 28 (Table) percentage of employees in, 20 (Fig- ure), 21 projected distribution in year 2000, 13 (Table) in regional centers, 46-47, 48 skilled labor in, 24 types of employment in, 25 (Table) Production centers, 39, 40 (Figure), 43 (Table), 54-55 Professional services, employment rate in, 99 (Table) Publie employment, 140- 145 activities in, 9, 143-144 benefits and problems with, 142 contracts with private firms for, 144, 169-170 cost of, 142, 143 local labor forces in, 3 multiplier effect of, 144 Index Publie facilities (see infrastructure) Publie-private cooperation, 10, 158- 164, 179 Publie sector (see Government) Plaee-oriented policies for capital investment, 4, 7, 80-86 criticism of, 81 leverage capital in, 82-86 Policy framework, 172-174 capital investments in, 6-7 flexibility for specific circumstances. 3, 6 information systems in, 7, -10, 153- 158 labor force quality in, 7-8, 97-133 and levels of government interven- tion, 3-4 public-private cooperation in, 10, 158-164 and relationship of urban, sectoral and national policies, 4-5 and responsibility for actions, 3 stabilization strategy in, 2-3, 8-9 Political regimes, consensus with leadership groups, 68 Population changes in cities, 13, 14-16 regional redistribution of, 34-37 Primary industries, 17 Private sector capital flight from cities, 63 cooperation with public groups, 10, 158-164, 179 headquarters of (see Corporate head- quarters) involvement with schools, 8, 122- 123, 126, 133 in public works programs, 144, 169- 170 Public Service Employment (PSE) program, 142-143 Real estate industry employment rate in, 99 (Table) part-time employment in, 28 (Table) types of employment in, 25 (Table)

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Index Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), 83-84 Redundancy planning, 8, 126-129, 175-176 communities in, 126-128 cost of, 128 industries in, 127 Redundant labor (see Labor force, redundant) Regional centers, 41 (Table) autonomy of, 49 evolution of, 58 services in, 46-47 Regional growth and decline, 34-37 and economic performance of cities, 36, 37 (Table) Regional interests in conflict with national interests, 62-63 Regulatory process in development, reform of, 94 Relocation of workers (see Labor force migration and relocation of) Research and development, support for. 76, 79 Residential centers, 42 (Table), 53 Resort-retirement centers, 42-43 (Table), 53 Restructuring of national economies, consequences of, 12-13 Retail services, 18 part-time employment in, 28 (Table) percentage of employees in, 20 (Fig- ure) and sales firms in regional centers, 47 types of employment in, 25 (Table) Retraining of workers (see Labor force, retraining of) Revitalization of areas, 174- 175 local concerns in, 169 multiplier effect of, 139 Secondary industries, 17 Sectoral policy for capital investments, 6, 72-80, 174 advocates of, 74 213 critics of, 74-75, 78 implications for urban areas, 78-80 shift of capital and workers in, 76 strategy for, 75-78 Selby Bindery experience, 138-139 Service industries classification of, 16-19 standard industrial codes (SIC), 17, 18 value of, 18 employment rate in, 99 (Table) entry-level jobs in, 30 in Frostbelt states, 35 occupational profiles of, 23 part-time employment in, 28 (Table) percentage of workers in, 24 (Table) projected distribution in year 2000, 13 (Table) rising importance of, 5, 12, 16-22, 33 skills needed in, 24-26, 104 types of employment in, 25 (Table) Shifts in economic structure, 5 from blue-collar to white-collar jobs, 5, 22-30 consequences of, 12-13 and continuing importance of manu- facturing, 31-33 from extractive and transformative in- dustries to services, 5, 12, 13 (Table), 16-22 and regional growth and decline, 34- 37 Skilled workers education and training of, 104-105 in service industries, 24-26 Social services, 17- 18 projected distribution in year 2000, 13 (Table) Specialized service centers, 39, 40 (Figure), 49-53 education-manufacturing, 42 (Table), 52 functional, 41-42 (Table), 49-52 government-education, 42 (Table), 52

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214 Stabilization of economies, 6, 8-9, 135-151 community integrity strategies in, 136-140 and fiscal equalization, 2-3, 9, 145- 150, 175, 178 public employment in, 140-145 States employment in government of, 53 and fiscal equalization policies, 2-3, 147 involvement with education, 125, 178 participation in urban strategy, 177- 178 support for public-private partner- ships, 170 support for universities, 130-131 Structural changes in economy (see Shifts in economic structure) Subordinate centers in urban system, 5, 39, 40 (Figure), 42-44 (Table), 53-55, 178 autonomy of, 162 consumer-oriented, 39, 40 (Figure), 42 (Table), 53 linked to command and control cen- ters, 65 production, 39, 40 (Figure), 43 (Ta- ble), 54-55 Subsidies impact of, 72-73 ineffectiveness of, 80 local interest in, 62 Sunbelt areas growth in, 107 population changes in, 34-36 Tax credits for employee training, 125 problems with, 86 Technical jobs in service industries, 24- 26 Technology, impact of, 23-24, 26-27 Tertiary industries, 17 Training programs (see Education) Index Transformative industries (see Manufacturing) Transition period in development, 66- 68 continuing support for institutions in, 167-168 in declining areas, 67 and development of information sys- tem, 153-158 elite-centered approach in, 168-169 independent sector in, 164-168 priorities in, 67 public-private leadership in, 158-164 in rapidly growing areas, 67-68 stabilization of economies in, 135- 151 Transportation systems and airports in diversified service centers, 46 financing of, 88 importance of, 178 part-time employment in, 28 (Table) types of employment in, 25 (Table) Underclass, development of, 16, 140 Unemployment and costs of benefits for workers, 115, 116 geography of, 98-101 rates in metropolitan areas, 100 (Ta- ble), 101 (Table) and retraining of workers, 64 of young people, 121 U.S. Employment Service, relocation assistance by, 112- 113 Universities impact of, 53, 54 preparation of students for, 130-131 role in development of human re- sources, 8, 129-133 in training and retraining of workers, .131-132 Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG), 83-84 Urban policy, related to national and sectoral policies, 4-5

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Index Urban system, 38-58 classification of areas in, 38-45 largest areas by types and size 41-44 (Table) command and control centers in, 38, 40 (Figure), 41-42 (Table), 45-53 consumer-oriented centers in, 39, 40 (Figure), 42 (Table), 53-54 diversified service centers in, 39, 40 (Figure), 41 (Table), 45-49 implications of changes in, 55-58 institutional factors affecting, 57 interdependent group of cities in, 39 physical conditions affecting, 56-57 production centers in, 39, 40 (Fig- ure), 43 (Table), 54-55 specialized service centers in, 39, 40 (Figure), 41-42 (Table), 49- 53 and standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA), 39 subordinate centers in, 39, 40 (Fig- ure), 42-44 (Table), 53-55 transformation of areas in, 44 215 Utilities headquarters in regional centers, 47 part-time employment in, 28 (Table) types of employment in, 25 (Table) Venture capital, 77 from nonprofit organizations, 10 Vocational education programs, 125 Vouchers, educational, 123-126 Waste disposal facilities, financing of, 86 Welfare costs, national assumption of, 118, 148 West Germany, fiscal equalization grants in, 149 Wholesale industries, types of employment in, 25 (Table) Women in labor force in part-time jobs, 27, 30 in Sunbelt states, 35 Work-study programs for high school students, 122

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