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APPENDIX 6. CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOR FEDERAL LAWS RELATING TO ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND HEALTH Y&AR NAME (Citation) ADttINISTERlNG AGENCY SUGARY OF PURPOSE 1934 Fish and Wildlife Coordination Fish and Wildlife Service Ensure ~tiditfe conservation needs receive Act (16 U.S.C. 661 et seq.) s~ency^consideration when water-related infracts will result from federal projects. Fish and Ntiditte Service and state wildlife agencies can recommend ~ot1ficat10ns of projects to reduce impacts on w, ldl t fe habi tat. 193E Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Food end Drug Admintstretton Regulates foods, drugs, cosmetics, medical Act (21 U.S.C. 348 et seq.) devices, and substances therein. 1947 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, invirorsiental Protection Required all pesticides to be registered and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. Agency prior to sale and be properly labeled for use. 136 et seq.) 1960 Federal Hazardous Substances Act Consuner Product Safety Regulates consuner product hazards. Toxic ( 1 5 U. S. C. 1261 -1273) Comntsston corrosive, flammable , co rbustible, or irritation substances that nay cause ~substenti 111ness from Pcust~ry or reasonably foreseeable" use; toys or ertkles intended for use by children presenting an "electrical mechanical, or thermal hazard, or which bear or contain hazardous substances. 1963 Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. £nY1rorYnenta1 Protection Authorket direct greets to state and local 1857 et seq.) Agency governments for air pollution control established federal enforcement In interstate air pollution; d1rec ted For research efforts Into motor vehicle exhaust. removal of sul fur from fuel, and the development of air qus1tty criteria. 1965 Clean Air Act h~endnent Environn~entat Protection Title I: Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Agency kit (P.L. 89-272)--directed federal regulation of Motor vehicle exhaust. 1965 Solid Waste Disposal Act Environmental Protection Established program of federal research (42 U.S.C. 3251 et seq.) Agency ant grants-1Q-aid in solid waste disposal. 196? Air Quality Act £nvirornentat Protection Established program of cr1terla and standards (42 U.S.C. 1857 et seq.) Agency development and enforcement to control air pollution; set up air quality regions; overall strengthening of the federal role. 1969 National En~lronmen~l Policy Council on Environmental Created the Council on Environmental Qusilty Act (NEPA) (42 U.S.C. 4321 Quality to advise the President; required environmental et seq. ) impact statements before - Jor actions-- ~balanc~ng analysis. in which economic and - social benefl ts are we] Shed agai nst envl rodents costs. Priory purpose to reduce the de- gradetlon of the Huron envirorenent and achieve ~ balance between development and resource use. 1969 Federal Coal MlneHealthand Department of Labor Promulgated and revtsed~ndatory health end Safety Act ( 15 U. S. C . 633, 636 i safety standards . 30 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) 1970 Clean AlrActAmendment Environmental Protection Strengthened and expanded air pollution control Agency acitYltles; pieced broad regulatory responsi-- bitfty in new Environmental Protection Agency in operettas as of December 2, 1970. 1970 Resource Recovery Act £nv1roreaente1 Protect10n Shifted emphasis from solid waste disposal to (42 U.S.C. 3251 et seq.) Agency overall problems of control, recovery, and recycling of testes. 1970 Occupet10nel Sefety and Occupattonal Safety and Provided federal program of rcseerch, stenderd- Heelth let (29 U.S.C. Health Ad~1nistrat10n setting, ant enforcement to assure safe and 651 et seq.) healthful conditions for all Workers. s . ~ . , - rrepered for the Comnittee by Allyn Portlier. B-1
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APPENDIX B (cont'd.). CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOR FEDERAL LAWS RELATING TO ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Ar`D HEALTH t£AR HAME(Citetlon) ADMlIdIST£RING AGENCY SUMMARY OF PURPOSE 1972 Noise Control Act (42 U.S.C. ~901 et seq. ) 1972 Consumer Product Safety Act ant Major Amendments ~ n 1S76, 1977, and 1978 (15 U.S.C. 2051 et seq. ) 1972 Bleck Lung Benefits Act (30 U.S.C. 901 et seq.) 1972 Federal EnY1 roanentat Pesticide Control Act (7 U.S.C. 136-136y) 1972 Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (33 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.) 1972 Coastal Zone Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq. ) Requires reauthori zati on in t980. 1973 Endangered Species Act, Amended in 1974 (16 U.S.C. 1531etseq.) 1974 Energy Supply and Environment Coordination Act (15 U.S.C. 791-798) 1974 Safe Dr] nki ng Water Act, Amended in 1977 (42 U.S.C. 300 et seq. ) EnYi ronmental Protecti on Agency Consumer Product Safety Cocci ssion (CPSC) Department of Labor Env] ror~ental Protect1 on Agency £nv1ronmental Protection Agency Office of Coastal Zone Management, Department of Coanerce Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interi or Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Protection Agency 1975 Transportation Safety Act Department of (49 U.S.C. 1801-1812) Transportation Authorked broad federal program to coordinate noise research and control activities, estat1 ish standards, and improve publ ic i nfonnati on . Expanded and strengthened federal role in safety and prevention; transferred enforcer of Hazardous Substances, Flanmable Fabri cs Poison Prevention Packaging Acts to CPSC. CPSC to consider relevant available product data including the results of research,, devel op T ent, testi ng, and i nvesti ga ti on activities conducted generally. Also considers and takes into account the special needs Of elderly and handicapped people to determine the extent to which such persons Ray be advers affected. CPSC to establish standards that are reasonably necessary to prevent or reduce an unreasonable risk of injury associated with, a consumer product. Provided benefits and other assistance for C02 miners suffering from black lung disease (pneumoconiosis) and to the surviving dependen- of miners whose death was due to such disease or who Were totally disabled by this disease a; the time of thei r deaths . Expanded and strengthened provisions on product regulation, labeling, environmental protection, registration of manufacturers, and national monitoring of pesticide residues in food and water. Designate marine areas as sanctuaries for conservati on, recreati on or ecol ogi Cal purposes. Allows only activities compatible with marine sanctuaries protection to be conducted wi thi n sanctuary boundari es . EPA and U.S. Anny Corps of Engineers administer permit systems to control dumping in ocean waters. Cessation of all ocean dumping of municipal sewage sludge by 12/31/81. Assist coastal and Great Lake states in preparing and implementing state coastal plans. Requires states to adopt acceptable coastal plans as condition for continued federal assi stance i pl ens general ly desi gnate permissible uses of coastal lands. Requires "protection of the critical habitat" of an endangered species in any project with federal involvement. Conserve ecosystems for the use of endangered or threatened species Among other things, directed the National Insti tute of £nvi ronmental Heal th Sciences to study the effects of chronic exposure to sulfur oxt des . Assure public is provided safe drinking water. Requt res EPA to set nati onal dri nki Qq water standards and to aid states and localities in enforcement. Title I: Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974, amended 1 9t6--upon f i ndi ng that transportati on of a parts cul ar quanti ty and forth of material in commerce may pose an un- reasonable r1slc to health and safety or propert the Secretary may regulate any aspect of the transportation of such "hazardous materials" as is deemed necessary or appropriate.
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APPENDIX ~ (cont'd.). CHRONOLOGY OF MAJOR FEDERAL LAW'S RELATING TO ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND HEALTH YEAR NAME(Cint10n) ~tlNISTERIHG AGENCY SUM'ARY O' PURPOSE 1975 Toxic Substances Control Act (lS U.S.C. 2601 et seq.) 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ( 42 U. S. C . 3251 et seq.) 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) 1977 Clean Hater Act (91 Stat. 1566; 33 U.S.C.A. 1324) 1977 Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act (30 U.S.C.A. 801) 1978 Federal Pesticide Act (7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.) Environmental Protection Agency Envi ronmental Protection Agency Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Protection Agency; U.S. Anny Corps of Engineers Mine Safety and Health Administration, Departnent of Labor Environmental Protection Agency By Authorizes federal government to collect in- fonnation on chemicals that may damage human health or the environment and control them when necessary. Federal government given authority to require screening of chemicals before they reach the marketplace. EPA required to publish inventory of existing chemical substances, re- quires industry to keep records and to report infonnet,ion relevant to determining potential risk, requires industry to develop data on health and enviror~nental effects of chemicals they manufacture if they seem to present an environmental risk, or if little data are availabl e. Control of waste disposal and hazardous wastes. Requires that all solid wastes, other than hazardous wastes be disposed of in sanitary landfill l or uti l Wed for resource recovery. Established regulatory program for land disposal of all toxic wastes. Financial and technical assistance to state and local governments; research, demonstration and studies authorized; public participation and education. Established more stringent new-source^perfonnan" standards (NSPS); institutionalized and toughened EPA's Prevention of s1gnificent deterioration policy." EPA directed to review ambient air-quality standards for 5 basic acre teri a ~ pol l uta nts- -ozone, ni trogen di oxi de, carbon monoxide' sulfur dioxide, and total suspended particulates. Reduce water pollution and the discharge of toxi c waste mater) al s i nto al l waters. Al tered requi remeets of 1972 Federa l Water Pol l utf on Control Act by extending the 1983 deadline to July l, 1984 (EPA required to set technology- based effluent control limits for all industries discharging wastes into U.S. waters), and by establishing 3 categories of pollutant dis- charges: conventional, toxic, and nonconYention~t Extended federal mine safety activities. Required new or revised safety and health regulations for mining activities. Mandatory training of miners, mine rescue, and control of harmful physical agents. Underground wines i nspected 4 times per year; surface Hi nes inspected at least 2 times per year. Strengthened export safeguards and notification procedures. Simplified registration of pesticides.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: