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APPENDIX C TABLES OF KNOWN AND SUSPECTED ENVIRONMENTRELATED HEAIJTH EFFECTS * Table of Contents Table C-1. The Work Environment Table C-2. The Elousing and Non-Occupational Indoor Environment Table C-3. The Community Environment C-3a. Food C-3b. Water C-3c. Air C-3d. Land C-3e. Influences on Mental Health Table C-4. Physical Factors in the Environment References *Assembled for this planning committee by Allyn Mortimer of the ION staff. C-l

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v c) a' ~s u' 3 o ~n Pe :^ E" 0 ~ ~ C O V. C ~ C.) 0 CO ~ ~ U ~ ~, k4 _4 C~ C ^ ~ ~ O O ~ ~ ~ 0 N ~ ~ CaJ _~ C :> C C ~ 0 D ~C 00 eJ ~ U) $4 U] S :^ ~ ~ ' ~ 0e q' ~I JJ a~ 3 :^ O 3 ~ ~ ^ 0 C ^ C 0 ^ S~ ~ 0 ~ v 0 a~ s~ 0 a, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ S~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ^ ~ ~ . - al ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ 3 :d :^ C) ~ E 0 ~ 3 ~ o ~ ~ c) ~ co ~ C ~ 3 C 0 0 0 e =~ ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ 3 03 ~ C O O S- ~ S ~ Ct ki U~ ~ O C _1 ~ 0 S C:L ~ 3 ~ O a,~ ~ s~ v 0 ~ _~ c) (U 00 t~ ~J ~ ~L1 ~ ~ ~ ~ 3 ~ S" .,1 ~ ~ _f ~ ~ C ~J 0 ~ c ~ =- e 0 0 c~ v ~ 0 :^ ~ O ~ ~ O ~ ~ S~ 00 3 _I X O ~ tJ ~ t0 ~ V C O S" O ~ ~ ~ C: ~ C ~ C) a, 3 0 C ~V 0 0 C`O N ? ~ ~ ~ ^ - ^ ^ C ^ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :5 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ C C S" ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ O: ~._ ~ ~a) a' a, u e c e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ :^ ~ ~ =- -~ms-~ ~ ~ m~e ~a, 0 ro 0 C 0 0 0 ~ C' ~ 0 0 ~ s" 0 ~C 3 ~ 3 3 3 0 ~ ~4 ~ 3 C~ C' ~ 0 ~ '- ~ ~ ^ ~ Z ~ C) ~ C t0 ~ C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C O ~ U' S~ S" ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Z U: ~ ~ ~ O ~ 0 (L) ~ ~ ~ ^ v C ~ 00 C O 00 b4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ =: ~ 0 ^ 0 ~ ~n 3 :^ _4 _4 V ~ k' ~ Ct ^ ^ ~ ~ O V ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ ~ V O O ~ ~ V E~ ~ C ~ C ~ v ? ~ ~ v ? O ? ~ ~ ~ O :^ () tS ~4 Ct V _~ O ~ . ~ 5~ ~ ~ . ~ O O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ^ . ~ ~ N .O ~ - ~ ~ c ~ V ~ ,~ v ~ e v _ u~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ? C ^ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 O 0 ,- ~ ~ V ~ ^ C U' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C ) ? O C ~ ^ ~ ~1 ~ ~ ~ ~ C-) O V 01 0 I b0 ~ C`O v h ~ ~t ^ ~ S" C.) O ~ O V ~ ~ V _I C _1 C 0 c~ cO dV O O O ~ O ~ == ~ ~ == ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ C <: ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ` - E~ Z ~ Z C~ C) S" o U: S~ o C o ~4 C ~: U) : - ~ C 5 C-C O ~ ~ P S C ~ ~ . - ^ - O C ~ ~ ~ ~ E ~ ~ ~ ~ o o :^ S ~ V ~ ~ Ct V ~ s" C~ ~ C' V ,1 ~ ~ o ~ o o ~ ~ ,1 E ~ ~ o ~ E o ~ c~ 0 s~ 0 C ~ ~ s" ~ ~ a ~ =: ~ ~ ~D c ~ ~ ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ 0 x x E~ ~ ~ ~ ;> ~ ~ ~ O O C-6

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TABLE C-2. THE HOUSING AND NON-OCCUPATIONAL INDOOR ENvIRONMENT3'4 Agent, Pollutant, or Source Disease, Effect, Iliness or Injury . Heating, cooking' and refrigera- tion Fumes and dust Crowding Structural factors (including electrical wiring, stoves and thin walls) Paints and solvents Household equipment & supplies (including pesticides) Toys, beads, and painted objects Urban design Tobacco combustion products 6 from smake-filled atmospheres Formaldehyde from insulation C-7 Acute fatalities from carbon mon- oxide, fires and explosions, and discarded refrigerators, burns; increase in diseases of the res- piratory tract in infants Acute illness from fumes, aggra- vation of asthma; increase in chronic respiratory disease Spread of acute and contribution to chronic disease morbidity and mortality, stress Accidental fatality, accidental injury, morbidity and mortality from lack of protection from heat or cold, morbidity due to fire or explosion Childhood lead-poisoning, associat- ed with mental impairment, anemia, and some fatalities5; renal and hepatic toxicity, fatalities from ingestion Fatalities from f ire and injury, morbidity from f ire and inj ury, fatalities and morbidity from poisoning Morbidity and mortality from swallowing small obj ects, lead poisoning from paint Increased accident risks, contri- bution to mental illness, stress Minor eye and throat irritations; during first year of life, chil- dren of smoking parents may be more likely to have bronchitis and pneumonia; effects on fetus; possible long-term effects on the physical and intellectual development of children; possible accelerated loss of pulmonary vital capacity Eye and respiratory tract irritation .

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TABLE C-3a. THE COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENT: ,8,9, 10 Agent, Pollutant, or Source Disease ~ E Illness, or Injury PBB in dairy products and other foods (, 973, Michigan) PCB (Polychlorinated biphenyl) Methyl mercury Alkyl mercury Lead Intentional foot additives, for example, saccharin. Fat igue, headache, muscular pains, raises serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Can be muta- genic and care inogenic in laboratory animals. Yusho d isease Birth defects, central nervous system damage, death Chromosome breaks in lymphocytes, central nervous system dodge Nervous system affected; kidney af fected Carcinogenic in experimental animals TABLE C-3b . 11IE COMMUNITY EN~TIRO~=T: WATEP~3 ~ 7, 10, 15 Agent' Pollutant, or Source Disease, Effect' Illness, or Injury Bacteria Viruses Sof t water areas Sulfates and/or phosphates Fluorides when in excess Organic chemical contaminants Rain we ter acid ity Nitrate contamination Oil spills Chlorination Epidemic and endemic gastrointestinal infections (typhoid, cholera, shigellosis, salmonellosis, lepto- spiro~is, etc . ); secondary interaction with nitrates in water Epidemic hepatitis and other viral infections; eye and skin inflamma- tion from swimming Possibility of cardiovascular disease, mental retardation in children. The water may leach lead out of old plumbing. Gastrointestinal bypermoti lity Pluorosis of teeth Reproductive failures in laboratory animus Is Undetermined in man Nitrite intoxication; in young--nitrite cyanosis and methemoglobinemia possible. Threat to marine life; illness from direct consumption of contam- inated water or through f cad chain May result in carcinogenic by-products Cat

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TABLE C-3c . THE COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENT: AIR,, 10, 11, 12 . . Agent, Pollutant, or Source Sulfur dioxide (effects of sulfur oxides may be due to sulfur dioxide, sulfur trloxide, sulfuric acid, or sulfate salts) Sulfur oxides and particulate matter from combustion sources llonspec if ic par ticulate matter Oxidants Ozone Carbon monoxide Nitrogen dioxide Lead Hydrogen sulf ide Mercaptans Asbestos O r gano pho sphorus p es t ic id es Beryllium Airborne microorganisms Disease Effect, Iliness' or Injury Aggravation of asthma and chronic bronchitis, impairment of pulmonary function, sensory irritation Short-term increase in morbidity and mortality, aggravation of bronchitis and cardiovascular disease, contributory role in etiology of chronic bronchitis, and emphysema, contributory role in respiratory disease in children, contributory role in etiology of lung cancer Increase in chronic respiratory d isease Aggravates emphysema, asthma, and bronchitis, impairs lung function in patients with bronchitis- emphys~ma; eye and respiratory irritation and impairment in performance of athletes Impairs lung function, acceleration of aging (possibly due to lipid peroxidation and related processes) Impairs exercise tolerance in patients with cardiovascular disease. increased general mortality and coronary mortality rates, impairment of central nervous system function, causal factor in atherosclerosis Factor in pulmonary emphysema, impairment of lung defenses such as mast cells and macrophages or altered lung function Increased storage in body, impair- ment of hemoglobin and porphyrin synthesis; developmental or behavior problems Increased mortality from acute exposures, causes sensory irritation Headache, nausea, and sinus af f fictions Produces pleural calcif ication, malignant mesothelioma, asbestosis, contributes to chronic pulmonary disease (lung cancer) Acute fatal poisoning, acute illness, impaired cholinesterase activity Berylliosis with pulmonary impairment Airborne infections Cal'

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TABLE C-3d. THE COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENT: LANDS . Agent, Pollutant, or Source Disease, Effect, Illness, or Injury Human excrete Sewage Industrial and radioactive waste (Example, PCBs) Schistosomlasis, teeniasis hookworm, and other parasitic and nonparasitic infections Typhus' plague, leptospirosle, and other infectious diseases possible Storage within the body; effects from toxic metals and other sub- stances through food chains, seepage, etc. TABLE C-3e. THE COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENT: 11 13 14 INFLUENCES ON MENTAL HEALTH ' ' . Agent, Pollutant, or Source Population density (overcrowding) Isolated populations Technological change and industrialization Poverty and economic dislocation crises Disease, Effects Illness, or Injury Some epidemiologic studies show high rates of schizophrenia, crime, suicide, alcoholism, and drug abused increased risk of epidemics; stress May show higher rates of mental disorders, e.g. mental retardation-- presumably from inbreeding Modifies psychological attitudes, rapid shifts in values, fragmenta- tion of personal service*, loss of self--ufficiency, stress Psychosomatic disorders, stress* *Stressful life events exacerbated by such factors as lack of social supports or inadequate stress coping skills can promote excessive alcohol and drug use, violence, reckless behavior, depression, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disorders, complications of pregnancy or delivery, increased susceptibility to physical agents, "demoralization," neurosis. C-IO

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A g z E" in us g - ~ cn p: o x o u o p~ 0 0 0 0 u] o p~ 4J - ~ ^ - a' oo 0 ~ ~ s~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s~ ~ e ~ 0 ~ ~ ^ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ o c~ ~ "c ~ ~ ~ " s" ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ . ^ cn u, c: ~ 0 a ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ o o o ~ ~ ~ ~ s" ct JJ " ~ ca ~ ct ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ o o o ~ s" s" o ~ ~ o ~ ~ u ~ ~ o~ - oO ct ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ c) v v s" c) O E O ^ Ct ~ E I 1 0 ,. o ^ 0 a, ~ ^ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ v ~ ~ .~ s-l ~ v ~ ~ o ^ <) P~ ~ ~ 3 0 ~ ~ _' ~ ~ ~ V 0 ~ :^ ~ ~ U o~ ~ C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 o ~ ~ ~ U' 0 ^ "= O ~ O ^ ~ ~ ~ ~ eq S~ e.~ S~ -O-c~ o~ Ct 0 ~ ~ C ~ ~ ~ 00 ^ V ~ V `= ~ X 0 ~ 0 U ~ ~ 0 ~ 0 0 ~ C,, V ~ U ~ ~ V V 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ^ U: t0 V ~ ~ " - ~ O E U o ~i ~ U V ~ V ~V - - 0 0 X 0 ^ ~ ^ ~ O O 3 ~ ~ V ~ s" o ^ ^ X ~ o ~ 0 ca ~ ~ O c~ v ~ ra .,1 v oo ~ v u s~ ~ 0 o ~ ^~ ~ ~ ~ o E ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ ^ U' s~ o U, , o C) U o o v . ~ ~ v O h ~ O V CL C~ U S~ S~ V Ct C) O V ~ td E 3 U C) ~ o v . 0 ,1 U, 0 cn o~ O s" oo U C~ v 1 s~ s o~ Ct ^ s" 0 U' C: ~ U) E ~ o v s~ ~ m~ ~ 0 0 ~ v v s~ o U' C' 1 c) ~ 0 ~ ~ 0 ~q tn e 0 a, ~ 0 U) ~ ~ U) ~ =: a' 0 ~ 0 s~ .,' ~ Ct v 3 0 ~D E ~ O ~ o v m ~ c~ C~12

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