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APPENDIX TABULATION OF STATE OF KNOWLEDGE ON ~T=-pH-ECOSYS=M INTERACTIONS FOx SPECIFIC METALS This appendix contains in tabular form, for each metal considered, an analysis of what is known and what is not known about the cycling of metals in ecosystems and their effects on ecosystem components with specific reference to acidification (Tables A.1 through A.18~. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem are included, but wetlands are not addressed. Questions 1 through 17 of the tables are keyed to the questions identified in Figure 1.1. A Ire detailed discussion of these questions appears in Chapter 2. 65

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66 TABLE A. 1 Aluminum Question Anewer References 1 . Hu~n~Controlled Deposition? No Galloway et al . ( 1982 ) 2. Physical/Chemical/Wee-Dry Partly/2do/Partly TanaKe en al. (19Bl) // Speciation Known? . Jeffries and Snyder (1981) 3. Terrestrial Systea Accumulation? No 4. Leached Terrestrial - Aquatic? Yes Cronan and Schofield (1979) . NH:C (1981~), Voigt (1980) 5. Terrestrial Snterection with Yes Almer et al. (1978), Cronan Acidification? and Schofield (1979), Dickson ( 1980 ), Hanson et al . ( 1982 ) 6. Terrestrtal Bloevailability/ Yes/No Foy et al. (1918), Volgt Bloaccuoulatlon? (1980) / Huett Ad canary (1979), Meredith (1978) 1. Terrestrial Biological Effects? Unknown Andrew and Van Den Berg (1973), Foy et al. (1918), Tool inson ( 1983 ) . S - elation in Solution Known? Yes Campbell et al. ( 1983), or tecoll et al . ( 1980 ), 9. IncreseLng Aquatic Concentration? Yes 10. Aquatic Interaction witty Acidification? 11 . Aquse to Bioeve $1abil ity/Bioaccueulat ion/ Bio~gnif ication/54oxicity? 12. Aquatic Biological Effects? 13 . Sediment Spectation Itnown? Y.. Y.~/Y.~/~/~ Y.. Yes 14. Readily Recycled from Sedin~ente? Yes 15. Sediment Interaction with Acidification? Yes 16. Sedate Blo.~silability/~toaccueulation? Unknown/Unknown 17. Sediment Biologice1 ~fIecte? Unknown Florence (1982), Florence and Betley ( 1980 ), Johnson et al . (1981) Cronan and Schofield (1979), Dickson (1980), Hell et al. 1980), Schindler and Turner ~ 1982 ) Allis works se. Sable 2.8 Burrows (1977), N~:C (1981~) / Stokes et al. (1983~) / Er ikeson at al. (1980), Stokes et al. {1983~), 1~. Suns, Ontario llintatry of the Environment. pare. co_. 1982 / Itairer (1980) Baker and Schof $~1d t 1980), Bur r owe ( 197? ), Grahn { 1980 ), Kramer {19B1) Agemian and Chau (1976. 1977), Bisenreich et al. (1980), Ma10 (1917) See Question 15. Alder at al . ( 19?8 ), Ctonan and Schof ield t 1979), Dickson ( 1978 ), Hall ee al . ~ 1980), Hanson at al. ( 1982 ), Johnson et al. 41981), Schindler et al . ( 1980s, b )

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67 TABI`E A . 2 Ar sen ic . Question An~wer References 1. Hu~n~cortrolled Deposition? yes Galloway et al. (19a2) 2. Physicalfchemical/wet-~ry ;~ ly/Partly/Partly Galloway et al. (19B2) / Specistion Known? Andrea. (1980) / Galloway et ~ 1. ( 1982 ) 3. Terrertris1 System Accumulation? Yes Hvatue ct a1. (1983), NRCC (1978), R~k and Stcinnes (1980), Stcinncs (1983) 4. "ached Tertcat: ta1 ~ Aqustic? 5. Terrestr ial Interaction with Acidif ication? 6. Terrestr ta1 Blonvailability/ Bioaccumulat~on? 7. Terrestria1 Biological Ef fects7 8. Speciation in Solution Known? 9. Sncrearing Aquseic Concentration? 10. Aqustic Interaction wi~h Acidif ication? 11. Aquatic 8ios~ra flab il ity/Bioaccumulation/ B io~gn i f ice t ion/Sox i c i ty ? 12. Aquatic Blologica1 Effecte7 13. Sedi~nt specistion Xnown? 14. Bcadily Rceycled fro~ Sedi~nts? 1S. Sedi~n~c Interaction with Acidification? Unknown Unknown Yes/.fes Unlcnown Yce Vnknown Unknown Unknown/unknown,/ Unkno~m/t~der see Vnknown Partly V~known ~o 16 . Sed ~en t ~ ioava i lab 1 1 1 ty/B ioaccumula ~ ion ? Unknown/Unknown 17. Sed~er~t Biological Effecte? Vnknown N=C ( 1978 ) / K - ley and Thullen (1971), Plambeck and Smith (1976), Weleh and xeeney ( 197 S ) F1Orence ( 1982 ), Florence and Betley ( 1980 ~ / Treveray et al. (1975) // Ke iser (1980 ) NRCC (1978 ) I`rerson et a1. tl980) Clement and Faust ~ 1981), Jack~on et a1. 41980), Schindler et al. (1980e ) r

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68 TABLE A. 3 Beryllium Queation 1. Human~Controlled Deposition? 2. PhysiCal/Che~ical/Wet-Dry Speciation Known? 3 . Ter ~ estr lal Systee Accumulat ion? 4. Leacbed Terrestria1 ~ Aquatic? S. Terrestris1 Interaction with Acidif ication? 6 . Terrestr ial Sioevailabil ity/ Bioaccu~ulation? 7 . Terrestr is1 8iologica1 Ef fecte? B. Speciation ~n Solution Itnown? 9. Iner easing Aquatic Concentration? 10. Aqustic 2nterection with Acidification? 11. Aqustic Bioavailabil ity/Bioaccuoulation/ Biomagnif ication/Soxicity? 12. Aqustic Biologica1 Ef fecte? 13 . Sed i~nt Spec i~C ion 1tn~n? 14 . Readily Recycled f roe Sedi~nte? 1S . Sedi~nt Interaction with Aeidif ication? 16 . Sedimene Bioavailab il. ity/8 ioaccueulat ion? 17 . Sed~nt Biological Ef fecte? Anewer Vnknown NO/NO/NO Yes Unknown Unknown Yes/Yes Unknown NO Unknown Yes Unknown/unknownj unknown/Low Unknown Par tly Unknown Unknown Unknown/Unknown Unknown Re fer ence. Galloway et al . ( 1982 ) Cannon ( 19 7 5 ) Gr if f ithe et a1. ( 1977 ) / Griffithe et a1. (1977) Cannon ( 1975 ) Th i~ ~rk: see Table 2 .8 /,// Ke iser ( 1980 ) popp and Laquer ( 1980 )

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69 TABLE A. 4 Cadmium _ Question Answer Refcrences 1. Humen~COntrolled Depocition? Yes Galloway et al. tl982) 2. PhysiCal/ctle'~lical/wet-Dry ~_, :'`~/No/Partly Gatz et al. (1984) // Speciation Kno~rn? Galloway et a1. (1982) 3. Terrcstrial System Accumulation? Yes Hvatum et al. (1983), Rambaek and Steinnes (1980), Steinnes (1983 ) 4. Leacbed Terrestria1 ~ l~qustic? Yes Fuller et a1. tl976), Tyler ( 1978, 1981) 5. Terr~strial laterection with Unknown Beveridge and Pickering Acidification? (1980), Ferrah and Picker ing (1979), Hatton and Picker ing ( 1980 ), Slavek and P icker ing (1981) 6. TerresCrial llioevailability/ Yes/Yes Hutabinson {1979b), John Bioaccumulation? (1972) / Hutchinson (1979b) 7. Te:reserial Biological Effects7 Unknown ElutCbinson (1979b), Trayno: and Itnezak tl9t3 ) 8. Speciation in Solution Known? Yes Florence (1982) . Florence and Betley (1980), Raspor (1980) 9. lncressing Aquatic Concentration? Yes Dickson (1980) 10. Aqustic Interection witt~ ACidif ication? No Engel et al. (1981) 11. Aqustic 8io vail~ility/Bioaccumulation/ Yes/Yes/No/High Xarb et al. (1975) / "non' Bio~gn if ication/Toxicity? et al . ( 1976 ), Holtz inger (1977) , Spshar et al. (1978), It. Suns, Ontario Hinistry of the Environacnt, pere. co~., 1982 // Balser (1980) 12. Aquatic Blological Effecte? Unknown Benoit et al. (1976), Free~n and Sangalang ( 1976 ), Spehar et al. ( 1918) 13. Sedi~nt Speciation Known? Yes Eisenreicts et al. (1980), Forstner and Witmann (19B1), G~brell et al. (1976), Khal id e t al . ( 198 1 ), Per hac ( 1974 ), Popp and Laquer ( 1980 ), Salonons and Foretner (1980), Tese~er et al. (1980) 14. Readily Recycled from Sediments? Unknown 15. Sediment Interaction with Acidification? Yes 16 . Sed i~nt B ioeva i lab i 1 i ty/B ioaccu~ulat ion? Unkn~n/Unk n~n 1? . Sedi~nt Biolog ica1 Ef f~ts? Unknown Gambrell et al . ( 1976 ), Khal id ( 1980 ), Ktlal id et al ( 1981), Rendell et al . ( 1980 ), Reuther et al . (1981), Salomons and mok (1980) Reddy and Patr ick ( 1977 ) / Mathis and Cu~ings (1973) .

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70 TABLE A. 5 Cobalt Question Anewer Re ference. 1. Hu~n~concrolled Deposition? Unknown Galloway ee al. tl982) 2 . Phys ical/Cheeical/W.t-Dry No/No/No Spec iation Known? 3. Terrestris1 Systee Accumulation? Yes Whitty et al. (1976) 4 . Leached trerrestr is1 ~ t~quatic? Yes FitchRo ( 1974 ), Wn ~tby et al . (1976) 5. Terrestrle1 Interaction witb Unknown Mahara and Kudo (1981a,b), Aciditication? McKenzie (1980), O'Connor and Kester (1975) 6. Terrestris1 8ioavat1 - ility/ Yes/Yes Whitty (1974) / Kut~ota et al. Bioaccu~ulation? ( 1970 ), Wh itty ( 1974 ) 7 . Terrestr ia1 Biological Effecte? Unkno~,n 8. Speciation in Solution Known? Partly Florence (1982), Florence and Betley ( 1980 ) 9. Increasing Aquatic Concentration? Yes Whitby (1974) 10. Aquatic Snteraction with Acidification? Yes Jeckson et a1. (1980), Sch indler et al . t 1980a 11. Aquatic Bloevailability/~ioaccumulation/ Un~nown/Unknown/ /// Xaiser tl980) Bio~gnif ication,/Toxicity? No/Moderate 12. Aquatic 8tological Effects? Vnkn~n 13. Sed~nt Speciation Known? yes Forstner and Witemann (1981), Gibbe (1977), Perbac (1974), Popp and "quer ( 1980 ), Sch~ll and Foratner (1979), Shu~n et al. (1978) 14. - edily Recycled fro. Sedi~nte? Vnknown 15. Sed~ne Interection with Acidification? Yes 16. Sedi~nt 8toevatIabllity/8toaccumulation? Unknoarn/Unknown 17. Sed~nt 8tological Eff~te? Unknown Jackson et al . ( 1980 ), Mabara and Xudo ( 198 1a , b), O 'Cor~nor and ItesCer (19751, R.utber et a1. (1981), Schindler et a1. ( 1980e )

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71 TABLE A. 6 Copper Question Answer Reerences 1. Human-controll" Deposition? Yes Galloway et al. (1982) 2. Pnysical/chemical/wet-Dry .,`Lly/No/Partly Gatz et al. (}984}, Tanaka et Speci.~:on Known? . al. (1981) // Gallo~ay et al. ( 1980 ), Jef fr ies ana Snyder (1981) 3. Terrestrial Syste~o Accumulation? Yes . "ached Terrestr is1 Aquatic? 5 . Serrestr ial Interaction with Ac id i f icat ion? 6. Terrestrial Bioevailability/ a ioacc~ulat ion? 7. Terrestria1 Biological Effect~? Yes B. Specistion in Solut~on Known? Yes Yes Yes Yes/Yes 9. Increasing Aqustic Concentration? Unknown 10. Aqustic Ineeraction with Ac~dif ication? Yes 11. "useic Bioavailability/Bioaccumulation/ Yes/Yes/No/ ~ io~gn it icat ~on/Tox ic ity? Modecate 12. Aquatic Biolog~cal Elfects? 13. Sedi~nt Speciation 1tnown? Yes Yes 14 . Read fly Recycled f ro~ Sed ixnte? Yes 15 . Sed` - nt Interaction with Acid~f ication? Unknown 16. Sed: - nt 8ionvailability/Bioaccuoulation? Yes/Yes 17. Sedi~nt Blolqical Effeces? Vnknown Hutch inson ( l9?9a), W ~cser ( 1979 ) FitchRo ( 1978 ) McLaren and Crawford (1973a,b), Si" and Patrick ( 1978 ) Hutch inwn ( 1919~) . Jarv is ( 198 1 ), Johnsen et a1 . t1981), Wieser (1979) / ilutch inson 11979e ) Tiller and Merry ( 1981 ) Flor ence ( 1982 ), Flor ence and Betley ( 1980 ), Lcck ie and Davis ( 1979 ) Bea~ish nd Van Loon 1 197 7 1. Schindier and Turner (1982), Stokes et a1. (1983~), Whitby t 1970 Tt~is work; see Sable 2.8, Engel et al . ( 1981 ) Spear and P ierce ( 1979 ), Stokes ( 1979) / t}utch~nson et a1. (197S)! Luces et a1. tl970), seakes tl979) / ffutchinson et al. (1975), Patr ick and Lout it ( 1976 ), Stokes (1979) / Keiser (1980) Hodson et a1 . ( 1979 ), Sp.ear and Pierce ( 1979) Eisenreich et al. (1980), F il ipek and O-en ( 1979), For steer and Pa~cch ineelam ( 1980), Forstner and Wittmann ( 198 1 ), Gibbs ( 1971 ), Perhac ( 1974 ), Popp and Laquer t 19 8 0 ) , Sct~mol 1 and For stne r ( 1979 ), Shuman ( 1979 ), Tess ier et al . ( 1980 ) Forstner and Witt~nn (1981), Kr antzberg ana Stokes ( 1981 ) Far r ah and P icker ing t 1979 ), o'Connor ano Kester ( 1975), Rendell et al. (1980), Reuther et al . ( 1981 ) Anderson (1977) / Stoke~ ( 1919), Tessier et al. ( 1982, 1980

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72 TABLE A. 7 Lead Question Angler Re ferences 1 . Hu~an~controlled Depos ition? 2. Physical/Che~ical/Wet-Dry Spec fat ton ICnoern? 3. Terrestrial Systea Accumulation? Yes 4. Leached Terrestris1 ~ Aquatic? 5. Terrestrial Interaction with Ac id if icat ion? 6 . Terrestr Cal Bloavailabil ity/ ~ toaccumulat ion? Yes Yes/No/Per tly No No/No Galloway et al. ( 1982 ) Galloway et al. (1980), Gatz et al. (1984), Tanaka et al. (1981) // Galloway et al. (1980) Hvatu~o et al . ( 198 3 ), Johnson et al . ( 1982 ), Ragbag and Steinnes tI980), Saith and Siccaa. (1981), Steinnes ( 1983 ) Dillon and Even. (1982), Hanson et al . ( 1982 ), Tyler t 1978, 198 1 ) DevIs et al. (1982), Bent ik Ben and Wr igh e ( 19 78 ), Norton et al. (1981), Salim and Cooksey ( 1980 ) Johnson et al . { 1981 ) / Johnson et al . ( 1981 ) 7. Terrestrie1 Biological Effects? Unknown 8 . Spectation in Solution Known? Yes Florence ( 1982 ), Florence and Betley ( 1980 ) 9. Increseing Aqusetc Concentration? Ye~No Dickson (1980), Henrikeen and Wr ight ( 1978 ) / Stokes ( 1983~) 10. Aquatic Inte:ection with Acidlfication7 11. Aquatic a ioevell"11 ity/81Oaccueulat ion/ Bl~gn if icat ion/Toxicity? Unknown Y.~/~/~/ Moderate 12. Aquatic Blological Effects? 13. Sed~_nt Specistion ICnown? No Y.. 14. Readily Recycled fro. Sedi~nte? No IS. Sediment lnterection with Acidif ication? No 16 . Ant Slo~vellab il ity/Bloaccu~ulat ion? Unknoam/Unknown 17. S - lent Blologica1 Effects? Unknown rorstner and Written ( 1981) Hodeon (1981), Stokes et al. (1983~), t{. Suns, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, pere. cog., 1982 // Kaiser ( 1980 ) Hodeon ( 1981 ) Chau et al . ( 1979 ), Eteenreich et al. (l9BO) . For steer and Patch insoles (1980), Forstner and Witt - ann ( l9B 1 ), Gambrel 1 et al . ( 19?6, 1980 ), Perhec ( 1974 ), Salomons and Foratner ! 1980), Tess ler et al. ( 1980 ) Forstner and Wittmann ( 1981 ) sever idge and P idler ing (1980), Brannon et al. (1980), Davis et al. (1982), Ferrah and Picker ing (1979), Ge~cell at al. tl976 ~ 1980), Hanson et al . ( 1982), Hatton and P laker ing ( 1980 ), Henr ikeen and Or igile ~ 197B), Nor ton et al . ( 198 1 ), Rendel l et al. {1980), Reuther et al. (1981), Se11. and Cookery (1980), Slevok and Pickering tl981) N. ick 1~e et al. ( 1972 t N iCkl.~. at 81. ( 1972 ) -

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73 TABLE A. 8 Manganese Quest ton Answer Re f er ences 1. Humen-controlled Deposition? Yes Galloway at al. (1982) 2. Physlcal/Cnem1Cal/Wet-Dry .:-;,".to/Partly Galloway et al. tl980) `// Spec iation Known? Galloway et al . ( 1982 ) 3. Terrestrial System Accumulation? Unknown 4. Leached Serrestris1 ~ Aquatic? Yes NRC (1981a) 5. Ter rests tat Interaction with Yes Hanson et al . ( 1982 ), NR<:C Acidification? (l98la), Tyler (1978, 1981) 6. Terrestr is1 Bioevellability/ Unknown/Unknown 8ioaccueulae ion? 7 . Terrestr ial Bioloq teal Ef fecte7 8. Specistion in Solution Known? 9 . I net eas ing Aqust lc Concent r a t ion? Unknown Yes Yes 10. Aquatic Interaction with Acidification? Yes 11. Aquatic Bioevailability/Bioaccumulation/ B io~nagn i f icat ion/Sox tic ~ ty? Yes/Yes/No/Low Florence ( 1982 ), Florence and Baeley ( 1980 ) Almer et al. (1978) . Dickson (1980), N9CC (1981a), Sch. indler and Tut net ~ 198 2 ) , Stokes et al . ( 198 3a ) Jackson et al. (1980), Schindler et al. (l98oa~b) Harvey and Fraser ( 1982 ) / Harvey and Frazer ( 1982 ), Stokes et al . ( 1983a) // Kaiser ( 1980 ) 12. Aquatic Biological Ef facts? Unknown 13. Sediment Speczation Known? Yes Etsenreich et al. (1980), Filipek and Owen (1979), For steer and Patch ineelam ( 19BO ), Gibbe ~ 1977 ), Perhac (1974), Popp and Laquer ( 1980 1, Selomons and For steer (1980), -Scholl and Foretner (1979), Sloan (1979), Tess ier et al . ( 1980 ) 14. Readily Recycled from Sediments? Ye. NBCC (1981a) IS. Sediment Interaction with Acidification? Yes Jackson et al. (}9801 . Sch. candler et al . { 1980a ,b ) 16 . Sediment Bioeva i lab il i ty/B ~oaccumulat ion? 17. Sediment 8`olog~ca1 Effects? Unknown/unknown Unknown

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74 TABLE A. 9 Mercury Ques t ion ^nswer Re f er ences 1. Hu~n~ontrolled De~sition? Yes G.llow.Y et a1. ( 1982) 2. PhYSloal/Chemioel/Wet-OrY P.rtly/~/No B.r ton et .1. {1982), Gallow.Y S-ciation Kn~n? e: .1. (1980], Stevens et al. ( 1982) / Ber ton et .1. {1982}, St~v~n5 "t al. (1982) / B.r ton et "1. (1982), G.l l~.y et .1 . ( 1980 ), Stevens "t "1. [ 1982 3. T.rrestr1~1 SYstem ^ccumuletion? un~nown 4. L..ch~ T.rrestri.1 ~ ~uetic? Y.s Evens (1982) 5. Terrestri.1 Inter.ction with unkn~n ~idif icat10n? 6. Terrestr1~1 B,o.~.ilabilitY/ unkn~/unkn~ Beauford "t "1. (I977), John Blo.~uletion? (1972) / Jackson {1973), Stewar t et .1. ( 1975 ~ 7. Tecrestrie1 Biol~ic.1 Effects? Unknown Speice1 end Siegel (1975), Stewar t "t .1 . { 1975 ~ 8. S~.tion in Solution Kn~n? PertlY Florence (1982), Florence and BetleY ( 1980 ), Goulden and ^nthonY (19601, Kudo et "1. (1982 ) 9. Increesing ~U.tiC Concentretion? unknown ^l~r et .1. {19781 10. ~u.~1o Inter.~tion with ^cidif [cation? Yes J.ckson "t .1. (1980), Schindl.r et e1. (1980~; Th is ~r k, se. T.bl. 2 . B 11. ^quetic Bi~veilab11itY/Bioecc_uletion/ YeS/Yes/YeS/High Huck.~e et al. (1979), "~rb. ei~gnific.tion/Toxicity? et al. (1975) / Huck.-e et "1. (1979), Rudd (1982), Windom end ".ndell (1979), wren et .1. f 1983 ~ / "ren et .1 . ( 1983 ) / Kalser ( 1980 ] 12. ^qu.tic eiol~ice1 Ef fects? 13. S-i~nt S-~tion Kn~n? Onknown Yes 14. A."dily R~cled from Sedi_nts? YeS 1S. Sedi~nt Interection with ^cidif icat10n? Yes 16. S-iment B:o.~.ilebilitY/Bio.~cu~uletion? Yes/Yes 17. S-iment Biol-1c.1 Eff~ts? Unk nown Bet: i et "1 . { 1975 ), Cl in. e: .1. (197]), Ga~rell et .1. (1976, 1980}, Kudo e: "1. (1977), Nages. et al. (1980) Forstner and Wittmenn ( 1981 ) ^l~r et al. (1978), F.rrab and P icker ing ( 1979 ), Gambrell et al. {1976, 1980), J.ckson et a1. (1980), Sch indler et a1. ( 1980a) Bei]er and Jernelov {19791 / Karbe .t al. (1975)

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75 TABLE A. 10 tiolybdenum _ Quest~on Answer . References 1. Human~controlled Depos it ion? 2 . Phys l-al/cne~ical/wet-Dry Spec ~at ion Kno~rn? 3. Terrestrial System Accumulation? 4. Leached Terrestr is1 ~ Aqustic? S. Terrestrial Interactlon ~ith Acid if ~cat ion? 6. Serrestris1 Bloevailability/ ~ ioacc~ulat ion? 7. Terrectrtal Biological Etfecte? 8. Speciation in Solution Known? 9. Increasing Aqust~c Concentrat~on? 10 . Aquseic Interection with Acidif icat~on? 11 . Aqust ic ~ ioeva flab 11 ~ty/8 ioaccumulat ~onJ 8io~gnif ica:`on/Toxicity? 12 . Aquat~c Biolog ic:~1 Ef f ects? 13 . Sedi~nt Spec ist ion Known7 14. Read~ly ~ecycled from Sed~'nent.? 15. Sedi~nt Interaction w~th ACidif ~cation? 16 . Sed i~nt ~ ioeva~labil ity/Bioaccumulse ion? 17. Sedi~nt 8iologica1 Ef fects? Unknown !l^/N~No Vnknown Unknown t3nknown Yes/Unk nown Unknown ~o Galloway et a1. {1982) Hewi tt ( 1952 ) Nagater i and B. il. 1 ( 1974 ) / Devis (1981) MeX.nna et a1. (1970), Negatari anct Brill (1974) Unkno~n Unknown Yes/Ur~known/ Ar non and Seout (1939} /// Unknownf unknown Unknown Partly Vnkno~n Unknown Unknown/Unkno~rn Unknown Popp and Laquer (1980) Hewite ( 1952 )

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76 TABLE A. 11 Nickel Ques t ioQ Answer Re f e r ences . Human~Controlled Deposition? Yes Galloway et al . ( 1982 ), NROC ( 1981~) 2. Physical/Chemical/Wet-Dry Partly/No/Pertly Tanake et al. (1981) // Spec latic~n Known? Galloway et al . ( 1982 ), Jef fr ies and Snyder ( 1981 ) 3. Serreserial Systea Accumulation? Yes Wh~tby et al. (1976) 4. Leached Tercestri.1 ~ Aquseic? Yes F~tchRo (1978) S. serreserial lnterection W`th Yes Haletead et a1. (1969) Acidif ication7 6. Terrest:~1 Bio.~aileb~lity/ Yes/Yes NR(:C {198Ib), Whitty et a1. 8ioaccueulation? (1976) / 8rooke (1980), 7. Terrestr ial 8iologica1 Effects? B. Speciation in Solut~on Known? 9. Increasing Aqustic Concentration? 10. Aqustic Interaction w~th Acid~f ication? ll. Aquatic Bioevailability/B:oaccumulation/ Sio~agnif icatson/Toxicity? 12 . Aqustic 8iolog ical Ef fecte? 13. Sedi~nt Speciation Itnown? Unknown Per tly Yes Unknown Yes/Yes/No/ Hoderate Unknown Y.8 14 . Readily Recycled f rom Sedi~ents? Yes 15. Seci~nt Intereceion with Ac~ditication? Yes 16 . Sed i~nt B ioeve f lab il i ty/8 ioaccu~ulat ion? Unknown/unknown 17. Sedi~nt Biologica1 Ef feCte? Unkn~n Burton et al. (1981), t4~:C (1981b), Whitty et a1. (1976) Hutchinson ( 1978 ) Florence ~ 1982 ), Florence and Batley 41980 ) Whit~y ee a1. 41976) Brooke (1980), N=C (1981~) / Brooke (1980), NRCC (1981b) / Hutchinson et al. ( 1975 ) / Keiser {lB80 ) Hutchinson et a1. (1975) . Stokes ( 1981 ) Forstner and Wit~nn ( 1981) G ibbe ( 1977 ), Perhac ( 1974 ), Popp ana Laquer ( 1980 ), Selomon. and Forstner (1980) Schnoll and Forstner (1979) . Tess ier ee al . ( 1980 ) F i echko ( 19 78 ) Reuther et al. ( 1981)

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77 TABLE A. 12 Selenium Question Answer References 1. H~n~Controlled Deposition? Yes Galloway et al . t 1982 ) 2. Physical/che~ical/wee-Dry .~."i,/No/No Galloway et al. (1982) // Spec fat ion Known? 3. Terrestrial System Accumulation? Yes Hvetum et al. (1983), Rambaek and steinnes (1980), Steinnes ( 1983 ) 4. Leached Terrestrial ~ Aquatic? Unknown 5. Terrestrial Interaction with Unknown Acidif [cation? 6. Terrestrial Bioevailability/ Yes/Yes Shrift and Ulrich (1969) / llio~ccueulation? S tad ton ( 1974 ) 7. Terrestrial aiolqical Effects? Unknown Trelease and Trelese. (1938) 8. Speciation in Solution Itnown? Partly Florence (1982), Florence and Betley ( 1980 ) 9. Increasing Aquatic Concentration? Unknown 10. Aquatic Interaction with Acidification7 Unknown 11. Aquatic Bionvailability/B`oaccusoulat~on/ Yes/Vnknown/ Hay and t~cltinney (19B1), Rudd a impugn i f ice t ion/fox ic i ty? Unknown/H igh ( 1982 ) / Ph i 11 ips and Russo 41978), Tre~rersy et al. ( 1975 ) / Ph ill ipe and Russo (1978), Rudd (19B2) / Kaiser ( 1980 ) 12. Aquatic Biological Effects? Unknown 13. Sediment Speciation Itnown? NO 14. Readily Recycled from Sediments? Unknown 15. Sediment Interaction with Acidification? Yes Jackson et al. (1980), Schindler at al. (1980a) 16. Sediment Bloevailability/Bioaccueolation? Unknown/Unknown 17. Sediment Biological Effects? Unknown

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78 TASLE A.13 Silver Question Anewer References 1 . Hu~n~Control led Xpos i t ion? 2 . Phys ical/Chem~cal/Wet-Dry Spec istion Knawn? 3. Terrectris1 Systea Accumulation? 4. Leached Terrestris1 ~ liquatic? 5. Terrestris1 Interection with Acidif ication? 6. Terrestr:~1 Bio.vailability/ Bioacc~ulet ion? 7. Terreetris1 Biologice1 Effecte? 8 . Specistion in Solut ion ltnown? 9. Increseing Aqustic Concentration? 10. Aqustic Interection with Acidif [cation? 11. Aqustic Bioevailability/8ioaccu~nulation/ Bioasqnif ication/Soxicity? 12. Aquatic Biolog~cal Effects? 13. S"i~nt Speciation Itnown? 14. 15. 16. Yes No/No/No Yes t~nk nown Unknown Unknown/Unknown Unknown No Unknown Yes Unknown/Unknown/ Unknown/H igh Unknown Per tly Readily Recycled from Sedi~nente? Unknown Sed~nt InteractiOn ~.ith Acidification? Unknown Sed i~nt B:oeve flab i 1 i ty/B ioaccumule e ion? Unknown/UnKnown 17 . S.di~nt Bioloq ice1 Ef fects? Vnknown Galloway et al. (1982) Ra~aek ana Ste~nnes (1980) Engel et al . ( 1981 ) /// Kaiser ( 1980 ) Hutch~nson and Stokes (1975) Chao and Anderson (1974) Luama and Jenne ( 1977 ) j Luoms and Jenne ( 1977 ~

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79 TABLE A. 14 Tellur ium Question Answer References 1. Human-Controlled Deposition? 2. Physical/Chemical/Wet-Dry Speciation Known? 3. Terrestrial System Accumulation? 4. Leached Terrestrial ~ Aquatic? 5. Terrestrial Interaction with Acidification? 6. Terrestrial Bioavailability/ Bioaccumulation? 7. Terrestrial Biological Effects? 8. Speciation in Solution Known? 9. Increasing Aquatic Concentration? 10. Aquatic Interaction with Acidification? 11. Aquatic Bioavailability/Bioaccumulation/ Biomagnification/Toxicity? 12. Aquatic Biological Effects? 13. Sediment Speciation Known? 14. Readily Recycled from Sediments? 15. Sediment Interaction with Acidification? 16. Sediment Bioavailability/Bioaccumulation? 17. Sediment Biological Effects? Unknown No/No/No Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown No Unknown Unknown Unknown/Unknown/ Unknown/Unknown Unknown No Unknown Unknown Unknown/Unknown Unknown Galloway et al. (1982)

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80 TABLE A.15 Thallium Question Answer References 1. Human-Controlled Deposition? Unknown Galloway et al. (1982) 2. Physical/Chemical/Wet-Dry No/No/No Speciation Known? 3. Terrestrial System Accumulation? Unknown 4. Leached Terrestrial ~ Aquatic? Unknown 5. Terrestrial Interaction with Unknown - Acidification? 6. Terrestrial Bioevailability/ Unknown/Unknown Bioaccumulation? 7. Terrestrial Biological Effects? Unknown 8. Speciation in Solution Known? Partly Florence and Batley (1980) 9. Increasing Aquatic Concentrat ion? Unknown 10. Aquatic Interaction with Acidification? Unknown 11. Aquatic Bioavailability/Bioaccumulation/ Unknown/Unknown /// Raiser (1980) Biomagnification/Toxicity? Unknown/High 12. Aquatic Biological Effects? Unknown 13. Sediment Speciation Known? No 14. Readily Recycled from Sediments? Unknown 15. Sediment Interaction with Acidification? Unknown 16. Sediment Bioevailability/Bioaccumulation? Unknown/Unknown 17. Sediment Biological Effects? Unknown

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81 TABLE A.16 Tin Question Answer References 1. Human-Controlled Deposition? Unknown Galloway et al. (1982) 2. Physical/Chemical/Wet-Dry No/No/No Speciation Known? 3. Terrestrial System Accumulation? Unknown 4. Leached Terrestrial ~ Aquatic? Unknown 5. Terrestrial Interaction with Unknown Acidification? 6. Terrestrial Bioavailability/ Unknown/Unknown Bioaccumulation? 7. Terrestrial Biological Effects? Unknown 8. Speciation in Solution Known? Partly Chau et al. (1982), Florence (1982), Florence and Batley (1980), Maguire et al. (1982) 9. Increasing Aquatic Concentration? 10. Aquatic Interaction with Acidification? 11. Aquatic Bioavailability/Bioaccumulation/ Biomagnification/Toxicity? 12. Aquatic Biological Effects? 13. Sediment Speciation Known? 14. Readily Recycled from Sediments? 15. Sediment Interaction with Acidification? 16. Sediment Bioavailability/Bioaccumulation? 17. Sediment Biological Effects? Unknown Unknown Unknown/Unknown Unknown/Moderate Unknown No Unknown Unknown Unknown/Unknown Unknown /// Kaiser (1980)

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82 TABLE A. 17 Vanadium Question Answer References 1. Human-Controlled Deposition? Yes Galloway et al. (1982) 2. Physical/Chemical/Wet-Dry No/No/Partly //Galloway et al. (1982) Speciation Known? 3. Terrestrial System Accumulation? Yes Rambaek and Steinnes (1980) 4. Leached Terrestrial ~ Aquatic? Unknown 5. Terrestrial Interaction with Unknown Acidification? 6. Terrestrial Bioavailability/ Bioaccumulation? Yes/Yes 7. Terrestrial Biological Effects? Unknown McKenna et al. (1970), Nagatari and Brill (1974), Van Zinderen Bakker and Jaworski (1980) / Addison and Puckett (1980),~Hanner and Grant (1962), Van Hindered Bakker and Jaworski (1980) Buczek et al. (1980), Lepp (1977), McKenna et al. (1970), Nagatari and Brill (1974), Van Zinderen Bakker and Jaworski (1980) 8. Speciation in Solution Known? No 9. Increasing Aquatic Concentration? Unknown 10. Aquatic Interaction with Acidification? Yes Jackson et al. (1980), Schindler et al. (1980a) 11. Aquatic Bioavailability/Bioaccumulation/ Yes/Yes/Unknown Van Zinderen Bakker and Jaworski (1980) / Biomagnification/Toxicity? High - Van Zinderen Bakker and Jaworski (1980) // Kaiser (1980) 12. Aquatic Biological Effects? Unknown Meisch and Benzschawel (1978), Ramadoss (1979) 13. Sediment Speciation Known? Partly Jackson et al. (1980), Loring (1976), Popp and Laquer (1980) 14. Readily Recycled from Sediments? Unknown 15. Sediment Interaction with Acidification? Yes Jackson et al. (198C), Schindler et al. (1980a), Tyler (1978, 1981) 16. Sediment Bioavailability/Bioaccumulation? Yes/Yes Loring (1976) / Botte et al. (1979) 17. Sediment Biological Effects? Unk nown

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1. H~m~n-Controlled Deposition? 2. Physical/Chemical/Wet-Dry Speciation Known? 3. Terrestrial System Accumulation? Yes 4. Leached Terrestrial ~ Aquatic? 5. Terrestrial Interaction with Acidification? 6. Terrestrial Bioevailability/ Bioaccumulation? Yes E//Partly Yes Yes Yes/Yes 7. Terrestrial Biological Effects? Unknown 8. Speciation in Solution Known? Yes 9. Increasing Aquatic Concentration? Yes 10. Aquatic Interaction with Acidification? Yes 11. Aquatic Bioavailability/Bioaccumulation/ Yes/Yes/No/ Biomagnification/Toxicity? Moderate 12. Aquatic Biological Effects? 13. Sediment Speciation Known? Unknown Yes 14. Readily Recycled from Sediments? Yes 15. Sediment Interaction with Acidification? Yes 16. Sediment Bioavailability/Bioaccumulation? Yes/Unknown 17. Sediment Biological Effects? Unknown 83 TABLEA.18 Zinc Question Answer References Galloway et al. (1982) Galloway et al. (1982), Gatz et al. (1984), Lindberg et al. (1977), Tanaka et al. (1981) // Galloway et al. (1982) Hanson et al. (1982), Hvatum et al. (1983), Rambaek and Steinnes (1980) Fuller et al. (1976), Hanson et al. (1982), Tyler (1978, 1981) Hanson et al. (1982), Tyler (1978, 1981) Giordano and Mortvedt (1980), Straughan et al. (1981) / Fabiszewski and Brej (1981), Giordano and Mortvedt (1980), Shuman (1980), Wallace (1975) Giordano and Mortwedt (1980), Lindberg et al. (1981) Florence (1982), Florence and Batley (1980) Dickson (1980), Henriksen and Wright (1978), Schindler et al. (1980a-,b), Stokes et al. (1983a) Jackson et al. (1980), Schindler et al. (1980a) Whitton (1980) / Whitton (1980) / Jenkins (1981) / Kaiser (1980) Filipek and Owen (1979), Forstner and Patchineelam (1980), Forstner and Wittmann (1981), Gambrell et al. (1980), Perhac (1974), Popp and Laquer (1980), Schmoll and Forstner (1979), Shuman (1979), Tessier et al. (1980) Hanson et al. (1982), Norton et al. (1981), Reuther et al. (1981), Schindler et al. (1980a,b) Hanson et al. (1982), Norton et al. (1981), Reuther et al. (1981), Schindler et al. (1980a,b) For stner and Wittmann (1981), Krantzberg and Stokes (1982), Tessier et al. (1982) / Forstner and Wittmann (1981), Tessier et al. (1982, 1984) .

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