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OCR for page 147
Index Acoustic neuroma, see Tumors of the eighth nerve Acoustic trauma, 9, 13-14 Acupuncture, see Treatment of tinnitus, acupuncture Aging and tinnitus, 8 Air pressure changes, see Treatment of tinnitus, manipulation of air pressure Alcohol, 63, 78 Allergies, see Treatment or tinnitus allergies Alternate binaural loudness balance (ABLB), 44, 47 American Tinnitus Association, 94 Aminoglycosides, 79 Anemia, 11 Anesthetics, 11 Animal models of tinnitus, 16, 17 Annoyance of tinnitus, see Tinnitus, annoyance of Arlidin, 78 Aspirin 16, 17, 26, 60, 61, 118 Audiogram, microstructure, see Microstructure of audiogram Beats with tinnitus, 51-52 Betahistine hydrochloride (Serc), 29 Biofeedback, see Treatment of tinnitus, biofeedback Blow to the head, 11, 14 Brain-stem-evoked response (BSER), 26, 54 Bupivacaine, 78 Caffeine, 63 Carbamazopine 72-74, 75, 77, 79 Causes of tinnitus, see Etiology of tinnitus Central masking, 38, 54 Children and tinnitus, 8, 24 Chlortrimeton, 78 cls-Platinum, 63 Cocaine, 63 Cochlear echo, see Otoacoustic emissions Cochlear emissions, see Otoacoustic emissions Cochlear implants, 85, 86 Cross-modality matching, 44 Depakene, see Sodium valproate Diabetes, 119 Diazepam, see Volium Diet, see Treatment of tinnitus, diet Dilantin, see Phenytoin sodium Diplacusis, 51 Drug overdoses, 11 147

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148 Drugs causing tinnitus, 59-63 also see by name Drug treatment of tinnitus, see Treatment of tinnitus, drugs Ear wax, 11 Efferent system, 15, 25, 38 Eighth-nerve fibers, see Primary auditory fibers Electrical stimulation, see Treatment of tinnitus, electrical stimulation Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 87 Emissions, see Otoacoustic emissions Endolymphatic hydrops, 28-30, 68 Epilim, see Sodium valproate Ergenyl, see Sodium valproate Ethylmorphine hydrochloride, 79 Etiology of tinnitus, 10-11 Eustachian tube, 12, 81 Evoked cochlear mechanical response (ECMR), 18 also see Otoacoustic emissions Glycerin 29 Hair cells, 17-18, 30, 60 Hawthorne effect, 65, 79 Hearing aids, safety of, 114, 116 Heavy metals, 63 Heparin, 79 Hypertension, 11 Hyperthyroidism, 119 Hypnosis, see Treatment of tinnitus, hypnotherapy Hypoglycemia, 119 Hypothyroidism, 11, 119 Kanamycin, 16 Kidney function, 118 Lidocaine, 3, 26, 67-75, 79 Lignocaine, see Lidocaine Lorcainide, 78 Loudness-matching procedures, 42-45, 46, 119 high reliability of, 44 Magnitude of tinnitus, see Tinnitus, magnitude of Marijuana, 63 Masking-level difference (MLD), 39 Masking of tinnitus, 3, 36-45, 89-116 "adaptations and, 39, 40, 53, 115 contralateral, 37-38, 41, 52-54 "covering ups tumors, 13, 117-118 different from external sounds, 37, 40, 47, 108-110 drugs and, 54-81 efficacy, 3, 4 hearing aids, 90 interstation radio noise, 41, 89, 90, 93 Meniere's Disease, 27-31 monaural versus binaural, 41 safety, 4, 5 success estimates, 3-4 Measurement of tinnitus, 32-54 Mechanisms of tinnitus, 14-20, 30, 52, 53 also see Etiology of tinnitus Melanin connection, 62, 71-72, 80 Meniere's Disease, 9, 11, 18, 27-31, 37, 66, 67, 72, 81, 88 Meningitis, 119 Mexilitine, 79 Microstructure of audiogram, 22 Migraine, 11, 119 Multiple sclerosis, 11, 119 Music synthesizer, 34 Mysoline, see Primidone

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149 Naftidrofuryl, 78 Niacin, 66 Nicotinic acid, 66 Noise exposure, see Acoustic trauma Nortriptyline, 78 Objective tinnitus, 1, 5-7, 18, 19 in nonhuman species, 6, 21 unheard by owner 6, 18-23 Octave errors, 35, 37, 120 Oral contraceptives, 63 Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), 6, 12, 18-23, 26, 28, 51, 54, 61, 88, 89 cochlear echo, 18, 21, 22, 26 in nonhuman species, 21 Meniere's Disease and, 28 physical characteristics, 19-21 spontaneous OAEs, 12, 18-19, 26, 51, 54, 61, 88, 89 also see Objective tinnitus Otosclerosis, 8, 9, 11, 12, 37, 88 Otospongiosis, 76 Palatal myoclonus, 12, 74 Personality and tinnitus, 55-57 Phenytoin sodium, 75-76 Pitch of tinnitus, see Tinnitus, spectral location of Pitch-matching procedure, 35-37, 39, 91, 120 Pregnancy, 11 Presbycusis, 9, 11, 13, 14, 37, 68, 83 Prevalence of tinnitus, 2, 7-9, 13, 14 acoustic trauma and presbycusis, 13, 14 eighth-nerve tumor, 12-13, 57-58 in children, 8, 24 in hearing-impaired, 9 monaural versus binaural, 9 Primary auditory fibers, 30, 40, 60, 70 kanamycin and spontaneous rates, 15-17 Primidone, 76 Procaine hydrochloride, 29 Psychological problems and tinnitus, see Treatment of tinnitus, psychological Psychophysical tuning curves for tinnitus, 38-39 Quality of tinnitus, see Tinnitus, quality of Quinine 62 Racial differences, Z7, 71 also see Melanin connection Reaction time, 44 Recruitment, 27, 43, 44, 46, 47 Residual facilitation, 107 Residual inhibition, 20-21, 38, 40, 43, 54, 61, 85, 87, 93, 94, 98, 102, 104-107, 115, 119, 120, contralateral effects, 106 drugs and, 106-107 also see Residual facilitation Safety of tinnitus maskers/ instruments, see Tinnitus, maskers/instruments, safety of Salicylate, see Aspirin Sensation level (SL) definition, 40, 46 versus sound-pressure level (SPL), 44-46, 112, 120 Sleep interference, see Tinnitus, interference with sleep Sodium amylobarbitone, 3, 77-78, 79 Sodium fluoride, 76 Sodium valproate, 77

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150 Spectral locus of tinnitus, see Tinnitus, spectral location of Stereocilia, 17-18, 30 Stress, 48, 56, 82, 118 Surgery for tinnitus, see Treatment of tinnitus, surgery Temporary threshold shift (TTS), 20, 25, 59, 62, 66, 71 Tegretol, see Carbamazepine Tinnitus annoyance of, 40, 45-48, 69, 90 as a symptom, 2, 56, 117 definition, 1, 5-7, 19 different from external sound, 51, 52-54, 108 sedge effect, n 16, 17 experimental models, 24-26 hearing loss and, 23, 24 induced by noise exposure, 16-18, 25, 26, 29 interference with sleep, 45-46, 83, 84, 89-90, 111 magnitude of, 41-45, 67-69, 73-75, 77, 83, 85, 112, 120 monaural versus binaural, 27, 28, 34, 39, 42, 48-50, 70,.120, 121 objective/subjective issue, 6, 7, 18-23 perceptual location, 50 quality of, 32-34 spectral location of 28, 35-41 variability in, 32, 36, 39, 91, 110, 120 Tinnitus maskers/instruments, 3, 4, 31, 34, 36, 38, 48, 50, 89-116, 117, 121 damage/risk criteria (DRC) and, 4, 5, 110 efficacy, 92-104 levels of, 4, 5, 111-114 masker waveforms, 91, 108-110 "master" units, 109 production of hearing loss by, 40, 107, 110-116 regulation of production of hearing loss by, 5 safety of, 107-116 sound-pressure levels of, 4, 5, 111-113 success estimates, 95-104 Tobacco, 63 Tocainide hydrochloride, 74-75 Tocard, see Tocainide hydrochloride Treatment of tinnitus, 2 acupuncture, 84 allergies, 81-82, 118 audiological examination, 119 biofeedback, 57, 82-83 diet 81-82, 118 drugs, 3, 54, 59-81, 118, also see by name electrical stimulation, 54, 85-87 exposure to intense sound, 58-59 hypnotherapy, 83-84 manipulation of air pressure, 54, 87-89 medical examination, 117-119 palliative versus treatment, 55, 117 psychological, 55, 56 reassurance, 55 surgery, 13, 57-58 Tumors of the eighth nerve, 12-13, 57-58 University of Oregon tinnitus clinic, 3, 4, 30, 93-107 Valium, 79 Vestibular schwannoma, see Tumors of the eighth nerve Vitamin A, 66 Xylocaine, see Lidocaine